Alexander Hamilton was an American statesman and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States. He was an influential interpreter and promoter of the U. S. Constitution, as well as the founder of the nation's financial system, the Federalist Party, the United States Coast Guard, the New York Post newspaper; as the first Secretary of the Treasury, Hamilton was the main author of the economic policies of George Washington's administration. He took the lead in the Federal government's funding of the states' debts, as well as establishing a national bank, a system of tariffs, friendly trade relations with Britain, his vision included a strong central government led by a vigorous executive branch, a strong commercial economy, a national bank and support for manufacturing, a strong military. Thomas Jefferson was his leading opponent, arguing for smaller government. Hamilton was born out of wedlock in Nevis, he was taken in by a prosperous merchant. When he reached his teens, he was sent to New York to pursue his education.
He took an early role in the militia. In 1777, he became a senior aide to General Washington in running the new Continental Army. After the war, he was elected as a representative from New York to the Congress of the Confederation, he founded the Bank of New York. Hamilton was a leader in seeking to replace the weak national government under the Articles of Confederation, he helped ratify the Constitution by writing 51 of the 85 installments of The Federalist Papers, which are still used as one of the most important references for Constitutional interpretation. Hamilton led the Treasury Department as a trusted member of President Washington's first Cabinet. Hamilton argued that the implied powers of the Constitution provided the legal authority to fund the national debt, to assume states' debts, to create the government-backed Bank of the United States; these programs were funded by a tariff on imports, by a controversial whiskey tax. He mobilized a nationwide network of friends of the government bankers and businessmen, which became the Federalist Party.
A major issue in the emergence of the American two-party system was the Jay Treaty designed by Hamilton in 1794. It established friendly trade relations with Britain, to the chagrin of France and supporters of the French Revolution. Hamilton played a central role in the Federalist party, which dominated national and state politics until it lost the election of 1800 to Jefferson's Democratic-Republican Party. In 1795, he returned to the practice of law in New York, he called for mobilization against the French First Republic in 1798–99 under President John Adams, became Commanding General of the disbanded U. S. Army, which he reconstituted and readied for war; the army did not see combat in the Quasi-War, Hamilton was outraged by Adams' diplomatic success in resolving the crisis with France. His opposition to Adams' re-election helped cause the Federalist party defeat in 1800. Jefferson and Aaron Burr tied for the presidency in the electoral college in 1801, Hamilton helped to defeat Burr, whom he found unprincipled, to elect Jefferson despite philosophical differences.
Hamilton continued his legal and business activities in New York City, was active in ending the legality of the international slave trade. Vice President Burr ran for governor of New York State in 1804, Hamilton campaigned against him as unworthy. Taking offense, Burr challenged him to a duel on July 11, 1804, in which Burr shot and mortally wounded Hamilton, who died the following day. Alexander Hamilton was born and spent part of his childhood in Charlestown, the capital of the island of Nevis in the Leeward Islands. Hamilton and his older brother James Jr. were born out of wedlock to Rachel Faucette, a married woman of half-British and half-French Huguenot descent, James A. Hamilton, a Scotsman, the fourth son of Laird Alexander Hamilton of Grange, Ayrshire. Speculation that Hamilton's mother was of mixed race, though persistent, is not substantiated by verifiable evidence, she was listed as white on tax rolls. It is not certain whether the year of Hamilton's birth was in 1755 or 1757. Most historical evidence, after Hamilton's arrival in North America, supports the idea that he was born in 1757, including Hamilton's own writings.
Hamilton listed his birth year as 1757 when he first arrived in the Thirteen Colonies, celebrated his birthday on January 11. In life, he tended to give his age only in round figures. Historians accepted 1757 as his birth year until about 1930, when additional documentation of his early life in the Caribbean was published in Danish. A probate paper from St. Croix in 1768, drafted after the death of Hamilton's mother, listed him as 13 years old, which has caused some historians since the 1930s to favor a birth year of 1755. Historians have speculated on possible reasons for two different years of birth to have appeared in historical documents. If 1755 is correct, Hamilton might have been trying to appear younger than his college classmates, or wished to avoid standing out as older. If 1757 is correct, the single probate document indicating a birth year of 1755 may have included an error, or Hamilton might once have given his age as 13 after his mother's death in an attempt to appear older and more employable.
