National Gallery of Art
The National Gallery of Art, its attached Sculpture Garden, is a national art museum in Washington, D. C. located on the National Mall, between 3rd and 9th Streets, at Constitution Avenue NW. Open to the public and free of charge, the museum was established in 1937 for the American people by a joint resolution of the United States Congress. Andrew W. Mellon donated funds for construction; the core collection includes major works of art donated by Paul Mellon, Ailsa Mellon Bruce, Lessing J. Rosenwald, Samuel Henry Kress, Rush Harrison Kress, Peter Arrell Browne Widener, Joseph E. Widener, Chester Dale; the Gallery's collection of paintings, prints, sculpture and decorative arts traces the development of Western Art from the Middle Ages to the present, including the only painting by Leonardo da Vinci in the Americas and the largest mobile created by Alexander Calder. The Gallery's campus includes the original neoclassical West Building designed by John Russell Pope, linked underground to the modern East Building, designed by I. M. Pei, the 6.1-acre Sculpture Garden.
The Gallery presents temporary special exhibitions spanning the world and the history of art. It is one of the largest museums in North America. Pittsburgh banker Andrew W. Mellon began gathering a private collection of old master paintings and sculptures during World War I. During the late 1920s, Mellon decided to direct his collecting efforts towards the establishment of a new national gallery for the United States. In 1930 for tax reasons, Mellon formed the A. W. Mellon Educational and Charitable Trust, to be the legal owner of works intended for the gallery. In 1930–1931, the Trust made its first major acquisition, 21 paintings from the Hermitage Museum in St. Petersburg as part of the Soviet sale of Hermitage paintings, including such masterpieces as Raphael's Alba Madonna, Titian's Venus with a Mirror, Jan van Eyck's Annunciation. In 1929 Mellon had initiated contact with the appointed Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, Charles Greeley Abbot. Mellon was appointed in 1931 as a Commissioner of the Institution's National Gallery of Art.
When the director of the Gallery retired, Mellon asked Abbot not to appoint a successor, as he proposed to endow a new building with funds for expansion of the collections. However, Mellon's trial for tax evasion, centering on the Trust and the Hermitage paintings, caused the plan to be modified. In 1935, Mellon announced in The Washington Star, his intention to establish a new gallery for old masters, separate from the Smithsonian; when asked by Abbot, he explained that the project was in the hands of the Trust and that its decisions were dependent on "the attitude of the Government towards the gift". In January 1937, Mellon formally offered to create the new Gallery. On his birthday, 24 March 1937, an Act of Congress accepted the collection and building funds, approved the construction of a museum on the National Mall; the new gallery was to be self-governing, not controlled by the Smithsonian, but took the old name "National Gallery of Art" while the Smithsonian's gallery would be renamed the "National Collection of Fine Arts".
Designed by architect John Russell Pope, the new structure was completed and accepted by President Franklin D. Roosevelt on behalf of the American people on March 17, 1941. Neither Mellon nor Pope lived to see the museum completed. At the time of its inception it was the largest marble structure in the world; the museum stands on the former site of the Baltimore and Potomac Railroad station, where in 1881 a disgruntled office seeker, Charles Guiteau, shot President James Garfield. As anticipated by Mellon, the creation of the National Gallery encouraged the donation of other substantial art collections by a number of private donors. Founding benefactors included such individuals as Paul Mellon, Samuel H. Kress, Rush H. Kress, Ailsa Mellon Bruce, Chester Dale, Joseph Widener, Lessing J. Rosenwald and Edgar William and Bernice Chrysler Garbisch; the Gallery's East Building was constructed in the 1970s on much of the remaining land left over from the original congressional action. Andrew Mellon's children, Paul Mellon and Ailsa Mellon Bruce, funded the building.
Designed by architect I. M. Pei, the contemporary structure was completed in 1978 and was opened on June 1 of that year by President Jimmy Carter; the new building was built to house the Museum's collection of modern paintings, drawings and prints, as well as study and research centers and offices. The design received a National Honor Award from the American Institute of Architects in 1981; the final addition to the complex is the National Gallery of Art Sculpture Garden. Completed and opened to the public on May 23, 1999, the location provides an outdoor setting for exhibiting a number of pieces from the Museum's contemporary sculpture collection; the National Gallery of Art is supported through a private-public partnership. The United States federal government provides funds, through annual appropriations, to support the museum's operations and maintenance. All artwork, as well as special programs, are provided through private funds; the museum is not part of the Smithsonian Institution. Noted directors of the National Gallery have included David E. Finley, Jr. John Walker, J. Carter Brown.
