Purley is a town in South London within the London Borough of Croydon. It is located south of Croydon, and is situated 11.7 miles south of Charing Cross and it has a population of about 14,000. The name, first recorded as Pirlee in 1200, means Peartree wood or clearing, under the Local Government Act 1894, Purley became part of the Croydon Rural District of Surrey. The urban district council was based in a building opened in 1930. The building, on the A23 Brighton Road near Reedham Station and it was left derelict for many years but was converted into flats in 2012. Kenley Aerodrome, to the east of the town, is currently property of the Ministry of Defence. It was one of the most important fighter stations – together with Croydon Airport, Purley grew rapidly in the 1920s and 1930s, providing spacious homes in a green environment. Northeast Purley stretches into the hill spurs of the North Downs. One road, Promenade de Verdun, created by William Webb, has an all of its own. At the other end of the stands an obelisk carved from a single piece of stone with the inscription Aux soldats de France morts glorieusement pendant la Grande Guerre.
Notably, the town was home to Joachim von Ribbentrop when he was ambassador before WWII, the Webb Estate made headlines in a 2002 survey, which found that it had over the years attracted the highest-earning residents in the UK. Cumnor House School, a school, is in Purley. Oakwood Prep School is located on Godstone Road and has been awarded Outstanding by Ofsted for over 10 years, Purley has one of the UKs longest-established language schools, Purley Language College, founded in 1928. The old Sainsburys was closed in the early 1980s, in 2006, further change was on the cards as Tesco proposed to replace the store with a 6-storey building containing affordable flats above a new store. These expansion plans were subsequently shelved, the island opposite Purley Baptist Church has been refurbished and the Church, under the banner of 58,12 are planning to redevelop it. White British is the largest ethnic group at 61%, as of the 2011 census, Purley has consistently returned Conservative Party MPs to the local seat of Croydon South since 1974 and has returned Conservative members to Croydon Council since 1965.
Since the north of Croydon tends to return Labour councillors, the two halves of the borough are often at loggerheads, in the 2006 local elections the Conservatives were returned to power in Croydon removing Liberal Democrats and replacing Labour from the local political scene. The sitcom was set on the cusp of Purley and Wallington, one of the houses used in Footballers Wives is 7 Rose Walk, owned by former Crystal Palace FC Chairman Ron Noades
Netherlands Institute for Art History
The Netherlands Institute for Art History or RKD is located in The Hague and is home to the largest art history center in the world. The center specializes in documentation and books on Western art from the late Middle Ages until modern times, all of this is open to the public, and much of it has been digitized and is available on their website. The main goal of the bureau is to collect, via the available databases, the visitor can gain insight into archival evidence on the lives of many artists of past centuries. The library owns approximately 450,000 titles, of which ca.150,000 are auction catalogs, there are ca.3,000 magazines, of which 600 are currently running subscriptions. Though most of the text is in Dutch, the record format includes a link to library entries and images of known works. The RKD manages the Dutch version of the Art and Architecture Thesaurus, the original version is an initiative of the Getty Research Institute in Los Angeles, California. Their bequest formed the basis for both the art collection and the library, which is now housed in the Koninklijke Bibliotheek.
Though not all of the holdings have been digitised, much of its metadata is accessible online. The website itself is available in both a Dutch and an English user interface, in the artist database RKDartists, each artist is assigned a record number. To reference an artist page directly, use the code listed at the bottom of the record, usually of the form, for example, the artist record number for Salvador Dalí is 19752, so his RKD artist page can be referenced. In the images database RKDimages, each artwork is assigned a record number, to reference an artwork page directly, use the code listed at the bottom of the record, usually of the form, https, //rkd. nl/en/explore/images/ followed by the artworks record number. For example, the record number for The Night Watch is 3063. The Art and Architecture Thesaurus assigns a record for each term, they are used in the databases and the databases can be searched for terms. For example, the painting called The Night Watch is a militia painting, the thesaurus is a set of general terms, but the RKD contains a database for an alternate form of describing artworks, that today is mostly filled with biblical references.
To see all images that depict Miriams dance, the associated iconclass code 71E1232 can be used as a search term. Official website Direct link to the databases The Dutch version of the Art and Architecture Thesaurus
Sir Leslie Stephen KCB was an English author, historian and mountaineer, and father of Virginia Woolf and Vanessa Bell. Stephen was born at Kensington Gore in London, and son of Sir James Stephen and his father was Colonial Undersecretary of State and a noted abolitionist. He was the fourth of five children, his siblings including James Fitzjames Stephen and his family had belonged to the Clapham Sect, the early 19th century group of mainly evangelical Christian social reformers. At his fathers house he saw a deal of the Macaulays, James Spedding, Sir Henry Taylor. He recounted some of his experiences in a chapter in his Life of Fawcett as well as in less formal Sketches from Cambridge. These sketches were reprinted from the Pall Mall Gazette, to the proprietor of which, George Murray Smith, the family connections included that of William Makepeace Thackeray. His brother, Fitzjames had been a friend of Thackerays and assisted in the disposition of his estate when he died in 1863 and his sister Caroline met Thackerays daughters and Minny when they were mutual guests of Julia Margaret Cameron.
