Buron Rogers Fitts was the 29th lieutenant governor of California, from 1927 to 1928, Los Angeles County district attorney thereafter until 1940. Born in Belcherville, Fitts received his law degree in 1916 from the University of Southern California, while a student there worked as a clerk for the prominent attorney Earl Rogers. Fitts was a injured veteran of World War I whose base of political support lay in the American Legion organization of war veterans, he had been limped for the rest of his life. He was appointed deputy district attorney for Los Angeles County in 1920 during the term of Thomas Lee Woolwine and chief deputy in 1924 under Asa Keyes, he was elected lieutenant governor in 1926 and served in the administration of Governor C. C. Young. Fitts term as lieutenant governor of California: January 4, 1927 to November 30, 1928. Governor Young appointed H. L. Carnahan, lieutenant governor on December 4, 1928, vice Buron Fitts, resigned. In 1928, Keyes was indicted for bribery, Fitts resigned effective November 30 of that year to become a special prosecutor in that case.
He was elected district attorney as well. Fitts was elected for a second term in 1932, he investigated the death of Hollywood producer-director-screenwriter Paul Bern, the husband of actress Jean Harlow. Samuel Marx, in his book Deadly Illusions accuses Fitts of having been bribed by MGM studio officials to accept a fabricated version of Bern's suicide to avoid scandal in Hollywood. Fitts was indicted for bribery, perjury in 1934 for taking a bribe to drop a statutory rape charge against a millionaire real-estate promoter, he was acquitted two years later. He was accused of using his position to block action against the rapist of Patricia Douglas at the MGM Sales Convention in 1937, a case, the subject of David Stenn's 2007 documentary film Girl 27. Fitts was elected to a third term as district attorney in 1936 and remained until 1940, when he was defeated by a reform candidate, John F. Dockweiler. Fitts, J. D. Fredricks, Steve Cooley are only Los Angeles County District Attorneys to serve three complete terms.
On March 7, 1937, Fitts was wounded by a volley of shots fired through the windshield of his car. Nobody was arrested in that case, he joined the Army Air Corps in 1942 with the rank of major. He was chief, Pacific Overseas Air Technical Services. Fitts' last residence was in Three Rivers, in Tulare County, where he committed suicide by a pistol shot to the head on March 29, 1973, one week after his 78th birthday. For the People — Inside the Los Angeles County District Attorney's Office 1850-2000 by Michael Parrish. ISBN 1-883318-15-7 He Usually Lived With a Female: The Life of a California Newspaperman by George Garrigues. Quail Creek Press. ISBN 0-9634830-1-3 Deadly Illusions by Samuel Marx and Joyce Vanderveen, re-published as Murder Hollywood Style - Who Killed Jean Harlow's Husband? For the People excerpt quoted in Los Angeles District Attorney Web site Social Security Death Index University of California biography
William Workman, of Mount Prospect House, was an Irish-born Canadian entrepreneur and philanthropist. He was a partner in Canada's largest wholesale hardware house of Frothingham & Workman, President of Montreal's City Bank, he was Mayor of Montreal and invested in railways, real estate and charity. His home was in Montreal's Golden Square Mile and he is buried at Mount Royal Cemetery. In 1807, William Workman was born at his family's ` handsome cottage' in Co.. Antrim; the Workmans were said to have once been wealthy. William was the son of Joseph Workman, of Ballymacash, his wife Catherine Gowdy, daughter of Alexander Gowdy, land steward to Squire Johnson of Ballymacash. In 1787, his father emigrated with Benjamin, to North America. Benjamin secured the position of Professor of Mathematics at the University of Pennsylvania and Joseph worked under him as a tutor of mathematics. Joseph left Philadelphia in 1790 and sailed to London, with the aim of patenting an improvement to the mariner's compass, invented by Benjamin, but only to find that the mechanic who had made some the parts had fraudulently patented it as his own.
Returning to Ballymacash, Squire Johnson appointed him to be the new schoolmaster, where he met William's mother, Catherine Gowdy. Joseph replaced his father-in-law as land steward and Johnson appointed him clerk of the peace. William grew up at Ballymacash and mastered the skills for employment with the Ordnance Survey of Ireland from 1827 to 1829, when his parents took him to Montreal to join his brothers, the eldest of whom had emigrated there in 1819. William Workman's first employment was working on the newspapers, Canadian Courant and Montreal Advertiser, owned by his brother, Benjamin. In 1830, he joined Thomas, in the wholesale hardware house of John Frothingham. By 1836, the Workmans had become full partners, indicating that they had brought some capital into the firm; as well as handling imported items and Workman manufactured some hardware in their Montreal factories which employed hundreds of men. Workman would remain in partnership with Frothingham until his retirement in 1859, under them it would become Canada's largest tool and hardware wholesale business.
