Emmanuel Philibert, Duke of Savoy
Emmanuel Philibert was Duke of Savoy from 1553 to 1580, KG. He is remembered for the Italianization of the House of Savoy, as he recovered the savoyard state following the Battle of St. Quentin and subsequently moved the capital to Turin and made Italian the official language in Piedmont. Born in Chambéry, Emmanuel Philibert was the only child of Charles III, Duke of Savoy, Beatrice of Portugal to reach adulthood, his mother was sister-in-law to Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, the future duke served in Charles's army during the war against Francis I of France, distinguishing himself by capturing Hesdin in July 1553. A month he became Duke of Savoy on the death of his father, but this was a nearly empty honour, as the vast majority of his hereditary lands had been occupied and administered by the French since 1536. Instead, he continued to serve the Habsburgs in hopes of recovering his lands, served his cousin Philip II of Spain as Governor of the Netherlands from 1555 to 1559. In this capacity he led the Spanish invasion of northern France and won a brilliant victory at Saint-Quentin on 10 August 1557.
He was a suitor to Lady Elizabeth Tudor, daughter of Henry VIII of England. With the Peace of Cateau Cambrésis between France and Spain signed in 1559, the duchy was restored to Emmanuel Philibert and he married his first cousin once removed, Margaret of France, Duchess of Berry, the sister of King Henry II of France, their only child was Charles Emmanuel I of Savoy. Following the death of his uncle, Henry I of Portugal, on 31 January 1580, Emmanuel Philibert fought to impose his rights as a claimant to the Portuguese throne. However, he soon realised that he had quite a fragile position due to the claims of Philip II, who gained control of the country, thus uniting Spain and Portugal. Emmanuel Philibert spent his rule regaining. A skilled political strategist, he took advantage of various squabbles in Europe to regain territory from both the French and the Spanish, including the city of Turin, he purchased two territories. Internally, he moved the capital of the duchy from Chambéry to Turin and replaced Latin as the duchy's official language with Italian.
He was attempting to acquire the marquisate of Saluzzo. He was buried in the Chapel of the Holy Shroud of the Turin Cathedral, to which he had moved the Sindone in 1578. Kamen, Henry. Philip of Spain. Yale University Press. Leathes, Stanley. Cambridge Modern History. 1. Cambridge University Press. 1580 Portuguese succession crisis
Morganatic marriage, sometimes called a left-handed marriage, is a marriage between people of unequal social rank, which in the context of royalty prevents the passage of the husband's titles and privileges to the wife and any children born of the marriage. This is a marriage between a man of high birth and a woman of lesser status. Neither the bride nor any children of the marriage have a claim on the bridegroom's succession rights, precedence, or entailed property; the children are considered legitimate for all other purposes and the prohibition against bigamy applies. In some countries, a woman could marry a man of lower rank morganatically. After World War I, the heads of both ruling and reigning dynasties continued the practice of rejecting dynastic titles and/or rights for descendants of "morganatic" unions, but allowed them, sometimes retroactively de-morganatizing the wives and children; this was accommodated by Perthes' Almanach de Gotha by inserting the offspring of such marriages in a third section of the almanac under entries denoted by a symbol that "signifies some princely houses which, possessing no specific princely patent, have passed from the first part, A, or from the second part into the third part in virtue of special agreements."
The Fürstliche Häuser series of the Genealogisches Handbuch des Adels has followed this lead enrolling some issue of unapproved marriages in its third section, "III B", with a similar explanation: "Families in this section, although verified, received no specific decree, but have been included by special agreement in the 1st and 2nd sections". Variations of morganatic marriage were practised by non-European dynasties, such as the Royal Family of Thailand, the polygamous Mongols as to their non-principal wives, other families of Africa and Asia. Morganatic in use in English by 1727, is derived from the medieval Latin morganaticus from the Late Latin phrase matrimonium ad morganaticam and refers to the gift given by the groom to the bride on the morning after the wedding, the morning gift, i.e. dower. The Latin term, applied to a Germanic custom, was adopted from the Old High German term *morgangeba, corresponding to Early English morgengifu; the literal meaning is explained in a 16th-century passage quoted by Du Cange as, "a marriage by which the wife and the children that may be born are entitled to no share in the husband's possessions beyond the'morning-gift'".
