Paul Rader (evangelist)
Daniel Paul Rader was an influential evangelist in the Chicago area during the early 20th century and was America's first nationwide radio preacher. He was senior pastor of the renowned Moody Church from 1915 to 1921. In 1925, holding revival camp meetings in Tower Lakes, IL, bought 367 acres there, with plans for summer cottages, a radio station and a tabernacle that could accommodate 5000 hearers, but he sold the land the next year to a residential developer after building only a few cottages. Rader wrote several hymns during his lengthy career, one of, "Only Believe", a personal favorite of singer Elvis Presley. Presley recorded the song in 1970 for his album Love Letters from Elvis and it was subsequently released as a single in 1971, where it spent two weeks on the chart, peaking at #95. "Only Believe" was the theme song of William Branham's campaigns as well as a favorite of Smith Wigglesworth. Rev. Rader published a novel, Big Bug, about Hollywood as the sin center of America. Rader's great-nephew named Paul Rader, served as General of the Salvation Army, President of Asbury University.
Paul Rader Portrait of an Evangelist Moody Church Chicago Gospel Tabernacle Christian and Missionary Alliance Rader, Paul. Big Bug. Fleming H. Revell Co.: New York, 1932. Cyber Hymnal Biography Rev. Paul Rader's Life Story in His Own Words
Presbyterianism is a part of the reformed tradition within Protestantism, which traces its origins to Britain Scotland. Presbyterian churches derive their name from the presbyterian form of church government, governed by representative assemblies of elders. A great number of Reformed churches are organized this way, but the word Presbyterian, when capitalized, is applied uniquely to churches that trace their roots to the Church of Scotland, as well as several English dissenter groups that formed during the English Civil War. Presbyterian theology emphasizes the sovereignty of God, the authority of the Scriptures, the necessity of grace through faith in Christ. Presbyterian church government was ensured in Scotland by the Acts of Union in 1707, which created the Kingdom of Great Britain. In fact, most Presbyterians found in England can trace a Scottish connection, the Presbyterian denomination was taken to North America by Scots and Scots-Irish immigrants; the Presbyterian denominations in Scotland hold to the Reformed theology of John Calvin and his immediate successors, although there is a range of theological views within contemporary Presbyterianism.
Local congregations of churches which use presbyterian polity are governed by sessions made up of representatives of the congregation. The roots of Presbyterianism lie in the Reformation of the 16th century, the example of John Calvin's Republic of Geneva being influential. Most Reformed churches that trace their history back to Scotland are either presbyterian or congregationalist in government. In the twentieth century, some Presbyterians played an important role in the ecumenical movement, including the World Council of Churches. Many Presbyterian denominations have found ways of working together with other Reformed denominations and Christians of other traditions in the World Communion of Reformed Churches; some Presbyterian churches have entered into unions with other churches, such as Congregationalists, Lutherans and Methodists. Presbyterians in the United States came from Scottish immigrants, Scotch-Irish immigrants, from New England Yankee communities, Congregational but changed because of an agreed-upon Plan of Union of 1801 for frontier areas.
Along with Episcopalians, Presbyterians tend to be wealthier and better educated than most other religious groups in United States, are disproportionately represented in the upper reaches of American business and politics. Presbyterian tradition that of the Church of Scotland, traces its early roots to the Church founded by Saint Columba, through the 6th century Hiberno-Scottish mission. Tracing their apostolic origin to Saint John, the Culdees practiced Christian monasticism, a key feature of Celtic Christianity in the region, with a presbyter exercising "authority within the institution, while the different monastic institutions were independent of one another." The Church in Scotland kept the Christian feast of Easter at a date different from the See of Rome and its monks used a unique style of tonsure. The Synod of Whitby in 664, ended these distinctives as it ruled "that Easter would be celebrated according to the Roman date, not the Celtic date." Although Roman influence came to dominate the Church in Scotland, certain Celtic influences remained in the Scottish Church, such as "the singing of metrical psalms, many of them set to old Celtic Christianity Scottish traditional and folk tunes", which became a "distinctive part of Scottish Presbyterian worship".
