Urbana High School (Illinois)
Urbana High School is the only public high school in Urbana and was established in 1872. Urbana High School's current building was built in 1914, it was designed by architect Joseph Royer who designed many other buildings in the area including the Urbana Free Library and the Champaign County Court House. The architecture of Urbana High School is of the Tudor style, defined by the towers over the main entrance and the flattened point arches over the doors. An addition was built in 1916 which included swimming pool. Due to increasing enrollment, further additions were built in 1955 and 1965. In 1988, an enclosed athletic area was added while the old gymnasium/pool wing was converted into classrooms; the entire building was renovated to meet safety codes. During the renovation, areas, sealed off during previous construction revealed graffiti dating back to around the 1950s; the Urbana Park District Indoor Aquatic Center was built in 2003. Being adjoined to Urbana High School, it brings the building to its current state.
Beginning in 2011, the Urbana School District #116 began construction on several projects to update the older facilities. The school demolished its football and soccer fields in the spring of 2011 and combined them into a new state-of-the-art football/soccer field with artificial turf and several bleachers, it was called the project cost an estimated $4.3 million. Cobb Memorial Auditorium underwent a complete renovation in 2012 which restored and reincorporated the historical features of its earlier design, its estimated cost was $4.6 million. Additional improvements to the facilities were finalized at the end of 2012. LaToya Bond Professional basketball player. Played for the Indiana Fever and Charlotte Sting in the WNBA. Roger Ebert Film critic. During his senior year he was co-editor of the Echo. Steven Hager Journalist and author. Wrote the book Hip Hop and the film Beat Street before becoming editor-in-chief of High Times. Erika Harold Former Miss America 2003. Robert W. Holley Biochemist. Awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1968.
Edwin G. Krebs Biochemist. Awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1992. Ella Masar Professional soccer player. 1 cap for US women's national soccer team, played in the National Women's Soccer League, USL W-League, in Europe. Carlos Montezuma Native a founding member of the Society of American Indians. Kristina Olson Psychologist. Known for her research on the development of social categories, transgender youth, variation in human gender development. Mark Roberts Actor, screenwriter & comedian. Best known for writing for the TV series Two and a Half Men and Mike and Molly. Joseph Royer Architect. Designed the 1914 section of the current UHS building, the Urbana Free Library, the Champaign County Court House, many schools across Illinois and Iowa. Alexander D. Shimkin Journalist. Was killed in the Vietnam War in 1972 while reporting for Newsweek. Notable for his investigation of Operation Speedy Express. David Foster Wallace essayist, he was the subject of the film The End of the Tour. James Wilson DJ and author.
More known as Chef Ra, was senior class president in 1969 and became a reggae DJ for WEFT and a columnist for High Times. J. C. Caroline, a former NFL player for the Chicago Bears, taught physical education at Urbana and was the head football coach for four seasons. Charles Carpenter, a decorated Second World War artillery observation pilot nicknamed "Bazooka Charlie". Carpenter became ill and he returned to work as a history teacher at Urbana High School until his death in 1966 at the age of 53. Timothy V. Johnson was a former Illinois legislator. Urbana High School
La Pine, Oregon
La Pine is a city in Deschutes County, United States, incorporated on December 7, 2006. La Pine is part of Oregon Metropolitan Statistical Area; the population was 1,653 at the 2010 census. La Pine is in an isolated area of Central Oregon, consisting of a loose collection of homes and businesses along U. S. Highway 97 about 30 miles southwest of Bend. Most of the residential development is concealed from the highway itself. Several peaks of the Cascade Range are prominently visible from the community. La Pine is in the valley of a tributary of the Deschutes River; the river provides recreational opportunities such as fishing, swimming and other leisure activities. La Pine was founded in the 19th century with Huntington Road as the main street; the fledgling community grew and prospered until the combination of a failed community water system and rapid growth of Bend caused a slowdown to occur. Today, La Pine is beginning to grow once again, but this time as a commuter town to Bend, making Deschutes County one of the fastest-growing counties in America.