He invested in Canada's first railway, the Champlain and St. Lawrence, completed in 1836 and serving as a director, he was one of the largest shareholders in the St Lawrence and Atlantic Railroad when the line was taken over by the Grand Trunk Railway in 1854. By the 1840s, Workman was a wealthy man. In 1842, he built an impressive mansion in Montreal's Golden Square Mile, which he named'Mount Prospect', he had considerable property elsewhere in Montreal on the western outskirts. From 1849 to 1874, he served as President of Montreal's City Bank. In 1854, he ventured into shipping with several prominent Montreal businessmen, including the Torrances, establishing the Canadian Ocean Steam Navigation Company. A year Workman purchased two large steamboats for the St Lawrence trade; when he retired from Frothingham & Workman in 1859, he took an active interest in public affairs. Since the 1840s, as a manufacturer and leader of the Association for the Promotion of Canadian Industry, Workman had been in favour of high protective tariffs.
As a banker, he disagreed with the government's proposed measures to widen its fiscal powers during the late 1860s, in 1866 he attacked Sir Alexander Tilloch Galt's recommendations for tariff reductions, fearing it would bring "beggary or emigration" for many Canadians. He never attempted to enter politics, but following Confederation he took an active interest in federal affairs. Workman was best known in Montreal for his local philanthropy, he was nominated for mayor 1868. Beaudry made serious allegations of corruption against Workman in an attempt to win, which led to Workman being disqualified. However, found to be innocent of these false charges, he was allowed back in the race and defeated Beaudry in the elections, he proved so popular that he was re-elected by acclamation in 1869 and again in 1870. Workman had been president of the St. Patrick's Society of Montreal before it became an Roman Catholic organization in 1856. From he focused on the Irish Protestant Benevolent Society, giving much of his time and money to the cause.
He helped to establish the Montreal Protestant House of Industry and Refuge in 1864, serving as its president from 1874 to 1877. In his will, he left the institution a legacy of $20,000. To encourage saving among the city's workingmen, Workman helped to found the Montreal City and District Savings Bank in 1846, serving as the bank's first president, as a director from 1861 to 1872. In 1831, at Montreal, Workman married Eliza Bethell, they were the parents of eight children, but only two daughters lived to adulthood, Louise Frothingham Workman, was married at Mount Prospect House in 1854 to Joel Clapp Baker, of Montreal. He was the son of The Hon. William Baker, of Dunham and his wife Harriet Clapp, they died without children. Eliza Workman, was the first wife from 1866 of Moat Park, Dunmurry, Co.. Antrim, afterwards Montreal, they were the parents of at least one son, Major William Moat, O. B. E. of Johnson Hall, who married Sybil Frances Spencer, great-granddaughter of Francis Spencer, 1st Baron Churchill.
Workman was affected by the loss of so many of his children. He had been an adherent of the Unitarian Church, but according to one source he found solace in Roman Catholicism
James "Sunny Jim" Rolph Jr. was an American politician and a member of the Republican Party. He was elected to a single term as the 27th governor of California from January 6, 1931 until his death on June 2, 1934 at the height of the Great Depression. Rolph had been the 30th mayor of San Francisco from January 8, 1912 until his resignation to become governor. Rolph remains the longest-serving mayor in San Francisco history. Rolph was born in San Francisco, he had two sisters. After attending school in the Mission District, he went to work as an office boy in a commission house, he married Annie Marshall Reid and had at least one son: James Rolph, III. Rolph entered the shipping business by forming a partnership with George Hind, he would over the next decade serve as president of two banks. Although he was asked to run for mayor in 1909, he chose to wait until 1911 to run for mayor—a position that he would hold for nineteen years; as mayor, he was known as "Sunny Jim" and his theme song was "There Are Smiles That Make You Happy".