Presbyterian history is part of the history of Christianity, but the beginning of Presbyterianism as a distinct movement occurred during the 16th-century Protestant Reformation. As the Catholic Church resisted the reformers, several different theological movements splintered from the Church and bore different denominations. Presbyterianism was influenced by the French theologian John Calvin, credited with the development of Reformed theology, the work of John Knox, a Scotsman and a Roman Catholic Priest, who studied with Calvin in Geneva, Switzerland, he brought back Reformed teachings to Scotland. The Presbyterian church traces its ancestry back to England and Scotland. In August 1560 the Parliament of Scotland adopted the Scots Confession as the creed of the Scottish Kingdom. In December 1560, the First Book of Discipline was published, outlining important doctrinal issues but establishing regulations for church government, including the creation of ten ecclesiastical districts with appointed superintendents which became known as presbyteries.
In time, the Scots Confession would be supplanted by the Westminster Confession of Faith, the Larger and Shorter Catechisms, which were formulated by the Westminster Assembly between 1643 and 1649. Presbyterians distinguish themselves from other denominations by doctrine, institutional organization and worship; the origins of the Presbyterian churches are in Calvinism. Many branches of Presbyterianism are remnants of previous splits from larger groups; some of the splits have been due to doctrinal controversy, while some have been caused by disagreement concerning the degree to which those ordained to church office should be required to agree with the Westminster Confession of Faith, which serves as an important confessional document – second only to the Bible, yet directing particularities in the standardization and translation of the Bible – in Presbyterian churches. Presbyteria
Find a Grave
Find A Grave is a website that allows the public to search and add to an online database of cemetery records. It is owned by Ancestry.com. It receives and uploads digital photographs of headstones from burial sites, taken by unpaid volunteers at cemeteries. Find A Grave posts the photo on its website; the site was created in 1995 by Salt Lake City resident Jim Tipton to support his hobby of visiting the burial sites of famous celebrities. He added an online forum. Find A Grave was launched as a commercial entity in 1998, first as a trade name and incorporated in 2000; the site expanded to include graves of non-celebrities, in order to allow online visitors to pay respect to their deceased relatives or friends. In 2013, Tipton sold Find A Grave to Ancestry.com, saying that the genealogy company had "been linking and driving traffic to the site for several years. Burial information is a wonderful source for people researching their family history." In a September 30, 2013, press release, Ancestry.com officials said they would "launch a new mobile app, improve customer support, introduce an enhanced edit system for submitting updates to memorials, foreign-language support, other site improvements."As of October 2017, Find A Grave contained over 165 million burial records and 75 million photos.
In March 2017, a beta website for a redesigned Find A Grave was launched at gravestage.com. Public feedback was mixed. Sometime between May 29 and July 10 of that year, the beta website was migrated to new.findagrave.com, a new front end for it was deployed at beta.findagrave.com. In November 2017, the new site became the old site was deprecated. On August 20, 2018, the original Find; the website contains listings of graves from around the world. American cemeteries are organized by state and county, many cemetery records contain Google Maps and photographs of the cemeteries and gravesites. Individual grave records may contain dates and places of birth and death, biographical information and plot information and contributor information. Interment listings are added by individuals, genealogical societies, other institutions such as the International Wargraves Photography Project. Contributors must register as members to submit listings, called memorials, on the site; the submitter may transfer management.
Only the current manager of a listing may edit it, although any member may use the site's features to send correction requests to the listing's manager. Managers may add links to other listings of deceased spouses and siblings for genealogical purposes. Any member may add photographs and notations to individual listings. Members may post requests for photos of a specific grave. Although it does not ask permission from immediate family members before uploading the photos, it will remove and take down photos or a URL for a deceased loved one at the request of an immediate family member. Find A Grave maintains lists of memorials of famous persons by their "claim to fame", such as Medal of Honor recipients, religious figures, educators. Find A Grave exercises editorial control over these listings. Canadian Headstones Interment.net United States National Cemetery System's nationwide gravesite locator Random Acts of Genealogical Kindness Tombstone tourist Official website
Glendale is a city in Los Angeles County, United States. Its estimated 2014 population was 200,167, making it the third-largest city in Los Angeles County and the 23rd-largest city in California, it is located about 8 mi north of downtown Los Angeles. Glendale lies in the southeastern end of the San Fernando Valley, bisected by the Verdugo Mountains, is a suburb in the Los Angeles metropolitan area; the city is bordered to the northwest by the Sun Tujunga neighborhoods of Los Angeles. The Golden State, Ventura and Foothill freeways run through the city. Glendale is known to have one of the largest communities of Armenian descent in the United States. In 2013, Glendale was named LA's Neighborhood of the Year by the editors of Curbed.com. Forest Lawn Memorial Park Cemetery contains the remains of many noted celebrities and local residents. Grand Central Airport was the departure point for the first commercial west-to-east transcontinental flight flown by Charles Lindbergh; the area was long inhabited by the Tongva people, who were renamed the Gabrieleños by the Spanish missionaries, after the nearby Mission San Gabriel Arcángel.
