Castle Solitude is a Rococo Schloss and hunting retreat commissioned by Duke Charles Eugene, designed by Johann Friedrich Weyhing and Philippe de La Guêpière, and constructed from 1764-69. Since 1956 the area is part of the district of Stuttgart-West despite the castle being located just southeast of the town of Gerlingen. Solitude is located on a ridge between the towns of Leonberg and Stuttgart. The castle offers views to the north over the towns of Weilimdorf and Ludwigsburg, on April 1,1942, Schloss Solitude was incorporated into Stuttgart. Since 1956, Schloss Solitude has been part of Stuttgart-West, the construction period was characterized by political and financial adversity. The Schloss was commissioned Duke Charles Eugene as a refugium, a place of quiet reflection, the Duke hired a commission of architects led by Philippe de La Guêpière and planning began in 1763. Problems arose, money from the Duke was running low, further political struggles between the Duke and influential Stuttgart land barons led to the Duke temporarily abandoning Stuttgart in favor of the palace in Ludwigsburg.
The Duke shifted his attention to Hohenheim in 1775, in the long run, the castle was prohibitively expensive to keep just as a temporary residence. Solitude was abandoned in the 20th Century, the fell into disrepair. Between 1972 and 1983, the Federal Republic of Germany renovated the castle, from May 1968 to 1986, was located in todays academy building an autonomous dorm. Many of the residents were musicians and dancers, were added social workers and they got together and organized concerts, jazz sessions, dance theater and other art projects. Sonderborg from the Stuttgart Art Academy, the conductor Manfred Schreier, since 1990, the annexed buildings have housed the Akademie Schloss Solitude. The Kavaliers building incorporates living quarters for students, here too is Graevenitz Museum housed. It displays works by the Stuttgart sculptor Fritz von Graevenitz After 1903, in years, the grounds of the castle served as a hostel for drivers. From 1935 to 1965, the 11. 3-kilometre Solituderennen course south of the castle was used for World Championship motorcycle Grand Prix racing.
From 1961 to 1965, a series of non-championship Formula 1 races were held on the same weekends, welcoming drivers such as John Surtees, Jim Clark, Dan Gurney. In their heyday, the Solitude races attracted crowds of 288,000 spectators, Castle Solitude was designed by a working group at the ducal court under the guidance of Philippe de La Guêpière with active input from Duke Karl Eugen and master craftsmen. On the inside, the style is characteristic of classicism, instead of the irregular lively forms typical of Rococo, the northern main gate of the castle marks the beginning of Solitudeallee, a partially tree-lined straight avenue leads directly to Ludwigsburg over 13 kilometres
Princess Marie Auguste of Thurn and Taxis
Princess Marie Auguste Anna of Thurn and Taxis was a Regent of Württemberg. She was a member of the Princely House of Thurn and Taxis as a daughter of Anselm Franz, 2nd Prince of Thurn and Taxis and his wife Maria Ludovika Anna Franziska, through her marriage to Karl Alexander, Duke of Württemberg, she became Duchess consort of Württemberg. Marie Auguste was born on August 11,1706 and she grew up in the Austrian Netherlands and moved to Frankfurt, where her familys wealth and economic interests were based. Her only brother was Alexander Ferdinand, 3rd Prince of Thurn and Taxis, Marie Auguste was chosen as a bride for Karl Alexander, Duke of Württemberg-Winnental because of her Roman Catholic religion. They were married on May 1,1727 in Frankfurt am Main, despite their Catholicism, the couples children were all raised in the Lutheran faith. They had four surviving children, Karl Eugen, Duke of Württemberg, married Elisabeth Fredericka Sophie of Brandenburg-Bayreuth, Eugen Louis Louis Eugene, Duke of Württemberg, married Sophie Albertine of Beichlingen, had issue.
Frederick II Eugene, Duke of Württemberg, married Friederike Dorothea of Brandenburg-Schwedt, had issue, Alexander Eugen Auguste Elisabeth, married Karl Anselm, 4th Prince of Thurn and Taxis, had issue. Their ten-year marriage was turbulent, and they were felt to be each others match in every way. He often used a trusted servant to spy on his wife to ensure that she would not interfere in government or criticize the Dukes ministers, after a particularly serious dispute in 1736, her husband even had her promise in writing to stay out of government affairs. Marie Augustes husband died suddenly on March 12,1737 on the eve of his departure on an inspection tour. This meant that their nine-year-old son Karl Eugen succeeded as Duke of Württemberg, after experiencing initial trouble from the regency council in trying to hold power for her son, she was finally successful on November 5,1737. She was granted an allowance and was recognized as co-regent with control over her sons education. From 1739 to the year, she had an affair with a captain in the army.