In 1915 he appeared as himself in an early documentary film titled Mabel and Fatty Viewing the World's Fair at San Francisco, directed by and starred Fatty Arbuckle. In 1924, Rolph appeared as himself in a Slim Summerville comedy short film, Frisco. Rolph knew of the power in San Francisco of the Roman Catholic Church. Italians, Irish and Germans made up the majority of the population of the City, he established a deep friendship with Archbishop Edward Joseph Hanna. In turn, Hanna would support Rolph in his 1930 election as governor of California. In addition to his mayoral duties and overseeing his shipping interests, he directed the Ship Owners and Merchants Tugboat Company and the San Francisco Chamber of Commerce, he was vice-president of the Panama-Pacific International Exposition and president of the Merchants' Exchange. He resigned in 1931 to assume the office of governor of California. Rolph received considerable criticism for publicly praising the citizens of San Jose following the November 1933 lynching of the confessed kidnapper-murderers of Brooke Hart, a local department store heir, while promising to pardon anyone involved, thereby earning the nickname, "Governor Lynch."
Four days before the lynching he had announced he would not call on the National Guard to prevent the lynching, being discussed locally. After violence erupted during the San Joaquin cotton strike in October 1933, Governor Rolph appointed a fact-finding committee to investigate the deaths of several strikers; when the committee met in Visalia on October 19, 1933, Caroline Decker, a labor activist who had taken part in other California agricultural actions, took testimony from the strikers who testified about the growers' assaults on striking workers. After suffering several heart attacks, he died in Santa Clara County on June 2, 1934, aged 64, three years into his term. Rolph was the second governor to die in office, the first being Washington Bartlett in 1887, like Rolph, had been elected while mayor of San Francisco but died during his only gubernatorial term, he is buried at Greenlawn Memorial Park in California. He was succeeded by Lieutenant Governor Frank Merriam in the Governor's Office.
One of the unofficial names of the San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge is the James "Sunny Jim" Rolph Bridge. Biography from the State of California James Rolph, Jr. at The Political Graveyard Biography from the Virtual Museum of the City of San Francisco James Rolph on IMDb
Larceny is a crime involving the unlawful taking of the personal property of another person or business. It was an offence under the common law of England and became an offence in jurisdictions which incorporated the common law of England into their own law, where in many cases it remains in force. Larceny has been abolished in England and Wales, Northern Ireland, the Republic of Ireland due to breaking up the generalised crime of larceny into the specific crimes of burglary, fraud and related crimes. However, larceny remains an offence in parts of the United States, in New South Wales, involving the taking and carrying away of personal property; the word "larceny" is a late Middle English word, from the Anglo-Norman word larcin, "theft". Its probable Latin root is latrocinium, a derivative of latro, "robber". In the state of New South Wales, the common law offence of larceny is punishable with up to 5 years' imprisonment. Whilst section 117 of the New South Wales Crimes Act specifies the punishment for larceny, it is silent on the elements of the offence, leaving them to be articulated by the common law.
The leading authority on larceny in NSW is the High Court of Australia case of Ilich v R. This case stipulates the mens rea and actus reus elements required to be proven by the prosecution for a successful conviction; the common law offence of larceny was abolished on 1 August 2002. However, proceedings for larceny committed before its abolition are not affected by this; the common law offence of larceny was codified by the Larceny Act 1916. It was abolished on 1 January 1969, for all purposes not relating to offences committed before that date, it has been replaced by the broader offence of theft under section 1 of the Theft Act 1968. This offence did incorporate some of the substance of larceny; the common law offence of larceny was abolished on 1 August 1969, for all purposes not relating to offences committed before that date. It has been replaced by the broader offence of theft under section 1 of the Theft Act 1969. Larceny laws in the United States have their roots in common law, pursuant to which larceny involves the trespassory taking and carrying away of the tangible personal property of another with the intent to permanently deprive the owner of its possession.
Larceny is now codified as a statutory crime in all U. S. jurisdictions. Under many states' larceny statutes, including California, larceny can include the taking of "money, labor, or real or personal property." Larceny is a crime against possession. Furthermore, it has two elements which must be met: the actual taking of the property if momentarily, the culpable intent to deprive another of their property. Larceny involves the trespassory taking of property from possession of another, with the intent to permanently deprive the owner of that property. To understand larceny, one must understand the distinction between possession. A person has possession of property when he has actual physical control over the property or he has the right to exercise considerable control over the disposition or use of the property. A person has custody if he has actual physical control of the property, but the person who has constructive possession has restricted the custodian's right to use the property. Examples of custody would be a store customer examining the goods of a merchant, or an employee, given the property of his employer to be used in his employment.