The morning gift has been a customary property arrangement for marriage found first in early medieval German cultures and among ancient Germanic tribes, the church drove its adoption into other countries in order to improve the wife's security by this additional benefit. The bride received property from the bridegroom's clan, it was intended to ensure her livelihood in widowhood, it was to be kept separate as the wife's discrete possession. However, when a marriage contract is made wherein the bride and the children of the marriage will not receive anything else from the bridegroom or from his inheritance or clan, that sort of marriage was dubbed as "marriage with only the dower and no other inheritance", i.e. matrimonium morganaticum. Royal men who married morganatically: Genghis Khan followed the contemporary tradition by taking several morganatic wives in addition to his principal wife, whose property passed to their youngest son following tradition. King Erik XIV of Sweden married the servant Karin Månsdotter morganatically in 1567, secondly, but this time not morganatically, in 1568.
Ludwig Wilhelm, Duke in Bavaria and Henriette Mendel. She was created Baroness von Wallersee, their daughter, Marie Louise, Countess Larisch von Moennich, was a confidante of Empress Elisabeth of Austria. Archduke Ferdinand II of Austria, ruler of the Tirol, first married Philippine Welser, a bourgeoise of a wealthy family, in 1557. Victor Emmanuel II of Italy in 1869 married morganatically his principal mistress Rosa Teresa Vercellana Guerrieri. Popularly known in Piedmontese as "Bela Rosin", she was born a commoner but made Countess di Mirafiori e Fontanafredda in 1858. Late in his life, the widowed ex-king Fernando II of Portugal married the opera singer Elise Hensler, created Countess von Edla. A list of morganatic branches of the Russian Imperial Family The 1900 marriage of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, whose subsequent assassination triggered World War I, to Countess Sophie Chotek was morganatic at the insistence of the Austrian Emperor Franz Joseph I. Royal women who married morganatically: Marie Louise, Duchess of Parma married morganatically twice after the death of her husband, the emperor Napoleon I, in 1821.
Her second husband was Count Adam Albert von Neipperg. After his death, she married Count Charles-René de Bombelles, her chamberlain, in 1834. Queen Maria Christina of Bourbon-Two Sicilies, regent of Spain after her husband's death while their daughter, the future Isabella II was a minor, she married one of her guards in a secret marriage. Princess Stéphanie of B
Anne Marie d'Orléans
Anne Marie d'Orléans was the first Queen consort of Sardinia by marriage to Victor Amadeus II of Savoy. She served as regent of Savoy during the absence of her spouse in 1686 and during the War of the Spanish Succession, she is an important figure in British history. She was the daughter of Philippe I, Duke of Orléans, younger brother of Louis XIV, Henrietta of England, the youngest daughter of Charles I of England, her mother died at the Château de Saint-Cloud ten months after Anne Marie's birth. A year her father married 19-year-old Elizabeth Charlotte of the Palatinate, who became close to her stepdaughters, her half-brother Philippe II, Duke of Orléans, the future regent of France, was born of her father's second marriage. Her stepmother described her as one of the most amiable and virtuous of women. To maintain French influence in the Italian states, her uncle King Louis XIV arranged her marriage, at the age of fourteen, to her third cousin Victor Amadeus II of Savoy Duke of Savoy King of Sicily and of Sardinia.
