St Clement Danes (parish)
St Clement Danes was a civil parish in the metropolitan area of London, England. The parish was split between the Liberty of the Duchy of Lancaster; the area is colloquially split between Aldwych and Adelphi areas associated with the larger Strand area in the extreme east of the City of Westminster. It includes hotels, the Indian and Australian High Commissions and the London School of Economics. To its west is Charing Cross station which faces Trafalgar Square, it took its name from the dedication of the church of St Clement Danes. It is recorded in the early 12th century as parochia Sancti Clementis ecclesie Dacorum or'the parish of St Clement's church of the Danes'; the name suggests. It was first recorded in 1190, being as such a ancient parish; the medieval parish lay in the vill of Westminster, being one of four parishes of Westminster, in the soke of Leicester a city in the English Midlands. The Ossulstone section formed part of the Liberty of the Duchy of Lancaster; the parish was included in the returns of the Bills of mortality from 1604.
In 1826 the stocks belonging to the parish, situated in Portugal Street were destroyed. They were thought to be the last remaining in London; the parish was grouped into the Strand District in 1855 when it came within the area of responsibility of the Metropolitan Board of Works. In 1889 the parish became part of the County of London and in 1900 it became part of the Metropolitan Borough of Westminster, it was abolished as a civil parish in 1922. King's College Hospital was opened in 1840 in the disused St Clement Danes parish workhouse in Portugal Street, as a training facility where medical students of King's College London could practice and receive instruction from the college's own professors. Booth's poverty map shows a generation remnant streets of the intense poverty which formed much of the parish of the 1840s — overcrowded tenements characterised by poverty and disease and the hospital was treating annually 1,290 inpatients in 120 beds, with two patients sharing a bed by no means unusual.
The hospital moved to its present site in Denmark Hill. The parish consisted of two areas extending into the left half of the Thames; the main part formed the east part of Westminster vill, gardens and rural until the late medieval period. It adjoined the Temple area of the City of London. To the west it had a straight boundary with two parishes of contrasting size: St Martin in the Fields and St Mary le Strand. To the north it was bounded by St Giles in the Fields; the western detached part was small. DemographyEcclesiastical successorThe boundaries are the same in the Church of England as the final form of the civil parish save that St Mary le Strand is combined; the two churches are known as the "island churches" forming traffic islands. St Clement Danes: The parish and New London: Volume 3 London Lives: St Clement Danes
A Singspiel is a form of German-language music drama, now regarded as a genre of opera. It is characterized by spoken dialogue, alternated with ensembles, songs and arias which were strophic, or folk-like. Singspiel plots are comic or romantic in nature, include elements of magic, fantastical creatures, comically exaggerated characterizations of good and evil; some of the first Singspiele were miracle plays in Germany, where dialogue was interspersed with singing. By the early 17th century, miracle plays had grown profane, the word "Singspiel" is found in print, secular Singspiele were being performed, both in translated borrowings or imitations from English and Italian songs and plays, in original German creations. In the 18th century, some Singspiele were translations of English ballad operas. In 1736, the Prussian ambassador to England commissioned a translation of the ballad opera The Devil to Pay; this was performed in the 1740s in Hamburg and Leipzig. A further version of this was made by Johann Adam Hiller and C. F. Weiße in 1766, the first of a string of such collaborations which led to Hiller and Weisse being called "the fathers of the German Singspiel."French operas with spoken dialogue were transcribed into the German and became successful in Vienna in the late 1770s and early 1780s.