Rumors of a possible pregnancy became so widespread that the council began an investigation. Her exile removed her from power, especially when crucial policy decisions and preparations for her sons education were being made. For instance, she was unable to prevent an alliance with Prussia that would leave Württemberg exposed at the outbreak of the War of the Austrian Succession. By 1744, Marie Auguste had again achieved a position of considerable influence and she arranged military careers for her two eldest sons, allowing them to receive commissions in the Prussian army. As a Catholic, she prepared her youngest son Frederick Eugen for a life in the Imperial Church, Marie Augustes influence would decline as her son grew increasingly more independent by 1749
Joachim Ernst, Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach
Joachim Ernst, Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach was a German nobleman. He ruled as margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach from 1603 to 1625, succeeding his cousin George Frederick, Joachim Ernst was the son of the elector John George of Brandenburg and his third wife, Elisabeth of Anhalt-Zerbst. Joachim Ernst founded the branch of Ansbach line of the Franconian Hohenzollerns. His predecessor, George Frederick had settled the succession of his two Franconian possessions in the House Treaty of Gera of 1598, in accordance with the provisions of this treaty, Margrave Joachim Ernst ruled Brandenburg-Ansbach and his brother Christian ruled neighboring Brandenburg-Kulmbach. In the religious conflicts of the early 17th Century, Joachim Ernst tended to be in the Protestant-Calvinist camp and he supported the Dutch struggle for independence. He took a part in bringing about the Protestant Alliance of the Protestant Union. The Union was, dissolved again in 1621, after the outbreak of the Thirty Years War, after the dissolution of the Union, Joachim Ernst was held responsible for the outbreak of war by his Catholic opponents and he completely distanced himself from his former allies.
In 1612, he married Sophie of Solms-Laubach, spindler, A. Kraus, Geschichte Frankens bis zum Ausgang des 18
New Palace (Stuttgart)
The New Palace is an 18th century Baroque palace and is one of the last large city palaces built in Southern Germany. The palace is located in the center of Stuttgart on the Schlossplatz in front of the Jubiläumssäule column, public tours of the building are only permitted by special arrangement, as the building contains some government offices. In 1737, Duke of Württemberg Charles Alexander died leaving his nine year old Charles Eugene as Duke prematurely. He was not yet old enough to rule the Duchy, so he was sent to be educated, in 1744, Charles Eugene came of age at 16 years of age, and returned to Stuttgart to assume his throne. So it was that Charles Eugene decided to build his palace upon the Schlossplatz, on 3 September 1746 the cornerstone was laid under the New Palaces first build master, Leopoldo Matteo Retti whose uncle, Donato Giuseppe Frisoni, had worked on Ludwigsburg Palace. However, when construction began, it began under the direction of Johann Christoph David Leger as Retti was working on a commission in Ansbach until 1748.
The following year, the facades of the Corps de logis and Garden Wing were completed, Retti, whose work had been inspired by the Baroque architecture of France, died of an unknown illness 18 September 1751. After Rettis death, construction of the fell to Parisian architect Philippe de La Guêpière. A connoisseur of modern architectural theory, Philippe was inspired by his time in his native France and especially the magnificent Palace of Versailles. Under La Guêpière, the City Wing facade was finished in 1756 as well as a dome over the structure in 1760 with decorations to the Corp de logis following in 1762. Unfortunately, a fire destroyed the interior of the Garden Wing, following the fire, an annoyed Charles Eugene decreed the speedy conclusion of construction of the White Room and Mirror Gallery for the celebration of his birthday the following year. In 1764, construction ceased because the Duke moved his residence to Ludwigsburg, in response, La Guêpière left the Dukes court in 1768 and returned to Paris.
In 1775, the Duke returned to Stuttgart and hired Reinhard Heinrich Ferdinand Fischer to repair the Palace. He would do so until his death in 1793 and his era would see the central pavilion of the Marble Hall in the Corps de Logis was decorated with a fresco by Nicolas Guibal. Czar Paul I of Russia and his wife Sophie Dorothea of Württemberg, one of Charles Eugenes nieces, when Charles Eugene died in 1793, New Palace was given more much needed repairs. 1789 saw the completion of the City Wing and the Garden Wing in 1791 during the rule of Frederick II Eugene, in 1806, as the palace was finally nearing completion, Napoleon Bonaparte visited the New Palace. Eleven years later, von Thouret redecorated some of the rooms of the Red Marble Hall during the visit of Czar Alexander I. Under Duke Charles I and his wife Olga only minor changes were made to the castle, mainly made in the living area
Ludwigsburg Palace is a massive Baroque palace complex located in Ludwigsburg, about 12 kilometres from the Baden-Württemberg state capital of Stuttgart. Today, its sumptuous interiors contain various museums and tourist shops, on the grounds are the ancillary residencies of Monrepos and Schloss Favorite, which complete the grounds of this regional tourist attraction. Four days later, it was given the name Ludwigsburg, literally Ludwigs castle and this would be the first time a non-native of Württemberg would lead work on the palace. For the upcoming construction on the interiors of the palace, Nette traveled to Prague and there recruited architect and stuccoist Donato Giuseppe Frisoni in 1709, future project lead for the palace. By 1714, Nette had completed most of the gardens by 1714. Unfortunately, Nette died suddenly as he made his way back to Ludwigsburg at the age of 41 from a stroke, ever following the model of Versailles, Eberhard Louis desired to have a new city to encompass his palace as a symbol of his power.