Louis XIV was an ally of her future mother-in-law, Marie Jeanne, supported Marie Jeanne when she extended her regency after her actual mandate as regent had come to an end in 1680: Marie Jeanne did, in fact, not surrender her position as regent until shortly before her son's wedding. The proxy marriage of Anne Marie and Víctor Amadeus took place at Versailles on 10 April 1684, the day after the signature of the marriage contract, her husband-to-be was represented by Louis Auguste, Duke of Maine. Louis XIV gave her a dowry of 900,000 livres; the Duke of Orléans accompanied his daughter as far as Juvisy-sur-Orge, the comtesse de Lillebonne accompanied her all the way to Savoy. She met her husband Victor at Chambéry on 6 May, the nuptials being performed at the castle by the Archbishop of Grenoble. Two days the newlyweds made their "Joyous Entry" into Turin. Anne Marie bore nine children, beginning with Marie-Adélaïde just a few months after Anne Marie's 16th birthday; the birth nearly cost Anne Marie her life.
Marie-Adélaïde married Louis, Duke of Burgundy, grandson of Louis XIV in 1697, was the mother of Louis XV. This marriage was arranged with the assistance of the maréchal de Tessé and of Jeanne Baptiste d'Albert de Luynes, comtesse de Verrué, Victor's mistress from 1689 till 1700, her husband had two children with Jeanne. Nonetheless, when he fell ill with smallpox, Anne Marie nursed him until his recovery. After her arrival in Savoy, Anne Marie came under the influence of her pro-French mother-in-law, who maintained a powerful position as a French ally at the court of Savoy, she was described as a dutiful and humble daughter-in-law, who loyally adhered to Marie Jeanne's wishes. Her close relationship with her mother-in-law was not viewed favorably by her spouse, who regarded it as a political threat, as he had long been opposed to his mother's influence in politics; the personal relationship between Anne Marie and Victor Amadeus was somewhat cool during the first years of their marriage due to the adultery on his part and his disappointment that she did not give birth to a son for several years.
Anne Marie served as regent for the first time during the trip of Victor Amadeus in 1686, was said to have handled the task well despite her young age. When Victor Amadeus severed his ties with France in 1690, Anne Marie and her children accompanied her mother-in-law when they demonstratively left the capital in protest. Despite his marriage ties to France, Victor Amadeus joined the anti-French side in the War of the Spanish Succession. Anne Marie was appointed by him to serve as regent of Savoy during his absence in the war, a task she handled with maturity and judgement. In 1706, Turin was besieged by French forces under the command of Anne Marie's half-brother Philippe d'Orléans, Spanish forces of her cousin and son-in-law Philip V, she and her sons Victor Amadeus and Carlo Emanuele were forced to flee to Genoa. When the war was ended in 1713 by the Treaty of Utrecht, Victor Amadeus received the Kingdom of Sicily a Spanish possession. Anne Marie's stepmother wrote: I shall neither gain nor lose by the peace, but one thing I shall enjoy is to see our Duchess of Savoy become a queen, because I love her as though she were my own child...
When Victor Amadeus left for his coronation in Sicily, he had planned to leave Anne Marie behind to function as regent in his absence, but as he feared that she would let herself be directed by his mother because of her loyalty to her, he changed his mind and took her along with him instead. Anne Marie was crowned with him in Sicily. At the death of her eldest son in 1715, both she and Victor Amadeus fell into severe depression and left the capital to mourn, leaving Marie Jeanne to handle their official duties. Victor Amadeus was forced to exchange Sicily for the less important domain of Sardinia in 1720, but retained the title of King; as the Savoyard consort, Anne-Marie had the use of the Royal Palace of Turin, the vast Palazzina di caccia di Stupinigi outside the capital, the Vigna di Madama Reale. Queen Anne Marie died of heart failure at her villa on 26 August 1728, the day before her 59th birthday, she is buried at the Basilica of Superga in Turin, where all her children, except Marie-Adélaïde and Maria Luisa, are buried.