In 1798, José María Verdugo, a corporal in the Spanish army from Baja California, received the Rancho San Rafael from Governor Diego de Borica, formalizing his possession and use of land on which he had been grazing livestock and farming since 1784. Rancho San Rafael was a Spanish concession. Unlike the Mexican land grants, the concessions were similar to grazing permits, with the title remaining with the Spanish crown. In 1860, his grandson Teodoro Verdugo built the Verdugo Adobe, the oldest building in Glendale; the property is the location of the Oak of Peace, where early Californio leaders including Pio Pico met in 1847 and decided to surrender to Lieutenant Colonel John C. Frémont. Verdugo's descendants sold the ranch in various parcels, some of which are included in present-day Atwater Village, Eagle Rock, Highland Park neighborhoods of Los Angeles. In 1884, residents gathered to form a townsite and chose the name "Glendale" (it was bounded by First Street on the north, Fifth Street on the south, Central Avenue on the west, the Childs Tract on the east.
Residents to the southwest formed "Tropico" in 1887. The Pacific Electric Railway brought streetcar service in 1904. Glendale incorporated in 1906, annexed Tropico 12 years later. An important civic booster of the era was Leslie Coombs Brand, who built an estate in 1904 called El Miradero, featuring an eye-catching mansion, the architecture of which combined characteristics of Spanish and Indian styles, copied from the East Indian Pavilion at the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition held in Chicago, which he visited. Brand loved to fly, built a private airstrip in 1919 and hosted "fly-in" parties, providing a direct link to the soon-to-be-built nearby Grand Central Airport; the grounds of El Miradero are now city-owned Brand Park and the mansion is the Brand Library, according to the terms of his will. Brand partnered with Henry E. Huntington to bring the Pacific Electric Railway, or the "Red Cars", to the area. Today, he is memorialized by one of Brand Boulevard; the city's population rose from 13,756 in 1920 to 62,736 in 1930.
The Forest Lawn Cemetery opened in 1906 and was renamed Forest Lawn Memorial-Park in 1917. Pioneering endocrinologist and entrepreneur Henry R. Harrower opened his clinic in Glendale in 1920, which for many years was the largest business in the city; the American Green Cross, an early conservation and tree preservation society, was formed in 1926. Until as late as the 1960s, Glendale was a sundown town. Nonwhites were required to leave city limits by a certain time each day or risk arrest and possible violence. In the 1930s, Glendale and Burbank prevented the Civilian Conservation Corps from stationing African American workers in a local park, citing sundown town ordinances that both cities had adopted. In 1964, Glendale was selected by George Lincoln Rockwell to be the West Coast headquarters of the American Nazi Party, its offices, on Colorado Street in the downtown section of the city, remained open until the early 1980s. In 1977 and 1978, 10 murdered women were found in and around Glendale in what became known as the case of the Hillside Strangler.
The murders were the work of Kenneth Bianchi and Angelo Buono, the latter of whom resided at 703 East Colorado Street, where most of the murders took place. Glendale is located at the junction of the San Fernando and the San Gabriel. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 79.212 km2. It is bordered to the north by the foothill communities of La Cañada Flintridge, La Crescenta, Tujunga. Glendale is located 10 miles north of downtown Los Angeles. Several known earthquake faults criss-cross the Glendale area and adjacent mountains, as in much of Southern California. Among the more recognized faults are the
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
R. A. Torrey
Reuben Archer Torrey was an American evangelist, pastor and writer. Torrey was born in Hoboken, New Jersey, on 28 January 1856, he graduated from Yale University in 1875 and Yale Divinity School in 1878. Following graduation, Torrey became a Congregational minister in Garrettsville, Ohio, in 1878; the following year, he married Clara Smith. After further studies in theology at Leipzig University and Erlangen University in 1882–1883, Torrey joined Dwight L. Moody in his evangelistic work in Chicago in 1889, became superintendent of the Bible Institute of the Chicago Evangelization Society. Five years he became pastor of the Chicago Avenue Church in 1894. In 1898, Torrey served as a chaplain with the YMCA at Camp Chicamauga during the Spanish–American War. During World War I, he performed similar service at Camp Bowie and Camp Kearny. In 1902–1903, he preached in nearly every part of the English-speaking world and with song leader Charles McCallon Alexander conducted revival services in Great Britain from 1903 to 1905.