By contrast, German translations of contemporary Italian opere buffe, which were quite successful in England and France at the time, were less frequent. Singspiele were considered middle-to-lower class entertainment – as opposed to the predominantly aristocratic genres of opera and stage play – and were performed by traveling troupes, rather than by established companies within metropolitan centers. Mozart wrote several Singspiele: Bastien und Bastienne, Die Entführung aus dem Serail, Der Schauspieldirektor, Die Zauberflöte. E. T. A. Hoffmann, who admired him, composed Singspiele, such as Liebe und Eifersucht in 1807. In 1927, Kurt Weill created a new word, "Songspiel". Notes Sources Barbara Russano Hanning, Donald Jay Grout: Concise History of Western Music, W. W. Norton & Company, 1998. Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, "Singspiel." Media related to Singspiele at Wikimedia Commons
National Library of the Czech Republic
The National Library of the Czech Republic is the central library of the Czech Republic. It is directed by the Ministry of Culture; the library's main building is located in the historical Clementinum building in Prague, where half of its books are kept. The other half of the collection is stored in the district of Hostivař; the National Library is the biggest library in the Czech Republic, in its funds there are around 6 million documents. The library has around 60,000 registered readers; as well as Czech texts, the library stores older material from Turkey and India. The library houses books for Charles University in Prague; the library won international recognition in 2005 as it received the inaugural Jikji Prize from UNESCO via the Memory of the World Programme for its efforts in digitising old texts. The project, which commenced in 1992, involved the digitisation of 1,700 documents in its first 13 years; the most precious medieval manuscripts preserved in the National Library are the Codex Vyssegradensis and the Passional of Abbes Kunigunde.
In 2006 the Czech parliament approved funding for the construction of a new library building on Letna plain, between Hradčanská metro station and Sparta Prague's football ground, Letná stadium. In March 2007, following a request for tender, Czech architect Jan Kaplický was selected by a jury to undertake the project, with a projected completion date of 2011. In 2007 the project was delayed following objections regarding its proposed location from government officials including Prague Mayor Pavel Bém and President Václav Klaus. Plans for the building had still not been decided in February 2008, with the matter being referred to the Office for the Protection of Competition in order to determine if the tender had been won fairly. In 2008, Minister of Culture Václav Jehlička announced the end of the project, following a ruling from the European Commission that the tender process had not been carried out legally; the library was affected by the 2002 European floods, with some documents moved to upper levels to avoid the excess water.
Over 4,000 books were removed from the library in July 2011 following flooding in parts of the main building. There was a fire at the library in December 2012. List of national and state libraries Official website
Smock Alley Theatre
Since the 17th century there have been numerous theatres in Dublin with the name of Smock Alley. The current Smock Alley Theatre is a 21st-century theatre in Dublin, converted from a 19th-century church building, incorporating structural material from an 18th-century theatre building, built on the site of the 17th century Theatre Royal, Dublin; the present theatre was opened after a € 3.5 million investment. The Smock Alley Theatre site comprises Smock Alley Theatre, The Boys School, Black Box, The Banquet Hall; the first Theatre Royal was opened on the site by John Ogilby in 1662. Ogilby, the first Irish Master of the Revels, had run the New Theatre in Werburgh Street, which had closed during the Puritan interregnum; this building was demolished, with a new theatre replacing it in 1735. This second building was active as a theatre until 1759, with a brief revival until its final closure in 1787; the Theatre Royal consisted of a classical proscenium stage, boxes, a middle and upper gallery, lattices and a music/orchestra loft above the stage the acoustics were said to be excellent.
The pit had backless benches and a raked floor that rose toward the back of the audience to help sightlines. Single men sat here, it was the noisiest, rowdiest area in the theatre. Boxes sat upper-class aristocrats. Boxes were luxuriously decorated with velvet drapes should the occupants require some privacy during the evening....for whatever reason. The doors were wider in the boxes to allow access for the voluminous dresses of the ladies. Galleries held the lower class, including servants of the upper classes in attendance; these were the worst seats as they were on the same level as the large chandeliers that lit the theatre. Candles were made of tallow and they were pungent and smokey; the building was built on reclaimed ground from the River Liffey and due to this, in 1670 and in 1701 the upper galleries collapsed killing several people inside and injuring many more including the son of the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, Charles Earl of Middlesex. He was pulled from the wreckage of his box with two broken legs There was another partial collapse in March 1734 after which it was abandoned for a short while.