La Pine had remained an unincorporated community for many years. A measure to incorporate in the 2000 elections was rejected by a 2–1 ratio. In the elections of 2006, another incorporation measure was placed on the ballot; the La Pine measure passed. The city occupies 7 square miles, at the time of incorporation, had 1,585 residents as of December 2006. Much of the former census-designated area lies outside the city limits. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 6.98 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2010, there were 1,653 people, 698 households, 412 families residing in the city; the population density was 236.8 inhabitants per square mile. There were 942 housing units at an average density of 135.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 93.5% White, 0.2% African American, 1.1% Native American, 0.2% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 1.8% from other races, 3.0% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 5.8% of the population.
There were 698 households of which 28.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.6% were married couples living together, 11.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.9% had a male householder with no wife present, 41.0% were non-families. 31.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.30 and the average family size was 2.87. The median age in the city was 43.6 years. 22.4% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 48.4% male and 51.6% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 5,799 people, 2,331 households, 1,699 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 197.7 people per square mile. There were 2,975 housing units at an average density of 101.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the CDP was 95.84% White, 0.09% African American, 1.28% Native American, 0.24% Asian, 0.10% Pacific Islander, 0.55% from other races, 1.90% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.22% of the population. There were 2,331 households out of which 26.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 61.3% were married couples living together, 7.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.1% were non-families. 20.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.47 and the average family size was 2.82. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 23.0% under the age of 18, 4.9% from 18 to 24, 22.5% from 25 to 44, 28.8% from 45 to 64, 20.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 45 years. For every 100 females, there were 99.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.7 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $29,859, the median income for a family was $33,938. Males had a median income of $30,457 versus $20,186 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $15,543. About 9.5% of families and 13.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.4% of those under age 18 and 11.5% of those age 65 or over.
La Pine schools are part of the Bend-La Pine School District. Entry for La Pine in the Oregon Blue Book
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
Popular Science is an American quarterly magazine carrying popular science content, which refers to articles for the general reader on science and technology subjects. Popular Science has won over 58 awards, including the American Society of Magazine Editors awards for its journalistic excellence in both 2003 and 2004. With roots beginning in 1872, Popular Science has been translated into over 30 languages and is distributed to at least 45 countries; the Popular Science Monthly, as the publication was called, was founded in May 1872 by Edward L. Youmans to disseminate scientific knowledge to the educated layman. Youmans had worked as an editor for the weekly Appleton's Journal and persuaded them to publish his new journal. Early issues were reprints of English periodicals; the journal became an outlet for writings and ideas of Charles Darwin, Thomas Henry Huxley, Louis Pasteur, Henry Ward Beecher, Charles Sanders Peirce, William James, Thomas Edison, John Dewey and James McKeen Cattell. William Jay Youmans, Edward's brother, helped found Popular Science Monthly in 1872 and was an editor as well.
He became editor-in-chief on Edward's death in 1887. The publisher, D. Appleton & Company, was forced for economic reasons to sell the journal in 1900. James McKeen Cattell became the editor in 1900 and the publisher in 1901. Cattell continued publishing articles for educated readers. By 1915 the readership was publishing a science journal was a financial challenge. In a September 1915 editorial, Cattell related these difficulties to his readers and announced that the Popular Science Monthly name had been "transferred" to a group that wanted the name for a general audience magazine, a publication which fit the name better; the existing journal would continue the academic tradition as Scientific Monthly. Existing subscribers would remain subscribed under the new name. Scientific Monthly was published until 1958; the Modern Publishing Company acquired the Popular Science Monthly name. This company had purchased Electrician and Mechanic magazine in 1914 and over the next two years merged several magazines together into a science magazine for a general audience.