This led to an invitation to visit from Leslie Stephens mother, Lady Stephen and they met at George Murray Smiths house at Hampstead. Minny and Leslie became engaged on December 4,1866 and married on June 19,1867. After the wedding they travelled to the Swiss Alps and northern Italy, and on return to England lived at the Thackeray sisters home at 16 Onslow Gardens with Anny, in the spring of 1868 Minny miscarried but recovered sufficiently for the couple to tour the eastern United States. Minny miscarried again in 1869, but became pregnant again in 1870 and on December 7 gave birth to their daughter, Laura was premature, weighing three pounds. In March 1873 Thackeray and the Stephens moved to 8 Southwell Gardens, the couple travelled extensively, and by 1875 Minny was pregnant again, but this time was in poor health. On November 27 she developed convulsions, and died the day of eclampsia. After Minnys death, Leslie Stephen continued to live with Anny, Leslie Stephen and his daughter were cared for by his sister, the writer Caroline Emelia Stephen, although Leslie described her as Silly Milly and her books as little works.
Meanwhile, Anny was falling in love with her younger cousin Richmond Ritchie, Ritchie became a constant visitor and they became engaged in May 1877, and were married on August 2. At the same time Leslie Stephen was seeing more and more of Julia Duckworth and his second marriage was to Julia Prinsep Duckworth. Julia had been born in India and after returning to England she became a model for Pre-Raphaelite painters such as Edward Burne-Jones, in 1867 she had married Herbert Duckworth by whom she had three children prior to his death in 1870. Leslie Stephen and Julia Duckworth were married on March 26,1878 and they had four children, Vanessa married Clive Bell Thoby Virginia married Leonard Woolf Adrian In May 1895, Julia died of influenza, leaving her husband with four young children aged 11 to 15
The caracal is a medium-sized wild cat native to Africa, the Middle East, Central Asia and India. It is listed as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List and threatened by anthropogenic mortality and habitat loss due to conversion of habitat for agricultural land. Its natural habitat includes semi-deserts, open savannas, moist woodlands, the caracal is characterised by a robust build, long legs, a short face, long tufted ears and long canine teeth. Its coat is reddish tan or sandy, while the ventral parts are lighter with small reddish markings. It reaches 40–50 cm at the shoulder and weighs 8–18 kg and it was first described by German naturalist Johann Christian Daniel von Schreber in 1777. Typically nocturnal, the caracal is highly secretive and difficult to observe and it is territorial, and lives mainly alone or in pairs. The caracal is a carnivore that preys upon small mammals, birds. It can leap higher than 3 m and catch birds in mid-air and it stalks its prey until it is within 5 m of it, after which it runs it down, the prey being killed by a bite to the throat or to the back of the neck.
Breeding takes place throughout the year with both sexes becoming sexually mature by the time they are a year old, gestation lasts between two and three months, resulting in a litter of one to six kittens. Juveniles leave their mothers at nine to ten months, though a few stay back with their mothers. The average lifespan of the caracal in captivity is nearly 16 years, caracals have been tamed and used for hunting in ancient Egypt until the 20th century. The caracal is placed in the family Felidae and subfamily Felinae, the species was first described by German naturalist Johann Christian Daniel von Schreber as Felis caracal in the journal Die Säugetiere in Abbildungen nach der Natur mit Beschreibungen in 1776. In 1843, British zoologist John Edward Gray placed the animal in the genus Caracal, the name caracal is composed of two Turkish words, meaning black, and kulak, meaning ear. The first recorded use of this dates back to 1760. Alternative names for the caracal include gazelle cat, red cat, the lynx of the Greeks and Romans was most probably the caracal and the name lynx is sometimes still applied to it, but the present-day lynx proper is a separate species.