From 1714 to 1720, Anne Marie d'Orléans was the heiress presumptive to the Jacobite claim to the thrones of England and Ireland. These claims were held at the time by James Francis Edward Stuart. Anne Marie became heiress presumptive with the death of James' daughter Queen Anne in 1714, she was
Marie de' Medici
Marie de' Medici was Queen of France as the second wife of King Henry IV of France, of the House of Bourbon. She was a member of the powerful House of Medici. Following the assassination of her husband in 1610, which occurred the day after her coronation, she acted as regent for her son, King Louis XIII of France, until 1617, when he came of age, she was noted for her ceaseless political intrigues at the French court and extensive artistic patronage. She was born as Maria at the Palazzo Pitti of Florence, the sixth daughter of Francesco I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, Archduchess Joanna of Austria. Marie was not a male-line descendant of Lorenzo the Magnificent but from Lorenzo the Elder, a branch of the Medici family sometimes referred to as the'cadet' branch, she did descend from Lorenzo in the female-line however, through his daughter Lucrezia de' Medici. She was a Habsburg through her mother, a direct descendant of Joanna of Castile and Philip I of Castile. Marie was one of seven children.
A portrait of Marie as a young girl shows her with a high forehead. Her wavy hair was light brown in colour, she had honey-brown eyes and fair skin; the painter was from the school of Santi di Tito. She married Henry IV of France in October 1600 following the annulment of his marriage to Margaret of Valois; the wedding ceremony was held in Florence, was celebrated by four thousand guests with lavish entertainment, including examples of the newly invented musical genre of opera, such as Jacopo Peri's Euridice. Henry did not attend the ceremony, the two were therefore married by proxy. Marie brought as part of her dowry 600,000 crowns, her eldest son, the future King Louis XIII, was born at Fontainebleau the following year. Her husband was 47 at the marriage and had a long succession of mistresses. Dynastic considerations required him to take a second wife, his first spouse Margaret of Valois never having produced children by Henry or by her lovers. Henry chose Marie de' Medici because Henry "owed the bride's father, Francesco de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, who had helped support his war effort, a whopping 1,174,000 écus and this was the only means Henry could find to pay back the debt...."The marriage was successful in producing children, but it was not a happy one.
The queen feuded with Henry's mistresses in language. She quarreled with her husband's leading mistress, Catherine Henriette de Balzac d'Entragues, whom he had promised he would marry following the death of his former "official mistress", Gabrielle d'Estrées; when he failed to do so, instead married Marie, the result was constant bickering and political intrigues behind the scenes. Catherine referred to Maria as "the fat banker's daughter". Although the king could have banished his mistress, supporting his queen, he never did so. She, in turn, showed great sympathy and support to her husband's banished ex-wife Marguerite de Valois, prompting Henry to allow her back into the realm. Marie was crowned Queen of France on 13 May 1610, a day before her husband's death. Hours after Henry's assassination, she was confirmed as regent by the Parliament of Paris, she banished his mistress, Catherine Henriette de Balzac, from the court. During her husband's lifetime Marie showed little sign of political acumen, her abilities scarcely improved after she assumed the regency.
Stubborn and of limited intellect, she was influenced by her maid Leonora "Galigai" Dori. Dori conspired with her unscrupulous Italian husband, Concino Concini, created Marquis d'Ancre and a Marshal of France though he had never fought a battle; the Concinis had Henry IV's able minister, the Duke of Sully and Italian representatives of the Roman Catholic Church hoped to force the suppression of Protestantism in France by means of their influence. Half-Habsburg herself, Marie abandoned the traditional anti-Habsburg French foreign policy, she lent support to Habsburg Spain by arranging the marriage of her daughter Elisabeth to the future Philip IV of Spain. Marie overturned the Treaty of Bruzolo, an alliance signed between Henry's representatives and Charles Emmanuel I, Duke of Savoy. Under the regent's lax and capricious rule, the princes of the blood and the great nobles of the kingdom revolted; the queen, too weak to assert her authority, consented to buy them off on 15 May 1614. The opposition to the regency was led by Henri de Bourbon, Duke of Enghien, who pressured Marie into convoking the Estates General in 1614 and 1615.