Earl A. "Rusty" Powell III was named director in 1993. In March 2019 he was be succeeded by Kaywin Feldman, past director and president of the Minneapolis In
National Gallery of Victoria
The National Gallery of Victoria, popularly known as the NGV, is an art museum in Melbourne, Australia. Founded in 1861, it is Australia's oldest and most visited art museum; the NGV houses an encyclopedic art collection across two sites: NGV International, located on St Kilda Road in the Melbourne Arts Precinct of Southbank, the Ian Potter Centre: NGV Australia, located nearby at Federation Square. The NGV International building, designed by Sir Roy Grounds, opened in 1968, was redeveloped by Mario Bellini before reopening in 2003, it is on the Victorian Heritage Register. Designed by Lab Architecture Studio, the Ian Potter Centre opened in 2002 and houses the gallery's Australian art collection. Victoria was granted separation from New South Wales in 1850, becoming effective on 1 July 1851. In the wake of the Victorian gold rush that began in August 1851, the new colony became Australia's richest, Melbourne, its capital, the largest and wealthiest city in Australia. With Melbourne's rapid growth came calls for the establishment of a public art gallery, in 1859, the Government of Victoria pledged £2000 for the acquisition of plaster casts of sculpture.
These works were displayed in the Museum of Art, opened by Governor Sir Henry Barkly in May 1861 on the lower floor of the south wing of the Public Library on Swanston Street. Further money was set aside in the early 1860s for the purchase of original paintings by British and Victorian artists; these works were first displayed in December 1864 in the newly opened Picture Gallery, which remained under the curatorial administration of the Public Library until 1882. Grand designs for a building fronting Lonsdale and Swanston streets were drawn by Nicholas Chevalier in 1860 and Frederick Grosse in 1865, featuring an enormous and elaborate library and gallery, but the visions were never realised. On 24 May 1874, the first purpose built gallery, known as the McArthur Gallery, opened in the McArthur room of the State Library, the following year, the Museum of Art was renamed the National Gallery of Victoria; the McArthur Gallery was only intended as a temporary home until the much grander vision was to be realised.
However such an edifice did not eventuate and the complex was instead developed incrementally over several decades. The National Gallery of Victoria Art School, associated with the gallery, was founded in 1867 and remained the leading centre for academic art training in Australia until about 1910; the School's graduates went on to become some of Australia's most significant artists. In 1887, the Buvelot Gallery was opened, along with the Painting School studios. In 1892, two more galleries were added: Stawell and La Trobe; the gallery's collection was built from both gifts of works of art and monetary donations. The most significant, the Felton Bequest, was established by the will of Alfred Felton and from 1904, has been used to purchase over 15,000 works of art. Since the Felton Bequest, the gallery had long held plans to build a permanent facility, however it was not until 1943 that the State Government chose a site, Wirth's Park, just south of the Yarra River. £3 million was put forward in February 1960 and Roy Grounds was announced as the architect.
In 1959, the commission to design a new gallery was awarded to the architectural firm Grounds Romberg Boyd. In 1962, Roy Grounds split from his partners Frederick Romberg and Robin Boyd, retained the commission, designed the gallery at 180 St Kilda Road; the new bluestone clad building was completed in December 1967 and Victorian premier Henry Bolte opened it on 20 August 1968. One of the features of the building is the Leonard French stained glass ceiling, one of the world's largest pieces of suspended stained glass, which casts colourful light on the floor below; the water-wall entrance is another well-known feature of the building. In 1999, redevelopment of the building was proposed, with Mario Bellini chosen as architect and an estimated project cost of $161.9 million. The proposal was to leave the original architectural fabric intact including the exterior facade and Leonard French stained glass ceiling, but to modernise the interior. During the redevelopment, many works were moved to a temporary external annex known as NGV on Russell, at the State Library with its entrance on Russell Street.
A major fundraising drive was launched on 10 October 2000 to redevelop the ageing facility and although the state government committed the majority of the funds, private donations were sought in addition to federal funding. The drive achieved its aim and secured $15 million from the Ian Potter Foundation on 11 July 2000, $3 million from Lotti Smorgon, $2 million from the Clemenger Foundation, $1 million each from James Fairfax and the Pratt Foundation. NGV on Russell closed on 30 June 2002 to make way for the staged opening of the new St Kilda Road gallery, it was opened by premier Steve Bracks on 4 December 2003. The Ian Potter Centre: NGV Australia in Federation Square was designed by Lab Architecture Studio to house the NGV's Australian art collection, it opened in 2002. As such, the NGV's collection is now housed in two separate buildings, with Grounds' building renamed NGV International; the NGV's Asian art collection began in 1862, one year after the gallery's founding, when Frederick Dalgety donated two Chinese plates.