The magazine had a series of name changes: Modern Electrics and Mechanics, Popular Electricity and Modern Mechanics, Modern Mechanics and World's Advance, before the publishers purchased the name Popular Science Monthly. The October 1915 issue was titled World's Advance; the volume number was that of Popular Science but the content was that of World's Advance. The new editor was a former editor of Scientific American; the change in Popular Science Monthly was dramatic. The old version was a scholarly journal. There would be ten to illustrations; the new version had hundreds of short, easy to read articles with hundreds of illustrations. Editor Kaempffert was writing for "the home craftsman and hobbyist who wanted to know something about the world of science." The circulation doubled in the first year. From the mid-1930s to the 1960s, the magazine featured fictional stories of Gus Wilson's Model Garage, centered on car problems. An annual review of changes to the new model year cars ran in 1940 and'41, but did not return after the war until 1954.
It continued until the mid-1970s when the magazine reverted to publishing the new models over multiple issues as information became available. From 1935 to 1949, the magazine sponsored a series of short films, produced by Jerry Fairbanks and released by Paramount Pictures. From July 1952 to December 1989, Popular Science carried Roy Doty's Wordless Workshop as a regular feature. From July 1969 to May 1989, the cover and table of contents carried the subtitle, "The What's New Magazine." The cover removed the subtitle the following month and the contents page removed it in February 1990. In 1983, the magazine introduced a new logo using the ITC Avant Garde font, which it used until late 1995. Within the next 11 years, its font changed 4 times. In 2009, the magazine used a new font for its logo, used until the January 2014 issue. In 2014, Popular Science sported a new look and introduced a new logo for the first time in 8 years, complete with a major overhaul of its articles; the Popular Science Publishing Company, which the magazine bears its name, was acquired in 1967 by the Los Angeles-based Times Mirror Company.
In 2000, Times Mirror merged with the Chicago-based Tribune Company, which sold the Times Mirror magazines to Time Inc. the following year. On January 25, 2007, Time Warner sold this magazine, along with 17 other special interest magazines, to Bonnier Magazine Group. On September 24, 2008, Australian publishing company Australian Media Properties launched a local version of Popular Science, it is a monthly magazine, like its American counterpart, uses content from the American version of the magazine as well as local material. Australian Media Properties launched www.popsci.com.au at the same time, a localised version of the Popular Science website. In January 2016, Popular Science switched to bi-monthly publication after 144 years of monthly publication. In April 2016 it was announced, it was announced that he would remain on staff as an editor-at-large. In September 2018, Popular Science switched to quarterly publication indicating future subscription prices will be increased. Popular Science is headquartered in New York.
Popular Science Radio is a partnership
Piper J-3 Cub
The Piper J-3 Cub is an American light aircraft, built between 1937 and 1947 by Piper Aircraft. The aircraft has a simple, lightweight design which gives it good low-speed handling properties and short-field performance; the Cub is Piper Aircraft's most-produced model, with nearly 20,000 built in the United States. Its simplicity and popularity invokes comparisons to the Ford Model T automobile; the aircraft is a strut-braced monoplane with a large-area rectangular wing. It is most powered by an air-cooled, flat-4 piston engine driving a fixed-pitch propeller, its fuselage is a welded steel frame covered in seating two people in tandem. The Cub was intended as a trainer and had great popularity in this role and as a general aviation aircraft. Due to its performance, it was well suited for a variety of military uses such as reconnaissance and ground control, it was produced in large numbers during World War II as the L-4 Grasshopper. Many Cubs are still flying today. Notably, Cubs are prized as bush aircraft.