In 1616 Marie's rule was strengthened by the addition to her councils of Armand Jean du Plessis, who had come to prominence at the meetings of the Estates General. However, her son Louis XIII several years into his legal majority, asserted his authority the next year; the king overturned the pro-Habsburg, pro-Spanish foreign policy pursued by his mother, ordered the assassination of Concini, exiled the queen to the Château de Blois and appointed Richelieu to his bishopric. After two years of virtual imprisonment "in the wilderness", as she put it, Marie escaped from Blois in the night of 21/22 February 1619 and became the figurehead of a new aristocratic revolt headed by Louis's brother Gaston, Duke of Orléans, whose forces Louis dispersed. Through the mediation of Richelieu the king was reconciled with his mother, allowed to hold a small court at Angers, she resumed her place in the royal council
John Milton was an English poet, man of letters, civil servant for the Commonwealth of England under its Council of State and under Oliver Cromwell. He wrote at a time of religious flux and political upheaval, is best known for his epic poem Paradise Lost, written in blank verse. Writing in English, Latin and Italian, he achieved international renown within his lifetime, his celebrated Areopagitica, written in condemnation of pre-publication censorship, is among history's most influential and impassioned defences of freedom of speech and freedom of the press, his desire for freedom extended into his style: he introduced new words to the English language, was the first modern writer to employ non-rhymed verse outside of the theatre or translations. William Hayley's 1796 biography called him the "greatest English author", he remains regarded "as one of the preeminent writers in the English language", though critical reception has oscillated in the centuries since his death. Samuel Johnson praised Paradise Lost as "a poem which...with respect to design may claim the first place, with respect to performance, the second, among the productions of the human mind", though he described Milton's politics as those of an "acrimonious and surly republican".
Poets such as William Blake, William Wordsworth and Thomas Hardy revered him. The phases of Milton's life parallel the major political divisions in Stuart Britain. Milton studied, wrote poetry for private circulation, launched a career as pamphleteer and publicist under the personal rule of Charles I and its breakdown into constitutional confusion and war; the shift in accepted attitudes in government placed him in public office under the Commonwealth of England, from being thought dangerously radical and heretical, he acted as an official spokesman in certain of his publications. The Restoration of 1660 deprived Milton, now blind, of his public platform, but this period saw him complete most of his major works of poetry. Milton's views developed from his extensive reading, as well as travel and experience, from his student days of the 1620s to the English Civil War. By the time of his death in 1674, Milton was impoverished and on the margins of English intellectual life, yet famous throughout Europe and unrepentant for his political choices.
John Milton was born in Bread Street, London on 9 December 1608, the son of composer John Milton and his wife Sarah Jeffrey. The senior John Milton moved to London around 1583 after being disinherited by his devout Catholic father Richard "the Ranger" Milton for embracing Protestantism. In London, the senior John Milton married Sarah Jeffrey and found lasting financial success as a scrivener, he lived in and worked from a house on Bread Street, where the Mermaid Tavern was located in Cheapside. The elder Milton was noted for his skill as a musical composer, this talent left his son with a lifelong appreciation for music and friendships with musicians such as Henry Lawes. Milton's father's prosperity provided his eldest son with a private tutor, Thomas Young, a Scottish Presbyterian with an M. A. from the University of St. Andrews. Research suggests. After Young's tutorship, Milton attended St Paul's School in London. There he began the study of Latin and Greek, the classical languages left an imprint on both his poetry and prose in English.
Milton's first datable compositions are two psalms done at age 15 at Long Bennington. One contemporary source is the Brief Lives of John Aubrey, an uneven compilation including first-hand reports. In the work, Aubrey quotes Christopher, Milton's younger brother: "When he was young, he studied hard and sat up late till twelve or one o'clock at night". Aubrey adds, ""His complexion exceeding faire—he was so faire that they called him the Lady of Christ's College."In 1625, Milton began attending Christ's College, Cambridge. He graduated with a B. A. in 1629, ranking fourth of 24 honours graduates that year in the University of Cambridge. Preparing to become an Anglican priest, Milton stayed on and obtained his Master of Arts degree on 3 July 1632. Milton may have been rusticated in his first year for quarrelling with his tutor, Bishop William Chappell, he was at home in London in the Lent Term 1626. Based on remarks of John Aubrey, Chappell "whipt" Milton; this story is now disputed, though Milton disliked Chappell.