Historians have pointed out that the probate document contained other proven inaccuracies, demonstrating it was not re
John James Marshall was an American politician who served as the fourth Chief Justice of the United States from 1801 to 1835. Marshall remains the longest-serving chief justice and fourth-longest serving justice in Supreme Court history, he is regarded as one of the most influential justices to sit on the Supreme Court. Prior to joining the Supreme Court, Marshall served as the United States Secretary of State under President John Adams. Marshall was born in Fauquier County, Virginia in 1755. After the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War, he joined the Continental Army, serving in numerous battles. During the stages of the war, he was admitted to the state bar and won election to the Virginia House of Delegates. Marshall favored the ratification of the United States Constitution, he played a major role in Virginia's ratification of that document. At the request of President Adams, Marshall traveled to France in 1797 to help bring an end to attacks on American shipping. In what became known as the XYZ Affair, the government of France refused to open negotiations unless the United States agreed to pay bribes.
After returning to the United States, Marshall won election to the United States House of Representatives and emerged as a Federalist leader in Congress. He was appointed secretary of state in 1800 after a cabinet shake-up, becoming an important figure in the Adams administration. In 1801, Adams appointed Marshall to the Supreme Court. Marshall emerged as the key figure on the court, due in large part to his personal influence with the other justices. Under his leadership, the court moved away from seriatim opinions, instead issuing a single majority opinion that elucidated a clear rule; the 1803 case of Marbury v. Madison presented the first major case heard by the Marshall Court. In his opinion for the court, Marshall upheld the principle of judicial review, whereby courts could strike down federal and state laws if they conflicted with the Constitution. Marshall's holding avoided direct conflict with the executive branch, led by Democratic-Republican President Thomas Jefferson. By establishing the principle of judicial review while avoiding an inter-branch confrontation, Marshall helped cement the position of the American judiciary as an independent and co-equal branch of government.
After 1803, many of the major decisions issued by the Marshall Court confirmed the supremacy of the federal government and the federal Constitution over the states. In Fletcher v. Peck and Dartmouth College v. Woodward, the court invalidated state actions because they violated the Contract Clause; the court's decision in McCulloch v. Maryland upheld the constitutionality of the Second Bank of the United States and established the principle that the states could not tax federal institutions; the cases of Martin v. Hunter's Lessee and Cohens v. Virginia established that the Supreme Court could hear appeals from state courts in both civil and criminal matters. Marshall's opinion in Gibbons v. Ogden established that the Commerce Clause bars states from restricting navigation. In the case of Worcester v. Georgia, Marshall held that the federal government had the sole power to deal with Native Americans, he ordered the release of prisoners held by the state of Georgia. President Andrew Jackson refused to enforce the order, but his administration avoided a confrontation with the Marshall Court by arranging for the pardon of the prisoners.
Marshall died in 1835, Jackson appointed Roger Taney as his successor. John Marshall was born on September 24, 1755 in a log cabin in Germantown, a rural community on the Virginia frontier, close to present-day near Midland, Fauquier County. In the mid-1760s, the Marshalls moved west to the present-day site of Virginia, his parents were Thomas Marshall and Mary Randolph Keith, the granddaughter of politician Thomas Randolph of Tuckahoe and a first cousin of U. S. President Thomas Jefferson. Despite her ancestry, Mary was shunned by the Randolph family because her mother, Mary Isham Randolph, had eloped with a man believed beneath her station in life. After his death, Mary Isham Randolph married a Scottish minister. Thomas Marshall was employed in Fauquier County as a surveyor and land agent by Lord Fairfax, which provided him with a substantial income. Nonetheless, John Marshall grew up in a two-room log cabin, which he shared with his parents and several siblings. One of his younger brothers, James Markham Marshall, would serve as a federal judge.