Earlier, the caracal was classified under the genera Felis or Lynx, however, a 2006 phylogenetic study showed that the caracal evolved nearly a million years before the lynx appeared. The caracal is most closely related to the African golden cat and these two species, together with the serval, form one of the eight lineages of Felidae. The Caracal lineage came into existence 8.5 mya, and it diverged from the serval probably within the last five million years, around the boundary between the Pliocene and the Pleistocene
Sheringham is an English seaside town within the county of Norfolk in the United Kingdom. The motto of the town, granted in 1953 to the Sheringham Urban District Council, is Mare Ditat Pinusque Decorat, Latin for The sea enriches and the pine adorns. Historically, the parish of Sheringham comprised the two villages of Upper Sheringham, a community, and Lower Sheringham, which combined farming with fishing. The fishing industry was at its peak in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, through the 1900s the focus of the fishing, as all along the north Norfolk coast, began to be on crabs and whelks. The local fishermen were major suppliers of crabs and lobsters to the London fish markets, long lining for cod and the catching of herring began to become less important in the second half of the century, as did whelking. Today, from a peak of maybe 200 boats, Sheringham has eight boats operated single-handed, the current town of Sheringham was once Lower Sheringham, a fishing station for the main village, now known as Upper Sheringham.
It is a town that was developed with the coming of the Midland. Most of Sheringhams range of buildings and shops come from this period and it has a particularly interesting range of buildings using flint, not normally in the traditional Norfolk style but in a variety of techniques. Sheringham town centre is centred on a high street with a wide range of privately owned shops. On Saturdays throughout the year there is a market in the car park next to the railway station which attracts large crowds even out of the holiday season. The town has a selection of specialist shops such as second-hand books and bric-a-brac, fishing tackle and bait, a computer shop, a model shop. There is a selection of food outlets, restaurants, on 15 October 2010, Tesco won a 14-year battle to open a store in the town. In a split vote North Norfolk District Council development committee chairman Simon Partridge used his casting vote in favour of the scheme, the store finally opened on 24 October 2013. An annual Cromer and Sheringham Crab/Lobster festival is held in May, Otterndorf Green is a small green space between the towns railway stations.
It commemorates Sheringhams twinning with the German town of Otterndorf, the Church of England Parish Church of St Peter was consecrated in 1897. The towns museum now known as The Mo includes a collection of old lifeboats, various displays, Sheringham is reputed to be the only place in the world to have four of its original lifeboats. The Sheringham Museum Trust owns three of these, JC Madge pulling and sailing, foresters Centenary the towns first motorised lifeboat. Manchester Unity of Oddfellows an Oakley Class lifeboat, Sheringham’s last offshore boat, the town has no harbour, so the lifeboat has to be launched by tractor, and the fishing boats are hauled up the beach
Aquatint is an intaglio printmaking technique, a variant of etching. In intaglio printmaking, the artist makes marks on the plate that are capable of holding ink, the inked plate is passed through a printing press together with a sheet of paper, resulting in a transfer of the ink to the paper. This can be repeated a number of times, depending on the particular technique, like etching, aquatint uses the application of a mordant to etch into the metal plate. Where the engraving uses a needle to make lines that print in black. The rosin is acid resistant and typically adhered to the plate by controlled heating, the tonal variation is controlled by the level of mordant exposure over large areas, and thus the image is shaped by large sections at a time. Another tonal technique, begins with a surface that is evenly indented so that it will carry a fairly dark tone of ink. The mezzotint plate is smoothed and polished to make areas carry less ink, beginning with a smooth plate, areas are roughened to make them darker.
Occasionally these two techniques are combined, the painter and printmaker Jan van de Velde IV invented the aquatint technique in Amsterdam, around 1650. The cartographer Peter Perez Burdett introduced his secret aquatint technique to England in the 1770s, an aquatint requires a metal plate, an acid, and something to resist the acid. Traditionally copper or zinc plates were used, the artist applies a ground that will resist acid. Ground is applied by either dissolving powdered resin in spirits, applying the powder directly to the surface of the plate, in all forms of etching the acid resist is commonly referred to as the ground. An aquatint box is used to apply resin powder, the powder is at the bottom of the box, a crank or a bellows is used to blow the powder up into the air of the box. A window allows the engraver to see the density of flowing powder, when the powder covers the plate, it can be extracted from the box for the next operations. The plate is heated, if the plate is covered with powder, the resin melts forming a fine and even coat, if it is in spirits, the spirits evaporate and the result is essentially the same.