Historian Christopher Hill cautiously notes that Milton was "apparently" rusticated, that the differences between Chappell and Milton may have been either religious or personal. It is possible that, like Isaac Newton four decades Milton was sent home because of the plague, by which Cambridge was badly affected in 1625. In 1626, Milton's tutor was Nathaniel Tovey. At Cambridge, Milton was on good terms with Edward King, for whom he wrote "Lycidas", he befriended Anglo-American dissident and theologian Roger Williams. Milton tutored Williams in Hebrew in exchange for lessons in Dutch. Despite developing a reputation for poetic skill and general erudition, Milton experienced alienation from his peers and university life as a whole. Having once watched his fellow students attempting comedy upon the college stage, he observed'they thought themselves gallant men, I thought them fools'. Milton was disdainful of the university curriculum, which consisted of
Kingdom of Cyprus
The Kingdom of Cyprus was a Crusader state that existed between 1192 and 1489. It was ruled by the French House of Lusignan, it comprised not only the island of Cyprus, but had a foothold on the Anatolian mainland: Antalya between 1361 and 1373, Corycus between 1361 and 1448. The island of Cyprus was conquered in 1191 by King Richard I of England during the Third Crusade, from Isaac Komnenos, an upstart local governor and self-proclaimed emperor of the Byzantine Empire; the English king did not intend to conquer the island until his fleet was scattered by a storm en route to the siege of Acre and three of his ships were driven to the shores of Cyprus. The three ships were sank in sight of the port of Limassol; the shipwrecked survivors were taken prisoner by Komnenos and when a ship bearing King Richard's sister Joan and bride Berengaria entered the port, Komnenos refused their request to disembark for fresh water. King Richard and the rest of his fleet arrived shortly afterwards. Upon hearing of the imprisonment of his shipwrecked comrades and the insults offered to his bride and sister, King Richard met Komnenos in battle.
There were rumours that Komnenos was secretly in league with Saladin in order to protect himself from his enemies the Angelos family, the ruling family in the Byzantine capital of Constantinople. Control of the island of Cyprus would provide a strategic base of operations from which to launch and supply further Crusade offensives for King Richard; the English army engaged the Cypriots on the shores of Limassol with English archers and armored knights. Komnenos and the remainder of the army escaped to the hills during nightfall but King Richard and his troops tracked the Cypriot ruler down and raided his camp before dawn. Komnenos escaped again with a small number of men; the next day, many Cypriot nobles came to King Richard to swear fealty. In the following days, Komnenos made an offer of 20,000 marks of gold and 500 men-at-arms to King Richard, as well as promising to surrender his daughter and castles as a pledge for his good behaviour. Fearing treachery at the hands of the new invaders, Komnenos fled after making this pledge to King Richard and escaped to the stronghold of Kantara.
Some weeks after King Richard's marriage to his bride on May 12, 1191, Komnenos attempted an escape by boat to the mainland but he was apprehended in the abbey of Cape St. Andrea at the eastern point of the island and imprisoned in the castle of Markappos in Syria, where he died shortly afterwards, still in captivity. Meanwhile, King Richard resumed his journey to Acre and, with much needed respite, new funds and reinforcements, set sail for the Holy Land accompanied by the King of Jerusalem, Guy of Lusignan and other high ranking nobles of the Western Crusader states; the English king left garrisons in the towns and castles of the island before he departed and the island itself was left in charge of King Richard of Camville and Robert of Tornham. A subsequent revolt after King Richard left for the Holy Land caused him to doubt the island as a worthwhile gain and prompted him to sell the territory to the Knights Templar; the English invasion of Cyprus marked the beginning of 400 years of Western dominance on the island and the introduction of the feudal system of the Normans.