Marshall was a first cousin of U. S. Senator Humphrey Marshall. From a young age, Marshall was noted for his good humor and black eyes, which were "strong and penetrating, beaming with intelligence and good nature". With the exception of one year of formal schooling, during which time he befriended future president James Monroe, Marshall did not receive a formal education. Encouraged by his parents, the young Marshall read reading works such as William Blackstone's Commentaries on the Laws of England and Alexander Pope's An Essay on Man, he was tutored by the Reverend James Thomson, a ordained deacon from Glasgow, who resided with the Marshall family in return for his room and board. Marshall was influenced by his father, of whom he wrote, "to his care I am indebted for anything valuable which I may have acquired in my youth, he was my only intelligent companion. Thomas Marshall prospered in his work as a surveyor, in the 1770s he purchased an estate known as Oak Hill. After the 1775 Battles of Lexington and Concord and John Marshall volunteered for service in the 3rd Virginia Regiment.
In 1776, Marshall became a lieutenant in the Eleventh Vi
Charles Dickinson West
Charles Dickinson West was an Irish mechanical engineer and naval architect, who worked for many years at the Imperial College of Engineering, in Meiji era Japan. West was born in Dublin, Ireland as the eldest son of the Dean of St Patrick's Cathedral and graduated with a degree in civil engineering from Trinity College Dublin in 1869, he worked at Bergenhead Steel Company in Great Britain for five years, followed by positions in other forms where he gained experience in shipbuilding, steel mills and steam power. In 1882, West was hired by the Meiji government of the Empire of Japan as a foreign advisor, to teach steam engine mechanics, mechanical drawing and mechanical engineering, he replaced Henry Dyer at the Kobu Daigakko, the forerunner of the Imperial College of Engineering of Tokyo Imperial University. He held the position of professor of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, until his death 25 years later. While in Japan, he assisted the Naval Architectural Department of the Imperial Japanese Navy.
He served as an advisor to several Japanese shipyards, including Mitsubishi and Osaka Iron Works. West remained a bachelor all his life, his hobbies included boating and photography, his large collection of photographs is preserved at the Tokyo University library. Many of his diaries and manuscripts are preserved, including lecture notes and examination problems given to his students. During his entire stay in Japan, West returned to Europe only once, he was awarded the Order of the Rising Sun by Emperor Meiji in 1905 for his contribution to higher education in engineering in Japan. During a winter stay at Atami hot springs resort in 1907, West caught pneumonia and died shortly after in the University of Tokyo Hospital on 10 January 1908, he is buried in Aoyama Cemetery in Tokyo. A monument with his bronze bust was unveiled on the main campus of Tokyo University on 19 March 1910. Ireland and Japan Japan Times, 23 September 1999 Department of Mechanical Engineering at Trinity College
Nashville City Cemetery
Nashville City Cemetery is the oldest public cemetery in Nashville, Tennessee. Many of Nashville's prominent historical figures are buried there, it includes the tombs of 22,000 people. Nashville City Cemetery was opened on January 1, 1822. By 1850, over 11,000 people were buried there. In 1958, Nashville Mayor Ben West led an effort to preserve the cemetery. In 1972, it was listed in the National Register of Historic Places due to its historical and architectural significance. Among those interred in the cemetery are two of Nashville's founders, four Confederate generals, one Tennessee Governor, twenty-two mayors of Nashville. Buried there are numerous soldiers, former slaves, early civic leaders, other interesting citizens of Nashville. By 2017, the cemetery included the tombs of 22,000 people, 6,000 of which were African Americans. On March 4, 2017, Elias Polk and Matilda Polk, two slaves who belonged to President James K. Polk, had their tombstones replaced as part of an effort to recognize more African-Americans buried at the cemetery.