The aircraft's standard chrome yellow paint has come to be known as "Cub Yellow" or "Lock Haven Yellow". The Taylor E-2 Cub first appeared in 1930, built by Taylor Aircraft in Pennsylvania. Sponsored by William T. Piper, a Bradford industrialist and investor, the affordable E-2 was meant to encourage greater interest in aviation. In 1930, the company went bankrupt, with Piper buying the assets, but keeping founder C. Gilbert Taylor on as president. In 1936, an earlier Cub was altered by employee Walter Jamouneau to become the J-2 while Taylor was on sick leave.. When he saw the redesign, Taylor was so incensed. Piper, had encouraged Jamouneau's changes and hired him back. Piper bought Taylor's share in the company, paying him $250 per month for three years. Although sales were slow, about 1,200 J-2s were produced before a fire in the Piper factory, a former silk mill in Bradford, ended its production in 1938. After Piper moved his company from Bradford to Lock Haven, PA; the changes amounted to integrating the vertical fin of the tail into the rear fuselage structure and covering it with each of the fuselage's sides, changing the rearmost side window's shape to a smoothly curved half-oval outline and placing a true steerable tailwheel at the rear end of the J-2's leaf spring-style tailskid, linked for its steering function to the lower end of the rudder with springs and lightweight chains to either end of a double-ended rudder control horn.
Powered by a 40 hp engine, in 1938, it sold for just over $1,000. A number of different air-cooled engines, most of flat-four configuration, were used to power J-3 Cubs, resulting in differing model designations for each type: the J3C models used the Continental A series, the J3F used the Franklin 4AC, the J3L used the Lycoming O-145. A few examples, designated J3P, were equipped with Lenape Papoose 3-cylinder radial engines; the outbreak of hostilities in Europe in 1939, along with the growing realization that the United States might soon be drawn into World War II, resulted in the formation of the Civilian Pilot Training Program. The Piper J-3 Cub became the primary trainer aircraft of the CPTP and played an integral role in its success, achieving legendary status. About 75% of all new pilots in the CPTP were trained in Cubs. By war's end, 80% of all United States military pilots had received their initial flight training in Piper Cubs; the need for new pilots created an insatiable appetite for the Cub.
In 1940, the year before the United States' entry into the war, 3,016 Cubs had been built. Prior to the United States entering World War II, J-3s were part of a fund-raising program to support the United Kingdom. Billed as a Flitfire, a Piper Cub J3 bearing Royal Air Force insignia was donated by W. T. Piper and Franklin Motors to the RAF Benevolent Fund to be raffled off. Piper distributors nationwide were encouraged to do the same. On April 29, 1941, all 48 Flitfire aircraft, one for each of the 48 states that made up the country at that time, flew into La Guardia Field for a dedication and fundraising event which included Royal Navy officers from the battleship HMS Malaya, in New York for repairs, as honored guests. At least three of the original Flitfires have been restored to their original silver-doped finish; the Piper Cub became a familiar sight. First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt took a flight in a J-3 Cub, posing for a series of publicity photos to help promote the CPTP. Newsreels and newspapers of the era featured images of wartime leaders, such as Generals Dwight Eisenhower, George Patton and George Marshall, flying around European battlefields in Piper Cubs.
Civilian-owned Cubs joined the war effort as part of the newly formed Civil Air Patrol, patrolling the Eastern Seaboard and Gulf Coast in a constant search for German U-boats and survivors of U-boat attacks. Piper developed a military variant, variously designated as the O-59, L-4 and NE; the L-4 Grasshopper was mechanically identical to the J-3 civilian Cub, but was distinguishable by the use of a Plexiglas greenhouse skylight and rear windows for improved visibility, much like the Taylo
In aeronautics, bracing comprises additional structural members which stiffen the functional airframe to give it rigidity and strength under load. Bracing may be applied both internally and externally, may take the form of strut, which act in compression or tension as the need arises, and/or wires, which act only in tension. In general, bracing allows a stronger, lighter structure than one, unbraced, but external bracing in particular adds drag which slows down the aircraft and raises more design issues than internal bracing. Another disadvantage of bracing wires is that they require routine checking and adjustment, or rigging when located internally. During the early years of aviation, bracing was a universal feature of all forms of aeroplane, including the monoplanes and biplanes which were equally common. Today, bracing in the form of lift struts is still used for some light commercial designs where a high wing and light weight are more important than ultimate performance. Bracing works by creating a triangulated truss structure which resists twisting.