Now the plate is dipped in acid, producing an even, at this point, the plate is said to carry about a 50% halftone. This means that, were the plate printed with no further biting, at some point the artist will etch an outline of any aspects of the drawing s/he wishes to establish with line, this provides the basis and guide for the tone work. S/he may have applied an acid-resistant stop out if s/he intends to keep any areas totally white and free of ink, the artist begins immersing the plate in the acid bath, progressively stopping out any areas that have achieved the designed tonality. These tones, combined with the limited line elements, give aquatints a distinctive, aquatints, like mezzotints, provide ease in creating large areas of tone without laborious cross-hatching, but aquatint plates, it is noted, are generally more durable than mezzotint plates
Catton was born in Norwich, Norfolk, in 1728, and said to be one of 35 children that his father had from his two marriages. He was apprenticed to a London coach painter, or, according to sources, a carpenter by the name of Maxwell. He was mainly known as a landscape and animal painter, but had a knowledge of the figure. In 1781, he published an etching called The Margate Packet and he became a member of the Society of Artists, and exhibited various pictures in its galleries in 1760–4. He was outstanding as a painter, producing ornamental panels for carriages, floral embellishments. He was a member of the Royal Academy, and. He exhibited at the Academy from its foundation until the year of his death, the works he showed were usually landscapes, but occasionally subject and animal paintings, his last exhibits there being Jupiter and Leda and Child at play. He painted an altarpiece, The Angel delivering St. Peter and he retired from painting some years before his death. He died at his house in Judd Place, New Road, London, on 28 August 1798, and was buried in Bloomsbury cemetery.
His son, Charles Catton the younger, who was listed in Royal Academy catalogues as living at his fathers house in Gate Street, gained a reputation as a scene-painter and he emigrated to the United States. Among Cattons pupils was John Durand, attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Leslie, ed. Catton, Charles. London, Elder & Co. p.325, philip H. Highfill, Kalman A. Burnim, Edward A. Langhans. A Biographical Dictionary of Actors, Volume 3 p116, the Catton Collection Charles Catton Senior
Dictionary of National Biography
The Dictionary of National Biography is a standard work of reference on notable figures from British history, published from 1885. The updated Oxford Dictionary of National Biography was published on 23 September 2004 in 60 volumes and he approached Leslie Stephen, editor of the Cornhill Magazine, owned by Smith, to become editor. Stephen persuaded Smith that the work should focus on subjects from the UK and its present, an early working title was the Biographia Britannica, the name of an earlier eighteenth-century reference work. The first volume of the Dictionary of National Biography appeared on 1 January 1885, in May 1891 Leslie Stephen resigned and Sidney Lee, Stephens assistant editor from the beginning of the project, succeeded him as editor. While much of the dictionary was written in-house, the DNB relied on external contributors, by 1900, more than 700 individuals had contributed to the work. Successive volumes appeared quarterly with complete punctuality until midsummer 1900, when the series closed with volume 63, the year of publication, the editor and the range of names in each volume is given below.
The supplements brought the work up to the death of Queen Victoria on 22 January 1901. The dictionary was transferred from its original publishers, Elder & Co. to Oxford University Press in 1917, until 1996, Oxford University Press continued to add further supplements featuring articles on subjects who had died during the twentieth century. The supplements published between 1912 and 1996 added about 6,000 lives of people who died in the century to the 29,120 in the 63 volumes of the original DNB. In 1993 a volume containing missing biographies was published and this had an additional 1,000 lives, selected from over 100,000 suggestions. Consequently, the dictionary was becoming less and less useful as a reference work, in 1966, the University of London published a volume of corrections, cumulated from the Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Research. There were various versions of the Concise Dictionary of National Biography, the last edition, in three volumes, covered everyone who died before 1986.
In the early 1990s Oxford University Press committed itself to overhauling the DNB, the new dictionary would cover British history, broadly defined, up to 31 December 2000. The research project was conceived as a one, with in-house staff co-ordinating the work of nearly 10,000 contributors internationally. Following Matthews death in October 1999, he was succeeded as editor by another Oxford historian, Professor Brian Harrison, in January 2000. The new dictionary, now known as the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, was published on 23 September 2004 in 60 volumes in print at a price of £7500, most UK holders of a current library card can access it online free of charge. In subsequent years, the print edition has been able to be obtained new for a lower price. At publication, the 2004 edition had 50,113 biographical articles covering 54,922 lives, a small permanent staff remain in Oxford to update and extend the coverage of the online edition
The Hudson River is a 315-mile river that flows from north to south primarily through eastern New York in the United States. The river originates in the Adirondack Mountains of Upstate New York, flows through the Hudson Valley, the river serves as a political boundary between the states of New Jersey and New York, and further north between New York counties. The lower half of the river is a tidal estuary occupying the Hudson Fjord, tidal waters influence the Hudsons flow from as far north as Troy. The river is named after Henry Hudson, an Englishman sailing for the Dutch East India Company, who explored it in 1609, and after whom Canadas Hudson Bay is named. The Dutch called the river the North River – with the Delaware River called the South River –, during the eighteenth century, the river valley and its inhabitants were the subject and inspiration of Washington Irving, the first internationally acclaimed American author. In the nineteenth century, the area inspired the Hudson River School of landscape painting, the Hudson was the eastern outlet for the Erie Canal, when completed in 1825, became an important transportation artery for the early-19th-century United States.