Nashville City Cemetery is located near downtown Nashville at 1001 4th Avenue South. Samuel R. Anderson – Confederate brigadier general in the Civil War. Gen. Felix Kirk Zollicoffer – Confederate general, U. S. Congressman, Tennessee militiaman. Washington Barrow – U. S. Charges d'Affaires to Portugal. S. Congressman from 1847-49. William Carroll – Governor of Tennessee from 1821 to 1827 and again from 1829 to 1835. Thomas Claiborne – U. S. Congressional Representative from 1817 to 1819. Charles Dickinson - killed by Andrew Jackson in 1806 duel. William Driver – coined the name Old Glory for the U. S. flag in 1831. Francis Fogg – developed Nashville's public school system in 1852. Harlan Howard, a prolific American songwriter, principally in country music. Mabel Imes and Ella Sheppard – two of the original Fisk Jubilee Singers. Lt. Lipscomb Norvell – Revolutionary War Soldier and father of US Senator John Norvell. John Patton Erwin, Mayor of Nashville from 1821 to 1822, from 1834 to 1835. Alexander Porter, U.
S. Senator who represented Louisiana. Felix Robertson, Mayor of Nashville from 1818 to 1819, from 1827–1829. Anne Robertson Johnson Cockrill, pioneer. James Robertson and his wife, Charlotte Robertson – two of the founders of Nashville Wilkins F. Tannehill, Mayor of Nashville from 1825 to 1827. Charles Clay Trabue, member of the Missouri House of Representatives from 1824 to 1828 and Mayor of Nashville from 1839 to 1841. Bucy, Carole S. and Kaplan, Carol F. The Nashville City Cemetery: History Carved in Stone. Nashville, TN: Nashville City Cemetery Association, 2000; the Nashville City Cemetery Association
President of the United States
The president of the United States is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America. The president directs the executive branch of the federal government and is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces. In contemporary times, the president is looked upon as one of the world's most powerful political figures as the leader of the only remaining global superpower; the role includes responsibility for the world's most expensive military, which has the second largest nuclear arsenal. The president leads the nation with the largest economy by nominal GDP; the president possesses international hard and soft power. Article II of the Constitution establishes the executive branch of the federal government, it vests the executive power of the United States in the president. The power includes the execution and enforcement of federal law, alongside the responsibility of appointing federal executive, diplomatic and judicial officers, concluding treaties with foreign powers with the advice and consent of the Senate.
The president is further empowered to grant federal pardons and reprieves, to convene and adjourn either or both houses of Congress under extraordinary circumstances. The president directs the foreign and domestic policies of the United States, takes an active role in promoting his policy priorities to members of Congress. In addition, as part of the system of checks and balances, Article I, Section 7 of the Constitution gives the president the power to sign or veto federal legislation; the power of the presidency has grown since its formation, as has the power of the federal government as a whole. Through the Electoral College, registered voters indirectly elect the president and vice president to a four-year term; this is the only federal election in the United States, not decided by popular vote. Nine vice presidents became president by virtue of a president's intra-term resignation. Article II, Section 1, Clause 5 sets three qualifications for holding the presidency: natural-born U. S. citizenship.
The Twenty-second Amendment precludes any person from being elected president to a third term. In all, 44 individuals have served 45 presidencies spanning 57 full four-year terms. Grover Cleveland served two non-consecutive terms, so he is counted twice, as both the 22nd and 24th president. Donald Trump of New York is the current president of the United States, he assumed office on January 20, 2017. In July 1776, during the American Revolutionary War, the Thirteen Colonies, acting jointly through the Second Continental Congress, declared themselves to be 13 independent sovereign states, no longer under British rule. Recognizing the necessity of coordinating their efforts against the British, the Continental Congress began the process of drafting a constitution that would bind the states together. There were long debates on a number of issues, including representation and voting, the exact powers to be given the central government. Congress finished work on the Articles of Confederation to establish a perpetual union between the states in November 1777 and sent it to the states for ratification.