By comparison, an unbraced cantilever structure bends unless it carries a lot of heavy reinforcement. Making the structure deeper allows it to be much lighter and stiffer. To reduce weight and air resistance, the structure may be made hollow, with bracing connecting the main parts of the airframe. For example, a high-wing monoplane may be given a diagonal lifting strut running from the bottom of the fuselage to a position far out towards the wingtip; this increases the effective depth of the wing root to the height of the fuselage, making it much stiffer for little increase in weight. The ends of bracing struts are joined to the main internal structural components such as a wing spar or a fuselage bulkhead, bracing wires are attached close by. Bracing may be used to resist all the various forces which occur in an airframe, including lift, weight and twisting or torsion. A strut is a bracing component stiff enough to resist these forces whether they place it under compression or tension. A wire is a bracing component able only to resist tension, going slack under compression, is nearly always used in conjunction with struts.
A square frame made of solid bars tends to bend at the corners. Bracing it with an extra diagonal bar would be heavy. A wire would stop it collapsing only one way. To hold it rigid, two cross-bracing wires are needed; this method of cross-bracing can be seen on early biplanes, where the wings and interplane struts form a rectangle, cross-braced by wires. Another way of arranging a rigid structure is to make the cross pieces solid enough to act in compression and to connect their ends with an outer diamond acting in tension; this method was once common on monoplanes, where the wing and a central cabane or a pylon form the cross members while wire bracing forms the outer diamond. Most found on biplane and other multiplane aircraft, wire bracing was common on early monoplanes. Unlike struts, bracing wires always act in tension The thickness and profile of a wire affect the drag it causes at higher speeds. Wires may be made of multi-stranded cable, a single strand of piano wire, or aerofoil sectioned steel.
Bracing wires divide into flying wires which hold the wings down when flying and landing wires which hold the wings up when they are not generating lift. Thinner incidence wires are sometimes run diagonally between fore and aft interplane struts to stop the wing twisting and changing its angle of incidence to the fuselage. In some pioneer aircraft, wing bracing wires were run diagonally fore and aft to prevent distortion under side loads such as when turning. Besides the basic loads imposed by lift and gravity, bracing wires must carry powerful inertial loads generated during manoeuvres, such as the increased load on the landing wires at the moment of touchdown. Bracing wires must be rigged to maintain the correct length and tension. In flight the wires tend to stretch under load and on landing some may become slack. Regular rigging checks are required and any necessary adjustments made before every flight. Rigging adjustments may be used to set and maintain wing dihedral and angle of incidence with the help of a clinometer and plumb-bob.
Individual wires are fitted with turnbuckles or threaded end fittings so that they can be adjusted. Once set, the adjuster is locked in place. Internal bracing was most significant during the early days of aeronautics when airframes were frames, at best covered in doped fabric which had no strength of its own. Wire cross-bracing was extensively used to stiffen such airframes, both in the fabric-covered wings and in the fuselage, left bare. Routine rigging of the wires was needed to maintain structural stiffness against bending and torsion. A particular problem for internal wires is access in the cramped interior of the fuselage. Providing sufficient internal bracing would make a design too heavy, so in order to make the airframe both light and strong the bracing is fitted externally; this was common in early aircraft due to the limited engine power available and the need for light weight in order to fly at all. As engine powers rose through the 1920s and 30s, much heavier airframes became practicable and most designers abandoned external bracing in order to allow for increased speed.