During this period, he visited China, Japan and India. Torrey conducted a similar campaign in American and Canadian cities in 1906–1907. Throughout these campaigns, Torrey used a meeting style that he borrowed from Moody's campaigns of the 1870s. In 1907, he accepted an honorary doctorate from Wheaton College. In 1912, Torrey was persuaded to build another institution like Moody Bible Institute, from 1912 to 1924, he served as Dean of the Bible Institute of Los Angeles and contributed to the BIOLA publication, The King's Business. Beginning in 1915, he served as the first pastor of the Church of Los Angeles. Torrey was one of the three editors of The Fundamentals, a 12-volume series that gave its name to what came to be called "fundamentalism". Torrey held his last evangelistic meeting in Florida in 1927, additional meetings being canceled because of his failing health, he died at home in Asheville, North Carolina, on October 26, 1928, having preached throughout the world and written more than 40 books.
Torrey-Gray Auditorium, the main auditorium at Moody, was named for Torrey and his successor, James M. Gray. At Biola, the Torrey Honors Institute honors him. How to Bring Men to Christ, Baptism with the Holy Spirit, How to Study the Bible with Greatest Profit, How to Obtain Fullness of Power in Christian Life and Service How to Pray, What the Bible Teaches, Divine Origin of the Bible, How to Promote and Conduct a Successful Revival, How to Work for Christ, Revival Addresses, Talks to Men About the Bible and the Christ of the Bible, The Bible and Its Christ: Being Noonday Talks with Business Men on Faith and Unbelief Difficulties in the Bible, Studies in the Life and Teachings of our Lord, The Higher Criticism and the New Theology The Fundamentals: a Testimony to the Truth Editor, ISBN 0-8010-8809-7 The Person and Work of the Holy Spirit The Baptism with the Holy Spirit The Holy Spirit: Who He Is and What He Does and How to Know Him in All the Fulness of His Gracious and Glorious Ministry The Importance and Value of Proper Bible Study, Why God Used D. L. Moody, The Voice of God in the Present Hour Is the Bible the Inerrant Word of God?: And was the Body of Jesus Raised from the Dead?
The Power of Prayer and the Prayer of Power, The Bible, the Peerless Book: Gods Own Book and Gods Only Book How to Succeed in the Christian Life, The Gospel for Today Real Salvation and Whole-Hearted Service The Fundamental Doctrines of the Christian Faith, Torrey's Topical Textbook Treasury of Scripture Knowledge This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Torrey, Reuben Archer". Encyclopædia Britannica. 27. Cambridge University Press. Short biographical info Wheaton College Library Torrey Collection Biographical chronology Entry in New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge Martin, Roger: R. A. Torrey: Apostle of Certainty. Sword of the Lord Publishers, 1976. ISBN 0-87398-829-9. Works by R. A. Torrey at Project Gutenberg Works by or about R. A. Torrey at Internet Archive Works by R. A. Torrey at LibriVox Difficulties in the Bible, book by R. A. Torrey. R. A. Torrey Archive R. A. Torrey hymn "Bless Thou Jehovah" with new melody by Eric M. Pazdziora R. A. Torrey's New Topical Textbook Torrey Honors Institute Ten Reasons Why I Believe The Bible Is The Word Of God by R. A. Torrey The Fundamentals: A Testimony to the Truth, edited by R.