Under the Articles, which took effect on March 1, 1781, the Congress of the Confederation was a central political authority without any legislative power. It could make its own resolutions and regulations, but not any laws, could not impose any taxes or enforce local commercial regulations upon its citizens; this institutional design reflected how Americans believed the deposed British system of Crown and Parliament ought to have functioned with respect to the royal dominion: a superintending body for matters that concerned the entire empire. The states were out from under any monarchy and assigned some royal prerogatives to Congress; the members of Congress elected a President of the United States in Congress Assembled to preside over its deliberation as a neutral discussion moderator. Unrelated to and quite dissimilar from the office of President of the United States, it was a ceremonial position without much influence. In 1783, the Treaty of Paris secured independence for each of the former colonies.
With peace at hand, the states each turned toward their own internal affairs. By 1786, Americans found their continental borders besieged and weak and their respective economies in crises as neighboring states agitated trade rivalries with one another, they witnessed their hard currency pouring into foreign markets to pay for imports, their Mediterranean commerce preyed upon by North African pirates, their foreign-financed Revolutionary War debts unpaid and accruing interest. Civil and political unrest loomed. Following the successful resolution of commercial and fishing disputes between Virginia and Maryland at the Mount Vernon Conference in 1785, Virginia called for a trade conference between all the states, set for September 1786 in Annapolis, with an aim toward resolving further-reaching interstate commercial antagonisms; when the convention failed for lack of attendance due to suspicions among most of the other states, Alexander Hamilton led the Annapolis delegates in a call for a convention to offer revisions to the Articles, to be held the next spring in Philadelphia.
Prospects for the next convention appeared bleak until James Madison and Edmund Randolph succeeded in securing George Washington's attendance to Philadelphia as a delegate for Virginia. When the Constitutional Convention convened in May 1787, the 12 state delegations in attendance (Rh
Adairville is a home rule-class city in Logan County, Kentucky, in the United States. Established on 31 January 1833, it was named for Governor John Adair and incorporated by the state assembly on 7 February 1871; the population was 920 at the 2000 census. Future president Andrew Jackson killed Charles Dickinson as the result of a duel here in 1806. Adairville was settled in the late 18th century, was known as Dromgooles' Station; when a town was platted in 1818, its name was changed to "Adairsville" in honor the prominent Kentucky politician. The city was incorporated in 1833; the "s" had been dropped from the name by 1881. On February 24, 2018, a possible tornado killed 79, on Dot Road in Adairville. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 1.3 square miles, all land. The city is concentrated around the intersection of U. S. Route 431 and Kentucky Route 591, a few miles north of the Kentucky-Tennessee state line in southwestern Logan County; the South Fork of the Red River passes along the city's southern border, the Red River proper passes a few miles to the north.
As of the census of 2000, there were 920 people, 398 households, 267 families residing in the city. The population density was 704.8 people per square mile. There were 431 housing units at an average density of 330.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 79.13% White, 18.70% African American, 0.43% Native American, 0.87% from other races, 0.87% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.61% of the population. There were 398 households out of which 28.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.2% were married couples living together, 16.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.9% were non-families. 31.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.31 and the average family size was 2.79. In the city, the population was spread out with 23.5% under the age of 18, 7.4% from 18 to 24, 26.4% from 25 to 44, 26.1% from 45 to 64, 16.6% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 85.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 79.6 males. The median income for a household in the city was $27,266, the median income for a family was $40,139. Males had a median income of $26,618 versus $20,568 for females; the per capita income for the city was $15,490. About 9.6% of families and 13.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.9% of those under age 18 and 21.1% of those age 65 or over. Media related to Adairville, Kentucky at Wikimedia Commons Adairville travel guide from Wikivoyage
Rachel Jackson was the wife of Andrew Jackson, the 7th President of the United States. She lived with him at their home at The Hermitage, where she died just days after his election and before his inauguration in 1829—therefore she never served as First Lady, a role assumed by her niece, Emily Donelson. Rachel Jackson was married at first to Lewis Robards in Nashville. In about 1791, she eloped with Andrew Jackson, believing that Robards had secured the couple a divorce, it was revealed that he had not, meaning that her marriage to Jackson was technically bigamous. They were forced to remarry in 1794, she had a close relationship with her husband, was anxious while he was away tending to military or political affairs. A Presbyterian, Rachel was noted for her deep religious piety. During the personal prelude to the 1828 election, she was the subject of negative attacks from the supporters of Andrew Jackson's opponent, John Quincy Adams. Jackson believed that these attacks had hastened her death, thus blamed his political enemies.