Nearly all biplane aircraft have their upper and lower planes connected by interplane struts, with the upper wing running across above the fuselage and connected to it by shorter cabane struts. These struts divide the wings into bays which are brace
United States Army
The United States Army is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces. It is one of the seven uniformed services of the United States, is designated as the Army of the United States in the United States Constitution; as the oldest and most senior branch of the U. S. military in order of precedence, the modern U. S. Army has its roots in the Continental Army, formed to fight the American Revolutionary War —before the United States of America was established as a country. After the Revolutionary War, the Congress of the Confederation created the United States Army on 3 June 1784 to replace the disbanded Continental Army; the United States Army considers itself descended from the Continental Army, dates its institutional inception from the origin of that armed force in 1775. As a uniformed military service, the U. S. Army is part of the Department of the Army, one of the three military departments of the Department of Defense; the U. S. Army is headed by a civilian senior appointed civil servant, the Secretary of the Army and by a chief military officer, the Chief of Staff of the Army, a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
It is the largest military branch, in the fiscal year 2017, the projected end strength for the Regular Army was 476,000 soldiers. S. Army was 1,018,000 soldiers; as a branch of the armed forces, the mission of the U. S. Army is "to fight and win our Nation's wars, by providing prompt, land dominance, across the full range of military operations and the spectrum of conflict, in support of combatant commanders"; the branch participates in conflicts worldwide and is the major ground-based offensive and defensive force of the United States. The United States Army serves as the land-based branch of the U. S. Armed Forces. Section 3062 of Title 10, U. S. Code defines the purpose of the army as: Preserving the peace and security and providing for the defense of the United States, the Commonwealths and possessions and any areas occupied by the United States Supporting the national policies Implementing the national objectives Overcoming any nations responsible for aggressive acts that imperil the peace and security of the United StatesIn 2018, the Army Strategy 2018 articulated an eight-point addendum to the Army Vision for 2028.
While the Army Mission remains constant, the Army Strategy builds upon the Army's Brigade Modernization by adding focus to Corps and Division-level echelons. Modernization, reform for high-intensity conflict, Joint multi-domain operations are added to the strategy, to be completed by 2028; the Continental Army was created on 14 June 1775 by the Second Continental Congress as a unified army for the colonies to fight Great Britain, with George Washington appointed as its commander. The army was led by men who had served in the British Army or colonial militias and who brought much of British military heritage with them; as the Revolutionary War progressed, French aid and military thinking helped shape the new army. A number of European soldiers came on their own to help, such as Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben, who taught Prussian Army tactics and organizational skills; the army fought numerous pitched battles and in the South in 1780–1781, at times using the Fabian strategy and hit-and-run tactics, under the leadership of Major General Nathanael Greene, hit where the British were weakest to wear down their forces.
Washington led victories against the British at Trenton and Princeton, but lost a series of battles in the New York and New Jersey campaign in 1776 and the Philadelphia campaign in 1777. With a decisive victory at Yorktown and the help of the French, the Continental Army prevailed against the British. After the war, the Continental Army was given land certificates and disbanded in a reflection of the republican distrust of standing armies. State militias became the new nation's sole ground army, with the exception of a regiment to guard the Western Frontier and one battery of artillery guarding West Point's arsenal. However, because of continuing conflict with Native Americans, it was soon realized that it was necessary to field a trained standing army; the Regular Army was at first small and after General St. Clair's defeat at the Battle of the Wabash, the Regular Army was reorganized as the Legion of the United States, established in 1791 and renamed the United States Army in 1796; the War of 1812, the second and last war between the United States and Great Britain, had mixed results.
The U. S. Army did not conquer Canada but it did destroy Native American resistance to expansion in the Old Northwest and it validated its independence by stopping two major British invasions in 1814 and 1815. After taking control of Lake Erie in 1813, the U. S. Army seized parts of western Upper Canada, burned York and defeated Tecumseh, which caused his Western Confederacy to collapse. Following U. S. victories in the Canadian province of Upper Canada, British troops who had dubbed the U. S. Army "Regulars, by God!", were able to capture and burn Washington, defended by militia, in 1814. The regular army, however proved they were professional and capable of defeating the British army during the invasions of Plattsburgh and Baltimore, prompting British agreement on the rejected terms of a status quo ante bellum. Two weeks after a treaty was signed, Andrew Jackson defeated the British in the Battle of New Orleans and Siege of Fort St. Philip, became a national hero. U. S. troops and sailors captured HMS Cyane and Penguin in the final engagements of the war.
Per the treaty, both sides (the United S