This is to be contrasted to, for example, a person who has obtained actual possession of the property by fraud. Ancient Roman law was more lax about "simple possession"; the taking or caption element requires that the offender take actual physical control of the property, if but for a moment. Under the common law, it was not sufficient if the offender deprived the victim of possession, thus knocking an article from a person's hand was not larceny, as long as the defendant did not thereafter take it. The control must be complete. In a famous case, the defendant removed an overcoat from a department store mannequin and began to walk away with it; the overcoat was secured to the mannequin by a chain, a fact the defendant first discovered when the chain drew taut. These actions were held not to be larceny because the defendant never had complete control over the disposition and use of the coat; the taking may be only momentary. In another famous case, the defendant snatched an earring from the victim which became entangled in the victim's hair.
The court held that the defendant's control over the property, although momentary, was sufficient to constitute a taking. The taking may be either indirect; the equivalent term "deprive" is sometimes used: To "deprive" another of property means to withhold it or cause it to be withheld from him permanently or for so extended a period or under such circumstances that the major portion of its economic value or benefit is lost to him, or to dispose of the property in such manner or under such circumstances as to render it unlikely that an owner will recover such property. Traditionally, a thief must not only gain dominion over the property, but must move it from its original position; the slightest movemen
Charles Navarro Guarino was a Los Angeles, City Council member between 1951 and 1961 and city controller from 1961 to 1977. Navarro was born in New York City to Italian immigrant parents, he was a self-taught guitarist and banjo player who moved to Los Angeles when he was 19 to be a professional musician. He worked for Universal Studios, he owned an apartment building on San Marino Street in Los Angeles. Navarro was married to Rose Northy for 70 years married Seda Stevens. Navarro retired in 1977 and spent the last 28 years of his life overseeing his investments and enjoying "dining at his favorite Westside steakhouses.... At 100-plus he was walking without a cane, driving his Cadillac and going to church every Sunday." He died in his sleep at the age of 101 on September 7, 2005, was survived by his wife and a stepson, Armen Haig Stevens. See Los Angeles municipal election returns, 1951 and after. 1951 At the beginning of 1951, four candidates had begun their campaigns for election to Los Angeles's 10th District seat on the City Council — the incumbent, G. Vernon Bennett, as well as Assemblyman Vernon Kilpatrick, 1332 Hope Street.
Whitworth, 2106 Wilmot Street. Downs was a former City Council member who had lost his seat and went to prison in 1925 on a corruption charge; the district was "in the south-central section of the city," bounded by Wilshire and Jefferson boulevards and La Brea Avenue and Main Street. The Los Angeles Times, which favored Navarro's election, wrote of him: In a district, a favorite haunt for left-wingers for some considerable time, Navarro comes right out and says he's downright against all kinds of bureaucracy, Socialism or any other kind of ism.... Although the Council job is nonpartisan, he's up against two old-line, left-wing Democrats, G. Vernon Bennett, the incumbent, Assemblyman Vernon Kilpatrick, who's willing to ditch his State post for a city job if he can get it. Bennett, 16 years in the Council, is nearing 70 and during recent months was in trouble with the police, he appears to be on the way out. The April primary was seen as a dirty one: "Three of the candidates were accused of having police records, one of being an ex-convict.
Another was linked with activities of the Communist Party." Navarro came in second, with 5,077 votes to 5,301 for Kilpatrick, 3,835 for Bennett, 2,250 for Hubbard and 1,423 for Downs. Bennett promptly sued for Navarro's disqualification on the grounds that he had not listed his birth name on the ballot. Navarro answered that he had dropped his last name, Guarino, "because the first two were better suited to his work as a professional musician." A Superior Court judge dismissed Bennett's claim. Navarro won the May election, 9,001 votes to Kilpatrick's 7,321.1953 In the 1953 election, Navarro had four opponents: "John A. Somerville, Negro dentist and a member of the Municipal Police Commission. Navarro won with 14,892 votes over Somerville, 8,316; the final returns were 11,336 for Navarro, the victor, 6,236 for African-American businessman George L. Thomas. Whitworth. Navarro announced in December 1960 his determination to unseat 70-year-old Dan O. Hoye, city controller for 24 years and who said that his ambition was to equal the 28-year record of his predecessor in office, John Myers.