The major decision was taken to demolish and rebuild the theatre in 1735 with increased audience capacity. In the time between the demolition of the original theatre and the construction of its replacement, a new theatre had opened in Aungier Street and it managed to wrestle the title Theatre Royal from Smock Alley for a time. In 1745 Thomas Sheridan, godson of Jonathan Swift, took on the role of manager of Smock Alley and Aungier Street, he reclaimed the title Theatre Royal for Smock Alley. By 1750 the Aungier Street theatre had closed down. Sheridan was not only director of the theatre, he was a playwright and strove to improve audiences at the theatre by cleaning up the neighbourhood in which it stood. At the time there were many unsavoury taverns and ale houses as well as many establishments of ill repute that Sheridan petitioned to have closed down in favour of more wholesome and decent businesses; this change in the area encouraged more noble people to again return to the theatre and it once again thrived.
Benjamin Victor was an Englishman who visited Ireland in an effort to extend his textile business, but that did not prove profitable, he gave it up. On 11 October 1746 Victor settled with his family in Dublin as treasurer and deputy-manager to Sheridan at the Smock Alley Theatre; the theatre was for some years successful. On 15 July 1755 Sheridan returned to Dublin, Victor resumed his old position; the theatre was closed on 20 April 1759, Victor returned to England. The theatre reopened, being active until 1787, but Victor did not return - having become involved with the Drury Lane Theatre in his native London; the first Theatre Royal housed the plays of George Farquhar, Oliver Goldsmith and Richard Brinsley Sheridan, son of Thomas Sheridan. It was here that the stars of world theatre appeared to much acclaim such as Peg Woffington, Thomas Sheridan, Spranger Barry and Charles Macklin, it was on the stage of Smock Alley Theatre that David Garrick, the greatest actor of the 18th century, first played Hamlet.
It was the first time Hamlet had been staged in Ireland and some 3,000 customer clambered to get one of only 300 tickets. It was the site of some infamous 18th century Dublin riots, the most serious being the Kelly riots of 1747. Thomas Sheridan was manager at the time and had banned the presence of audience members on stage and the taking of money for the privilege of going backstage; these rules were for men only. Indeed, it was under Charles II that the law was changed to allow women to act on stage; these rules were tested by a drunk Trinity College student named Richard Kelly. Kelly did not appreciate the new rules restricting access backstage and brazenly went back stage. In 1758 another rival theatre opened, the Theatre Royal at Smock Alley closed in 1787. After this, the building was used as a whiskey store, falling into heavy disrepair before purchase by Fr Michael Blake in 1811; the structure of the derelict building was demolished, the new church incorporated some of this original theatre structure into its own during the building work
Royal Library of the Netherlands
The Royal Library of the Netherlands is based in The Hague and was founded in 1798. The mission of the Royal Library of the Netherlands, as presented on the library's web site, is to provide "access to the knowledge and culture of the past and the present by providing high-quality services for research and cultural experience"; the initiative to found a national library was proposed by representative Albert Jan Verbeek on August 17 1798. The collection would be based on the confiscated book collection of William V; the library was founded as the Nationale Bibliotheek on November 8 of the same year, after a committee of representatives had advised the creation of a national library on the same day. The National Library was only open to members of the Representative Body. King Louis Bonaparte gave the national library its name of the Royal Library in 1806. Napoleon Bonaparte transferred the Royal Library to The Hague as property, while allowing the Imperial Library in Paris to expropriate publications from the Royal Library.
In 1815 King William I of the Netherlands confirmed the name of'Royal Library' by royal resolution. It has been known as the National Library of the Netherlands since 1982, when it opened new quarters; the institution became independent of the state in 1996, although it is financed by the Department of Education and Science. In 2004, the National Library of the Netherlands contained 3,300,000 items, equivalent to 67 kilometers of bookshelves. Most items in the collection are books. There are pieces of "grey literature", where the author, publisher, or date may not be apparent but the document has cultural or intellectual significance; the collection contains the entire literature of the Netherlands, from medieval manuscripts to modern scientific publications. For a publication to be accepted, it must be from a registered Dutch publisher; the collection is accessible for members. Any person aged 16 years or older can become a member. One day passes are available. Requests for material take 30 minutes.
The KB hosts several open access websites, including the "Memory of the Netherlands". List of libraries in the Netherlands European Library Nederlandse Centrale Catalogus Books in the Netherlands Media related to Koninklijke Bibliotheek at Wikimedia Commons Official website