The Asian collection has since grown to include significant works from across the continent. The NGV's Australian art collection encompasses Indigenous art and artefacts, Australian colonial art, Australian Impressionist art, 20th century and contemporary art; the 1880s saw the birth and development of
Joseph Brummer was a Hungarian-born art dealer and collector who exhibited both antique artifacts from different cultures, early European art, the works of modern painters and sculptors in his galleries in Paris and New York. In 1906 he and his two brothers opened their first gallery in the Brummer Gallery. At the start of World War I, they moved to New York City. Joseph alone opened his next gallery in 1921 in Manhattan. Joseph Brummer was born in Sombor in Hungary, in 1883, he studied applied arts in Szeged from 1897 on, continued these studies in Budapest from 1899 on. Afterward, he studied at Munich before starting on his own as an artist in Szeged. Together with his brothers Ernest and Imre, he moved to Paris in 1905. In 1906, Brummer and his brothers opened the Brummer Gallery in Paris at the Boulevard Raspail, where they sold African art, Japanese prints and pre-Columbian Peruvian art, alongside contemporary paintings and sculptures. During the autumn of 1908, he shared a studio space at Cité Falguière with avant-garde sculptor Joseph Csaky, from Szeged and Budapest.
Brummer studied sculpture in 1908 Henri Matisse. He attended the Académie de la Grande Chaumière, thus got to know contemporary artists. At the start of World War I, Joseph Brummer moved to New York City. In 1921 he reopened a gallery at 43 East Fifty-Seventh Street in Manhattan, he specialized in medieval and Renaissance European art, Classical, Ancient Egyptian and pre-Columbian objects, but hosted some of the earliest exhibitions of modern European art in the United States. It stayed in business two years after Joseph's death. A major part of his private art collection was bought by the Metropolitan Museum of Art in 1947. A second part of the Joseph Brummer art collection, still over 2400 lots, was sold in 1949 by Parke-Bernet Galleries; the final part, 600 pieces that remained in the family, were sold in Zurich in October 1979. These pieces were inherited by Ernest Brummer's widow, Ella Bache Brummer, their value was estimated at $10 million. From 1931 until 1948, Brummer had owned the Guennol Lioness.
In 1909 Brummer had his portrait painted by Henri Rousseau. And by Anne Goldthwaite in 1915. In 1993, the Rousseau portrait was sold by Christie's for £2,971,500, it is owned by the National Gallery. This is an incomplete list of the exhibitions of modern art in the Brummer Gallery in New York. 1921, 4 to 23 April: Maurice Prendergast 1921, May: "Works by French and American artists including paintings by Jennie Van Fleet Cowdery", including two works by Auguste Renoir 1921, 24 October to 21 November: Anne Goldthwaite 1921, 28 November to 24 December: Frank Burty 1922, 3 to 21 January: Peggy Bacon and Alexander Brook 1922: sculptures by Henri Matisse and Manolo Hugué, paintings by Amedeo Modigliani, André Derain, Maurice Utrillo, Marie Laurencin and Pascin 1922 December 15 to 1923, 13 January: Auguste Rodin 1923: 17 January to 10 February: Pascin 1923, 17 March to 14 April: Thomas Eakins 1923: Bernard Karfiol 1923, 22 October to 10 November: Toshi Shimizu 1923, 15 December to 1924, 5 January: Works by Max Jacob 1924, 25 February to 22 March: Henri Matisse 1924: Hermine David 1924: José de Togores 1924, 4 to 27 December: Georges Seurat 1925, January: Roger Fry 1925, February: Walter Pach 1925, 2 to 21 March 1925: Michel Kikoine 1925: Bernard Karfiol 1926, 18 January to 13 February: Aristide Maillol 1926, 17 November to 15 December: Sculptures by Constantin Brâncuși.