The source of the Hudson River is Lake Tear of the Clouds in the Adirondack Park at an altitude of 4,322 feet, the river is not cartographically called the Hudson River until miles downstream. From that point on, the stream is known as the Hudson River. Popular culture and convention, more often cite the photogenic Lake Tear of the Clouds as the source, South of the confluence of Indian Pass Brook and Calamity Brook, the Hudson River flows south into Sanford Lake. South of the outlet of the lake, the Opalescent River flows into the Hudson, the Hudson flows south, taking in Beaver Brook and the outlet of Lake Harris. After its confluence with the Indian River, the Hudson forms the boundary between Essex and Hamilton counties, in the hamlet of North River, the Hudson flows entirely in Warren County and takes in the Schroon River. Further south, the forms the boundary between Warren and Saratoga Counties. The river takes in the Sacandaga River from the Great Sacandaga Lake, shortly thereafter, the river leaves the Adirondack Park, flows under Interstate 87, and through Glens Falls, just south of Lake George although receiving no streamflow from the lake.
It next goes through Hudson Falls, at this point the river forms the boundary between Washington and Saratoga Counties. At this point the river has an altitude of 200 feet, further south the Hudson takes in water from the Batten Kill River and Fish Creek near Schuylerville. The river forms the boundary between Saratoga and Rensselaer counties, the river enters the heart of the Capital District. It takes in water from the Hoosic River, which extends into Massachusetts, shortly thereafter the river has its confluence with the Mohawk River, the largest tributary of the Hudson River, in Waterford. Shortly thereafter, the river reaches the Federal Dam in Troy, at an elevation of 2 feet, the bottom of the dam marks the beginning of the tidal influence in the Hudson as well as the beginning of the lower Hudson River
Edward Francis Burney
Edward Francis Burney was an English artist. His middle name is given as Francisco or Francesco. Burney was born in Worcester on 7 September 1760, the son of Richard Burney, the musicologist Charles Burney was his uncle and the writer Frances Burney was his cousin. He studied at the Royal Academy Schools from 1776, where he received encouragement from Sir Joshua Reynolds and he exhibited at the Royal Academy from 1780 until 1803. His work included historical subjects and portraits of friends and family, much of his work was done for book illustrations, including a series for an edition of Miltons Paradise Lost. They were never engraved, but he did work up Amateurs of Tye-Wig Music into an oil painting, burneys uncle Charles took a leading part in the argument, on the side of the modernists. Burney died in London on 16 December 1848, at the age of 88
London /ˈlʌndən/ is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south east of the island of Great Britain and it was founded by the Romans, who named it Londinium. Londons ancient core, the City of London, largely retains its 1. 12-square-mile medieval boundaries. London is a global city in the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism. It is crowned as the worlds largest financial centre and has the fifth- or sixth-largest metropolitan area GDP in the world, London is a world cultural capital. It is the worlds most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the worlds largest city airport system measured by passenger traffic, London is the worlds leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. Londons universities form the largest concentration of education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted the modern Summer Olympic Games three times, London has a diverse range of people and cultures, and more than 300 languages are spoken in the region.
Its estimated mid-2015 municipal population was 8,673,713, the largest of any city in the European Union, Londons urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census. The citys metropolitan area is the most populous in the EU with 13,879,757 inhabitants, the city-region therefore has a similar land area and population to that of the New York metropolitan area. London was the worlds most populous city from around 1831 to 1925, Other famous landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Pauls Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square, and The Shard. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world, the etymology of London is uncertain. It is an ancient name, found in sources from the 2nd century and it is recorded c.121 as Londinium, which points to Romano-British origin, and hand-written Roman tablets recovered in the city originating from AD 65/70-80 include the word Londinio. The earliest attempted explanation, now disregarded, is attributed to Geoffrey of Monmouth in Historia Regum Britanniae and this had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had allegedly taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
From 1898, it was accepted that the name was of Celtic origin and meant place belonging to a man called *Londinos. The ultimate difficulty lies in reconciling the Latin form Londinium with the modern Welsh Llundain, which should demand a form *lōndinion, from earlier *loundiniom. The possibility cannot be ruled out that the Welsh name was borrowed back in from English at a date, and thus cannot be used as a basis from which to reconstruct the original name. Until 1889, the name London officially applied only to the City of London, two recent discoveries indicate probable very early settlements near the Thames in the London area