Rachel Donelson was born near the Banister River, about ten miles from Chatham, Virginia, in Pittsylvania County on June 15, 1767. Her father was Colonel John Donelson, co-founder of Nashville and her mother was Rachel Stockley Donelson, her great-grandfather, Patrick Donelson, was born in Scotland about 1670. She had three sisters: Alexander Donelson Mary Donelson Caffery. Wife of Captain John Caffery. Parents of Jane Caffrey wife of painter Ralph Eleaser Whiteside Earl and of Donelson Caffrey, father of Senator Donelson Caffery. Catherine Donelson Hutchings Stockley Donelson Jane Donelson Hays John Donelson, father of Emily Donelson 1st wife of Andrew Jackson Donelson. With her family, she moved to Tennessee at the age of 12, her father led about 600 people from Fort Patrick Henry to Fort Nashborough, down the Cumberland River. The Donelson family were among the first white settlers in Tennessee. Rachel attracted much attention from suitors because she was beautiful as a young woman, described by a contemporary as having "lustrous black eyes, dark glossy hair, full red lips, brunette complexion, though of brilliant coloring, a sweet oval face rippling with smiles and dimples."
In life, her country manners and full figure were in contrast with Jackson's tall, spindly form and developed genteel manners. However, her love for her husband was unmistakable: she languished when he was away for politics, fretted when he was away at war, doted on him when he was at home. Unlike Jackson, Rachel never liked being in the spotlight of events, she would warn her husband to not let his political accomplishments rule him. She was a Presbyterian, she was an avid reader of the Bible and religious works as well as poetry. Her first marriage to Captain Lewis Robards of Harrodsburg, Kentucky, a landowner and speculator, was not happy, the two separated in 1790. According to Marcia Mullins of The Hermitage in Nashville, Tennessee there were rumors that Lewis Robards was cruel and jealous. Believing that her husband would file a petition for divorce, she returned to the Donelson family home; when Andrew Jackson migrated to Nashville, Tennessee in 1788, he boarded with Rachel Stockley Donelson, the mother of Rachel Donelson Robards.
The two became close, shortly after, they married in Natchez, Mississippi. Rachel believed that her husband had obtained a divorce, but as it had never been completed, her marriage to Jackson was technically bigamous and therefore invalid. Rachel's marital status was complicated by the distances involved and the changing governmental authorities. During the process of Rachel and Robard's divorce, Kentucky became a state instead of a territory of Virginia, North Carolina turned over management of the territory including Tennessee to the Federal Government; these complicating factors were understood by locals and the unusual circumstances of the Jackson marriage were not discussed in Nashville society. In 1793, Andrew and Rachel Jackson learned that although Lewis Robards had filed for divorce, the divorce had never been granted; this made Rachel an adulterer. On the grounds of Rachel's abandonment and adultery, Lewis Robards was granted a divorce in 1794. At about the same time, the legitimacy of the Jackson marriage was questioned because they were married in then-Spanish-controlled Natchez, Mississippi.
The Jacksons were Protestants, only Catholic marriages were recognized as legal unions in that territory. After the divorce was legalized in 1794, Andrew and Rachel wed again in a quiet ceremony at the Donelson home. Although the Jacksons never had biological children, they adopted her nephew in 1809 and named him Andrew Jackson, Jr; when his father became President, Andrew Jr. assumed management of the Hermitage farm. He married Sarah Yorke of Philadelphia on November 24, 1831. In 1813, the Jacksons adopted a Creek orphan boy, found on the battlefield of Tallushatchee with his dead mother, they named him Lyncoya. Lyncoy