It brought the Latin church to Cyprus, which had hitherto been Orthodox in religion. When King Richard I of England realized that Cyprus would prove to be a difficult territory to maintain and oversee whilst launching offensives in the Holy Land, he sold it to the Knights Templar for a fee of 100,000 bezants, 40,000 of, to be paid while the remainder was to be paid in installments. One of the greatest military orders of medieval times, the Knights Templar were renowned for their remarkable financial power and vast holdings of land and property throughout Europe and the East, their severity of rule in Cyprus incurred the hatred of the native population. On Easter Day in 1192, the Cypriots attempted a massacre of their Templar rulers. A siege ensued and the Templars, realizing their dire circumstances and their besiegers’ reluctance to bargain, sallied out into the streets at dawn one morning, taking the Cypriots by surprise; the subsequent slaughter was merciless and widespread and though Templar rule was restored following the event, the military order was reluctant to continue rule and begged King Richard to take Cyprus back.
King Richard took them up on the offer and the Templars returned to Syria, retaining but a few holdings on the island. A small minority Roman Catholic population of the island was confined to some coastal cities, such as Famagusta, as well as inland Nicosia, the traditional capital. Roman Catholics kept the reins of power and control, while the Orthodox inhabitants lived in the countryside; the independent Eastern Orthodox Church of Cyprus, with its own archbishop and subject to no patriarch, was allowed to remain on the island, but the Roman Catholic Latin Church displaced it in stature and holding property. In the meantime, the hereditary queen of Jerusalem, had died and opposition to the rule of her husband, Guy of Lusignan increased to the point that he was ousted from his claim to the crown of Jerusalem. Since Guy was a long-time vassal of King Richard, the English king looked to strike two birds with one stone, it is unclear whether King Rich
Turin Cathedral is a Roman Catholic cathedral in Turin, northern Italy. Dedicated to Saint John the Baptist, it is the seat of the Archbishops of Turin, it was built during 1491–98 and is adjacent to an earlier campanile built in 1470. Designed by Guarino Guarini, the Chapel of the Holy Shroud was added to the structure in 1668–94; the church lies in the place. The original Christian sacred house included three churches, dedicated to the Holy Saviour, Saint Mary of Dompno and, the main of three, St. John the Baptist. According to some sources, the latter's consecration was carried on by Agilulf, the Lombard King of northern Italy from 591 to 613. Here, in 662, Duke of Turin was assassinated in the church by a follower of Godepert, whose murder Garibald is believed to have had a part in; the three churches were demolished between 1490 and 1492. The new cathedral, again entitled to St. John the Baptist, was begun in 1491 under design of Amedeo de Francisco di Settignano known as Meo del Caprino, who finished it in seven years.
The bell tower, remained the one erected in 1469, still visible today. Filippo Juvarra brought some modifications in the 17th century. Pope Leo X confirmed it as metropolitan see in 1515. A project for an enlargement of the cathedral, in order to create a more luxurious seat for the Shroud, was launched in 1649, when Bernardino Quadri arrived in Turin from Rome at the court of Duke Charles Emmanuel II of Savoy. Quadri's design was based on a previous project by Carlo di Castellamonte, with an oval chapel behind the choir. In 1667 Guarino Guarini was called in to complete the project; the dome, whose works dragged for 28 years, was completed in 1694 under the direction of Marie Jeanne of Savoy, Charles Emmanuel II's widow. The cathedral is the burial place of Blessed Pier Giorgio Frassati, Turin native, avid athlete, benefactor of the poor, called the "saint for youth of the Third Millennium." He was beatified by John Paul II in 1990. While the chapel of the Holy Shroud behind the cathedral was undergoing renovation during 2009, the Shroud was kept in a small chapel within the cathedral.
Maestro di cappelliSimon Boyleau Alessandro Besozzi Quirino Gasparini Felice Alessandri Feliciano StrepponiFunerals and burials Giovanni "Gianni" Agnelli, member of the Agnelli family who own Fiat Andrea Pininfarina Luciana Frassati Gawronska Blessed Pier Giorgio FrassatiAs Turin was the capital city of the Kingdom of Savoy, the cathedral is one of two in which members of the Royal Family are buried in, the other being the Basilica of Superga in the outskirts of the city. Several royal consorts and princesses are buried here