1927, 17 January to 12 February: Béla Czóbel 1927, 14 February to 12 March: Bernard Karfiol 1927, March to 9 April: Eugène Zak 1927, late: First personal exhibition of works by Charles Despiau 1928, 1 to 25 February: John Storrs 1928, 27 February to 24 March: Gaston Lachaise 1928, 26 March to 21 April: Jacques Villon, paintings 1929, 16 February to 16 March: A. S. Baylinson and Morris Kantor 1929, 18 March to 13 April: Jane Berlandina 1929, 28 March to 12 April: Raymond Duchamp-Villon, sculptures 1929, May: Michel Kikoine 1929, 1 to 28 November: "Portraits of Maria Lani by Fifty-One Painters", featuring work by Chaim Soutine, Kees van Dongen, Georges Rouault, Pierre Bonnard, Rodolphe-Théophile Bosshard, Charles Despiau, Henri Matisse, Man Ray, André Derain, others 1929, 30 November to 13 December: collection of Albert Eugene Gallatin, including work by Fernand Léger, Man Ray, Paul Klee, André Masson, Joan Miró, Joseph Stella, a 1906 self-portrait by Pablo Picasso 1929, 14 December to 1930, 31 January: Othon Friesz, Paintings 1930, 1 to 28 February: Max Jacob 1930, 8 to 31 March: Jane Berlandina 1930, 1 April to 3 May: Georges Rouault 1930, 20 October to 20 November: Jacques Villon 1930, 22 November to 20 December: Pierre Roy 1931, 5 January to 7 February: Henri Matisse, sculptures 1931, 13 to 28 February: Anne Goldthwaite 1931, 16 March to 18 April: Théophile Steinlen 1931, 13 October to 7 November: Marcel Mouillot 1931, 9 November to?: Charles Dufresne 1932, 9 to 29 February: Arthur Everett Austin, Jr. 1932, 5 March to 5 April: Josep Llorens i Artigas 1932, November to 10 December: Maurice Marinot, glass 1932, 13 December to?: 18th century French drawings, from the Richard Owen collection 1933, 3 January to 28 February: Aristide Maillol 1933, 4 March to 15 April: Pierre Roy 1
The Donjon Lacataye is the keep of a 14th-century castle, constructed by order of Gaston Phébus in the commune of Mont-de-Marsan in the Landes département of France. Today, it houses a museum. La Cataye consists of two joined Romanesque houses, which one sees while entering the current museum whose central internal wall includes Romanesque windows, a sign that one of the two houses was built before the second; these houses belonged to the Viscount's family and were more or less abandoned starting from the 15th century, when the Viscounts moved away from their town of origin. During the 16th century, their upper parts were modified and they were equipped with crenellations; the material used is a local sedimentary rock. The name Cataye comes from the Spanish verb "castar", it is possible that these houses replaced a preceding mound structure with tower because the site is called: “pujorin”, i.e. “pouy jorin”. In 1860, Antoine Lacaze and owner of the keep, gave it to the town to house troops, it became the departmental barracks until 1875, when the soldiers moved to the Bosquet barracks in the town.
The keep preserved the name Caserne Lacaze for nearly a century, in spite of a succession of civil uses: boarding school for young girls, gymnastics centre, municipal workshop. In 1968, mayor Charles Lamarque-Cando inaugurated in the keep a museum of modern figurative sculpture, dedicated to two local artists, Charles Despiau and Robert Wlérick, it has been listed since 1942 as a monument historique by the French Ministry of Culture. List of castles in France Despiau-Wlérick Museum official website French Ministry of Culture listing for Donjon Lacataye
Camouflage is the use of any combination of materials, coloration, or illumination for concealment, either by making animals or objects hard to see, or by disguising them as something else. Examples include the leopard's spotted coat, the battledress of a modern soldier, the leaf-mimic katydid's wings. A third approach, motion dazzle, confuses the observer with a conspicuous pattern, making the object visible but momentarily harder to locate; the majority of camouflage methods aim for crypsis through a general resemblance to the background, high contrast disruptive coloration, eliminating shadow, countershading. In the open ocean, where there is no background, the principal methods of camouflage are transparency and countershading, while the ability to produce light is among other things used for counter-illumination on the undersides of cephalopods such as squid; some animals, such as chameleons and octopuses, are capable of changing their skin pattern and colours, whether for camouflage or for signalling.
It is possible. Military camouflage was spurred by the increasing range and accuracy of firearms in the 19th century. In particular the replacement of the inaccurate musket with the rifle made personal concealment in battle a survival skill. In the 20th century, military camouflage developed especially during the First World War. On land, artists such as André Mare designed camouflage schemes and observation posts disguised as trees. At sea, merchant ships and troop carriers were painted in dazzle patterns that were visible, but designed to confuse enemy submarines as to the target's speed and heading. During and after the Second World War, a variety of camouflage schemes were used for aircraft and for ground vehicles in different theatres of war; the use of radar since the mid-20th century has made camouflage for fixed-wing military aircraft obsolete. Non-military use of camouflage includes making cell telephone towers less obtrusive and helping hunters to approach wary game animals. Patterns derived from military camouflage are used in fashion clothing, exploiting their strong designs and sometimes their symbolism.