Navarro, chairman of the City Council's finance committee, was endorsed by the president of the Merchants and Manufacturers Association and the Los Angeles Times. Navarro won the election, 187,122 votes against 133,569 for Hoye, 67,318 for certified public accountant Harry C. Fischer and 25.683 for management consultant Cecil R. Kay; the city controller was unopposed in the next two elections: He received 470,324 votes in 1965 and 379,971 in 1969. He won the 1973 election, with 300,511 votes against 56,924 for Democratic businessman David Gold. Other 1973 candidates were 34,428 votes. Navarro testified twice before City Council committees in opposition to proposals to make the city controller an appointive office rather than elective — in 1969 and in 1977, he testified in the 1975 trial of a woman, charged with taking part in a "multimillion dollar plan to defraud the Los Angeles municipal treasury by cashing stolen city checks." He said. The same year he persuaded the City Council to purchase two check-writing machines that "would make forging a controller's signature impossible."Navarro left office in 1977.
"What I saw of Socialism and Communism in the rest of the world made me want to pitch in and stop it here." "I have never been arrested and am not a member of, or supported by, the Communist Party." "The job is paying the bills, making sure everybody gets paid, making sure the city is in sound financial shape. Bookkeeping and more bookkeeping." Access to some Los Angeles Times links may require the use of a library card
Illustrated Daily News
The Los Angeles Daily News referred to as the Daily News, was a newspaper published from 1923 to 1954. It was operated through most of its existence by Manchester Boddy; the publication has no connection with the current newspaper of the same name. The Daily News was founded in 1923 by the young Cornelius Vanderbilt IV as the first of several newspapers he wanted to manage. After going bankrupt, it was sold to Boddy, a businessman with no newspaper experience. Boddy was able to make the newspaper succeed, it remained profitable through the 1930s and 1940s, after it took a mainstream Democratic perspective; the newspaper began a steep decline in early 1950s. In 1950, Boddy ran in both the Republican primaries for the United States Senate. Boddy finished a distant second in both primaries, lost interest in the newspaper, he sold his interest in the paper in 1952, publication ceased in December 1954, when the business was sold to the Chandler family, who merged it with their publication, the Los Angeles Mirror.
There was an earlier Los Angeles Daily News, under different ownership, beginning in 1869. The Los Angeles Illustrated Daily News was founded in 1923 by Cornelius Vanderbilt IV, who wished to start his own newspaper chain; the young Vanderbilt had served as a news reporter in New York for four years, but had no experience running a paper. Believing the best newspaper was a democratic one, he offered voting rights to those who would pay $5 for a year's subscription to his newspaper. Repudiating the legendary adage of William Henry Vanderbilt, "The public be damned," Vanderbilt announced that the paper's philosophy would be "The public be served." Vanderbilt ignored attempts by the newspaper moguls who dominated Los Angeles journalism, William Randolph Hearst and Harry Chandler, to warn him off. Denied advertising in other newspapers, Vanderbilt attempted to gain publicity for his paper by having trucks drive through the streets bearing the paper's banner, hiring boys to chalk the paper's name on sidewalks, much to the annoyance of landowners who had to clean it up.
The paper began publication on September 3, 1923. The tabloid-format newspaper was to be devoted to the ideal of clean journalism, was prudish to an extreme: women's skirts were retouched in photos so that they would appear to cover the wearer's knees, while photos of wrestlers were altered so that they would appear to be wearing gym shirts. Vanderbilt's rivals did not take well to the new competition—a graphic sex story was planted by saboteurs in the first edition, forcing Vanderbilt to stop the presses and redo page 2 before it was published. Up to a hundred Illustrated Daily News newsboys were treated at local hospitals each week after being assaulted. Unusually for the time, the newspaper covered its staff's transportation. Reporters were expected to carry rolls of nickels, so they could board streetcars and reach their assignments. However, if they had sufficient money with them, a taxicab was permitted, Vanderbilt—"Neil" to the staff—let the staff use his two Packards to reach stories.