A. Torrey How to Pray by R. A. Torrey Treasury Of Scripture Knowledge – Torrey's Bible study reference tool. Reuben Archer Torrey, American evangelist at Find a Grave
Christian fundamentalism began in the late 19th and early 20th centuries among British and American Protestants as a reaction to theological liberalism and cultural modernism. Fundamentalists argued that 19th-century modernist theologians had misinterpreted or rejected certain doctrines biblical inerrancy, that they viewed as the fundamentals of the Christian faith. Fundamentalists are always described as having a literal interpretation of the Bible. A few scholars label Catholics who reject modern theology in favor of more traditional doctrines as fundamentalists. Scholars debate. In keeping with traditional Christian doctrines concerning biblical interpretation, the role Jesus plays in the Bible, the role of the church in society, fundamentalists believe in a core of Christian beliefs that include the historical accuracy of the Bible and all its events as well as the Second Coming of Jesus Christ. Interpretations of Christian fundamentalism have changed over time. Fundamentalism as a movement manifested in various denominations with various theologies, rather than a single denomination or systematic theology.
It became active in the 1910s after the release of The Fundamentals, a twelve-volume set of essays and polemic, written by conservative Protestant theologians to defend what they saw as Protestant orthodoxy. The movement became more organized in the 1920s within U. S. Protestant churches Baptist and Presbyterian ones. Many such churches adopted a "fighting style" and combined Princeton theology with Dispensationalism. Since 1930, many fundamentalist churches have been represented by the Independent Fundamental Churches of America, which holds to biblical inerrancy; the term fundamentalism was coined by Baptist editor Curtis Lee Laws in 1920 to designate Protestants who were ready "to do battle royal for the fundamentals". The term was adopted by all sides. Laws borrowed it from the title of a series of essays published between 1910 and 1915 called The Fundamentals: A Testimony to the Truth; the term "fundamentalism" entered the English language in 1922, it is capitalized when it is used to refer to the religious movement.
The term fundamentalist is controversial in the 21st century, because it can carry the connotation of religious extremism when such labeling is applied beyond the movement which coined the term or beyond those who self-identify as fundamentalists today. Some who hold certain, but not all beliefs in common with the original fundamentalist movement reject the label "fundamentalism", seeing it as too pejorative, while to others it has become a banner of pride; such Christians prefer to use the term fundamental, as opposed to fundamentalist. The term is sometimes confused with Christian legalism. In parts of the United Kingdom, using the term fundamentalist with the intent to stir up religious hatred is a violation of the Racial and Religious Hatred Act of 2006. Fundamentalism came from multiple streams in British and American theologies during the 19th century. According to authors Robert D. Woodberry and Christian S. Smith, Following the Civil War, tensions developed between Northern evangelical leaders over Darwinism and higher biblical criticism.
Modernists attempted to update Christianity to match their view of science. They denied biblical miracles and argued that God manifests himself through the social evolution of society. Conservatives resisted these changes; these latent tensions erupted to the surface after World War I in what came to be called the fundamentalist/modernist split. However, the split does not mean that there were just two groups and fundamentalists. There were people who considered themselves neo-evangelicals, separating themselves from the extreme components of fundamentalism; these neo-evangelicals wanted to separate themselves from both the fundamentalist movement and the mainstream evangelical movement due to their anti-intellectual approaches. The first important stream was Evangelicalism as it emerged in the revivals of the First and Second Great Awakenings in America and the Methodist movement in England in the period from 1730–1840, they in turn had been influenced by the Pietist movement in Germany. Church historian Randall Balmer explains that: Evangelicalism itself, I believe, is a quintessentially North American phenomenon, deriving as it did from the confluence of Pietism and the vestiges of Puritanism.
Evangelicalism picked up the peculiar characteristics from each strain – warmhearted spirituality from the Pietists, doctrinal precisionism from the Presbyterians, individualistic introspection from the Puritans – as the North American context itself has profoundly shaped the various manifestations of evangelicalism: fundamentalism, neo-evangelicalism, the holiness movement, the charismatic movement, various forms of African-American and Hispanic evangelicalism. A second stream was Dispensationalism, a new interpretation of the Bible developed in the 1830s in England. John Nelson Darby's ideas were disseminated by the notes and commentaries in the used Scofield Reference Bible, published in 1909. Dispensationalism was a millenarian theory that divided all of time into seven different stages, called "dispensations", which were seen as stages of God's revelation. At the end of each stage, according to this theory, God punished the particular peoples who were involved in each dispensation for their failure to fulfill the requirements which they were under during its duration.