To this end, he had construction of the city begun in 1704, among the very first structures to be built in the city of Ludwigsburg is located at Eberhardstraße 1. In the 1740s a New Palace was built in Stuttgart, and it was favored by the dukes of Württemberg as their primary residence. However, under King William I of Württemberg, the palace and he favored his own palatial projects at Wilhelma and Rosenstein in Stuttgart. The palace theater and its machinery, from 1758, are still operational. Charlotte, Princess Royal of the United Kingdom and daughter of King George III, married Frederick, Duke, when Frederick died three years later, Charlotte received many notable visitors from across Europe at Ludwigsburg Palace, among them some of her siblings. The Dowager Queen died 5 October 1828 following a bout of illness, from the 1650s onward, the Baroque style bloomed in the Holy Roman Empire. The construction of the Palace of Versailles by French King Louis XIV that revolutionized palace construction in Europe, a new style of palace, a French one, came over Europe even as the political power of France diminished and was replaced with Austria.
Many palaces, Ludwigsburg included, would follow in this wake, Ludwigsburg Palace is built in a French Baroque model in the style of Versailles. As was typical in Württemberg, the French influence on the palace is obvious, of the three major undertakings of 18th century secular Swabian architecture, the largest Baroque palace in Germany, is the most important. By the time he was replaced with Nette, the buildings ground floor and walls had been completed. In 1706 the young and talented architect, Johann Friedrich Nette, had already created an elaborate design for a three-winged, U-shaped palace in the French Baroque style. In the following years a new wing, the main building
Its capital is Dresden, and its largest city is Leipzig. Saxony is the tenth largest of Germanys sixteen states, with an area of 18,413 square kilometres, located in the middle of a large, formerly all German-speaking part of Europe, the history of the state of Saxony spans more than a millennium. It has been a medieval duchy, an electorate of the Holy Roman Empire, a kingdom, the area of the modern state of Saxony should not be confused with Old Saxony, the area inhabited by Saxons. Old Saxony corresponds approximately to the modern German states of Lower Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt, Saxony is divided into 10 districts,1. After a reform in 2008, these regions - with some alterations of their respective areas - were called Direktionsbezirke, in 2012, the authorities of these regions were merged into one central authority, the Landesdirektion Sachsen. The Erzgebirgskreis district includes the Ore Mountains, and the Schweiz-Osterzgebirge district includes Saxon Switzerland, the largest cities in Saxony according to the 31 December 2015 estimate.
To this can be added that Leipzig forms a metropolitan region with Halle. The latter city is located just across the border to Saxony-Anhalt, Leipzig shares for instance an S-train system and an airport with Halle. Saxony has, after Saxony Anhalt, the most vibrant economy of the states of the former East Germany and its economy grew by 1. 9% in 2010. Nonetheless, unemployment remains above the German average, the eastern part of Germany, excluding Berlin, qualifies as an Objective 1 development-region within the European Union, and is eligible to receive investment subsidies of up to 30% until 2013. FutureSAX, a business competition and entrepreneurial support organisation, has been in operation since 2002. Microchip makers near Dresden have given the region the nickname Silicon Saxony, the publishing and porcelain industries of the region are well known, although their contributions to the regional economy are no longer significant. Today the automobile industry, machinery production and services contribute to the development of the region.
Saxony is one of the most renowned tourist destinations in Germany - especially the cities of Leipzig and Dresden, new tourist destinations are developing, notably in the lake district of Lausitz. Saxony reported an unemployment of 8. 8% in 2014. By comparison the average in the former GDR was 9. 8% and 6. 7% for Germany overall, the unemployment rate reached 8. 2% in May 2015. The Leipzig area, which recently was among the regions with the highest unemployment rate, could benefit greatly from investments by Porsche. With the VW Phaeton factory in Dresden, and many part suppliers, zwickau is another major Volkswagen location
Frederick the Great
Frederick II was King of Prussia from 1740 until 1786, the longest reign of any Hohenzollern king. Frederick was the last titled King in Prussia and declared himself King of Prussia after achieving full sovereignty for all historical Prussian lands, Prussia had greatly increased its territories and became a leading military power in Europe under his rule. He became known as Frederick the Great and was affectionately nicknamed Der Alte Fritz by the Prussian, in his youth, Frederick was more interested in music and philosophy than the art of war. Upon ascending to the Prussian throne, he attacked Austria and claimed Silesia during the Silesian Wars, winning acclaim for himself. Near the end of his life, Frederick physically connected most of his realm by conquering Polish territories in the First Partition of Poland and he was an influential military theorist whose analysis emerged from his extensive personal battlefield experience and covered issues of strategy, tactics and logistics. Considering himself the first servant of the state, Frederick was a proponent of enlightened absolutism and he modernized the Prussian bureaucracy and civil service and pursued religious policies throughout his realm that ranged from tolerance to segregation.