Too however, the least experienced newsman on staff, Vanderbilt himself, would cover major stories. According to Rob Wagner in his history of Los Angeles newspapers of the time, Vanderbilt's "news stories reeked of naiveté and his editorials were sophomoric."By 1924, the newspaper had a good circulation but was losing money because of low advertising revenues. Vanderbilt sought help from his parents, they agreed to help if most authority went to their hand-picked manager, Harvey Johnson, his father poured over a million dollars into the newspaper in 1924–1925, but Johnson's involvement led to a rightward shift in the newspaper, which alienated many readers. In April 1926, Johnson concluded that the Illustrated Daily News and the two other newspapers that Vanderbilt had founded in other cities could survive if $300,000 more were invested in them. A petition for receivership was filed on May 3, 1926. A consortium of the publishers of the rivals of the Illustrated Daily News offered $150,000 to buy the paper, intending to shut it down.
Los Angeles businessman Willis Lewis had invested in the paper, he put together a rival bid backed by the paper's outside shareholders, backing book publishing executive Manchester Boddy to take over the paper and keep it as a going concern. The stockholder's committee got the Vanderbilt family to sign over a $1 million note so that they could top the rival bid, raised $30,000 for a month's payroll. Boddy and Lewis both served on a group of young businessmen. Boddy once commented, "The Daily News was conceived in iniquity, born in bankruptcy, reared in panic, refinanced every six months."The new publisher scrapped Vanderbilt's editorial policy, began a campaign against vice. The Los Angeles police chief, James E. Davis, had a hands-off policy when it came to vice and organized crime. Most local reporters valued the perks given to them by the police, did nothing to push the issue. After Boddy began a crusade against crime and corruption, he weathered harassment by police and politicians, circulation rose, the paper was soon showing a profit.
Boddy streamlined operations and stabilized the paper's management. During the first six years of Boddy's ownership, the Daily News maintained a conservative editorial policy. By 1932, Boddy had dropped the word "Illustrated" from the name of the paper, he was a personal supporter of Herbert Hoover's bid for reele
2nd Street Tunnel
The 2nd Street Tunnel is a filmed and photographed tunnel on 2nd Street under Bunker Hill in Downtown Los Angeles, California. The Los Angeles Times described it as "the most recognizable city landmark most Americans have never heard of", it is 1,500 ft long and lined with glossy white-glazed tiles that act to a photographic light box and provide visually interesting, distorted reflections of things placed in it. The tunnel was built to relieve congestion on the earlier 3rd Street Tunnel. Construction began in 1916 and was completed in 1924, with its formal opening on July 25 of that year; the distinctive white tiles, which give the tunnel its glow, came from Germany, which caused controversy at the time due to Anti-German sentiment at the onset of World War I. The tunnel runs from South Figueroa Street at the northwest to Hill Street at the southeast. 2nd Street runs above for two blocks at the surface from Hill Street at the southwest to South Hope Street. The tunnel is used in movies – notably Blade Runner – and more in car advertisements from many manufacturers.
73 car ads were filmed in the tunnel from 2006 to 2008. It has been used for fashion shows, including the 2004 LA Fashion Week show by designer Michelle Mason, for parties, such as the 2013 Golden Globe Awards the Art of Elysium/Audi party; the two entrances are different in character. The west end is glamorous, with flaring buttresses; the east end is grittier. Other films in which the tunnel has appeared include: The Terminal Man, The Driver, When a Stranger Calls, The Terminator, Repo Man, Deep Cover, Demolition Man, Money Talks, Con Air, Enemy of the State, Independence Day, Kill Bill and Black November, it is featured in music videos such as "Iris" by Goo Goo Dolls, "We R Who We R" by Kesha, "It's My Life" by Bon Jovi, "Kings and Queens" by Thirty Seconds to Mars, "Grenade" by Bruno Mars, "Sing" by My Chemical Romance,"Protovision" by Kavinsky, "Bet" by Tinashe, "Feel Good" by Gryffin & Illenium, "Narcissist" by Halo Circus, "Please me" by Bruno Mars & Cardi B The tunnel has two-way traffic.
It had four lanes, but in late 2013 a bike lane in each direction was added, so there are now one car lane and one bike lane in each direction. 3rd Street Tunnel J. Win Austin, Los Angeles, City Council member, 1941–43, condemned auto-horn noise in tunnel Charles E. Downs, City Council member convicted in a bribery scheme involving a "moving sidewalk" in the tunnel Notes flickr images of 2nd Street Tunnel with Creative Commons licenses Blog entry