Camouflage themes recur in modern art, both figuratively and in science fiction and works of literature. In ancient Greece, Aristotle commented on the colour-changing abilities, both for camouflage and for signalling, of cephalopods including the octopus, in his Historia animalium: The octopus... seeks its prey by so changing its colour as to render it like the colour of the stones adjacent to it. Camouflage has been a topic of research in zoology for well over a century. According to Charles Darwin's 1859 theory of natural selection, features such as camouflage evolved by providing individual animals with a reproductive advantage, enabling them to leave more offspring, on average, than other members of the same species. In his Origin of Species, Darwin wrote: When we see leaf-eating insects green, bark-feeders mottled-grey. Grouse, if not destroyed at some period of their lives, would increase in countless numbers. Hence I can see no reason to doubt that natural selection might be most effective in giving the proper colour to each kind of grouse, in keeping that colour, when once acquired and constant.
The English zoologist Edward Bagnall Poulton studied animal coloration camouflage. In his 1890 book The Colours of Animals, he classified different types such as "special protective resemblance", or "general aggressive resemblance", his experiments showed that swallowtailed moth pupae were camouflaged to match the backgrounds on which they were reared as larvae. Poulton's "general protective resemblance" was at that time considered to be the main method of camouflage, as when Frank Evers Beddard wrote in 1892 that "tree-frequenting animals are green in colour. Among vertebrates numerous species of parrots, tree-frogs, the green tree-snake are examples". Beddard did however mention other methods, including the "alluring coloration" of the flower mantis and the possibility of a different mechanism in the orange tip butterfly, he wrote that "the scattered green spots upon the under surface of the wings might have been intended for a rough sketch of the small flowerets of the plant, so close is their mutual resemblance."
He explained the coloration of sea fish such as the mackerel: "Among pelagic fish it is common to find the upper surface dark-coloured and the lower surface white, so that the animal is inconspicuous when seen either from above or below." The artist Abbott Handerson Thayer formulated what is sometimes called Thayer's Law, the principle of countershading. However, he overstated the case in the 1909 book Concealing-Coloration in the Animal Kingdom, arguing that "All patterns and colors whatsoever of all animals that preyed or are preyed on are under certain normal circumstances obliterative", that "Not one'mimicry' mark, not one'warning color'... nor any'sexually selected' color, exists anywhere in the world where there is not every reason to belie
Art Gallery of South Australia
The Art Gallery of South Australia, located on the cultural boulevard of North Terrace in Adelaide, is one of three significant visual arts museums in the Australian state of South Australia. It has a collection of over 38,000 works of art, making it, after the National Gallery of Victoria, the second largest state art collection in Australia, it was known as the National Gallery of South Australia until 1967 when the current name was adopted. The Art Gallery is located adjacent to the State Library of South Australia, the South Australian Museum and the University of Adelaide. AGSA is part of Adelaide's North Terrace cultural precinct and had 712,994 visitors in the year ended 30 June 2011; as well as its permanent collection, AGSA displays a number of visiting exhibitions each year and contributes travelling exhibitions to regional galleries. The gallery was established in 1881 and opened in two rooms of the public library by Prince Albert Victor and Prince George George V of Great Britain.
The present building dates from 1900 and was extended in 1936 and 1962. Subsequent renovations and a significant extension of the building which opened in 1996 added contemporary display space without compromising the interior of the original Victorian building. In 2016, the gallery participated in the large "Biennial 2016" art festival; the AGSA is renowned for its collections of Australian art, notably Indigenous Australian and colonial art, British art, including a large collection of Pre-Raphaelite works, by artists Edward Burne-Jones, William Holman Hunt, Dante Gabriel Rossetti and Morris & Co. and Japanese art. It has important works of the Heidelberg school including Tom Roberts' A break away!, Charles Conder's A holiday at Mentone, Arthur Streeton's Road to Templestowe. The mid-twentieth century is represented by works by Russell Drysdale, Arthur Boyd, Margaret Preston, Bessie Davidson, Sidney Nolan; the gallery holds works by twentieth century South Australian artists including James Ashton, Hans Heysen and Jeffrey Smart.
European landscape paintings include works by Jacob Isaakszoon van Ruisdael, Salomon van Ruysdael, Joseph Wright of Derby, Camille Pissarro. British portrait painters are well represented in the collection which includes Robert Peake, Anthony van Dyck, Peter Lely and Thomas Gainsborough. Other works include paintings by Francesco Guardi, Pompeo Batoni and Camille Corot. Sculpture includes works by Henry Moore, Barbara Hepworth and Jacob Epstein. Selected Australian works Selected international works William Holman Hunt and the Two Marys,.