He reformed the system and made it possible for men not of noble stock to become judges. Frederick encouraged immigrants of various nationalities and faiths to come to Prussia, some critics, point out his oppressive measures against conquered Polish subjects during the First Partition. Frederick supported arts and philosophers he favored, as well as allowing complete freedom of the press, Frederick is buried at his favorite residence, Sanssouci in Potsdam. Because he died childless, Frederick was succeeded by his nephew, Frederick William II, son of his brother, historian Leopold von Ranke was unstinting in his praise of Fredericks Heroic life, inspired by great ideas, filled with feats of arms. Immortalized by the raising of the Prussian state to the rank of a power, Johann Gustav Droysen was even more extolling. However, by the 21st century, a re-evaluation of his legacy as a great warrior, the son of Frederick William I and his wife, Sophia Dorothea of Hanover, was born in Berlin on 24 January 1712.
The birth of Frederick was welcomed by his grandfather, Frederick I, with more than usual pleasure, with the death of his father in 1713, Frederick William became King of Prussia, thus making young Frederick the crown prince. The new king wished for his sons and daughters to be educated not as royalty and he had been educated by a Frenchwoman, Madame de Montbail, who became Madame de Rocoulle, and he wished that she educate his children. However, he possessed a violent temper and ruled Brandenburg-Prussia with absolute authority. As Frederick grew, his preference for music and French culture clashed with his fathers militarism, in contrast, Fredericks mother Sophia was polite and learned. Her father, George Louis of Brunswick-Lüneburg, succeeded to the British throne as King George I in 1714, Frederick was brought up by Huguenot governesses and tutors and learned French and German simultaneously. Although Frederick William I was raised a Calvinist, he feared he was not of the elect, to avoid the possibility of Frederick being motivated by the same concerns, the king ordered that his heir not be taught about predestination
Palace of Versailles
The Palace of Versailles, Château de Versailles, or simply Versailles, is a royal château in Versailles in the Île-de-France region of France. Versailles is therefore not only as a building, but as a symbol of the system of absolute monarchy of the Ancien Régime. First built by Louis XIII in 1623, as a lodge of brick and stone. The first phase of the expansion was designed and supervised by the architect Louis Le Vau and it culminated in the addition of three new wings of stone, which surrounded Louis XIIIs original building on the north and west. After Le Vaus death in 1670, the work was taken over and completed by his assistant, charles Le Brun designed and supervised the elaborate interior decoration, and André Le Nôtre landscaped the extensive Gardens of Versailles. Le Brun and Le Nôtre collaborated on the fountains, and Le Brun supervised the design. During the second phase of expansion, two enormous wings north and south of the wings flanking the Cour Royale were added by the architect Jules Hardouin-Mansart.
He replaced Le Vaus large terrace, facing the garden on the west, with became the most famous room of the palace. The Royal Chapel of Versailles, located at the end of the north wing, was begun by Mansart in 1688. One of the most baffling aspects to the study of Versailles is the cost – how much Louis XIV, owing to the nature of the construction of Versailles and the evolution of the role of the palace, construction costs were essentially a private matter. Initially, Versailles was planned to be a residence for Louis XIV and was referred to as the kings house. Once Louis XIV embarked on his campaigns, expenses for Versailles became more of a matter for public record. To counter the costs of Versailles during the years of Louis XIVs personal reign. Accordingly, all materials that went into the construction and decoration of Versailles were manufactured in France, even the mirrors used in the decoration of the Hall of Mirrors were made in France. While Venice in the 17th century had the monopoly on the manufacture of mirrors, to meet the demands for decorating and furnishing Versailles, Colbert nationalised the tapestry factory owned by the Gobelin family, to become the Manufacture royale des Gobelins.
In 1667, the name of the enterprise was changed to the Manufacture royale des Meubles de la Couronne, the Comptes meticulously list the expenditures on the silver furniture – disbursements to artists, final payments, delivery – as well as descriptions and weight of items purchased. Entries for 1681 and 1682 concerning the silver used in the salon de Mercure serve as an example. 5 In anticipation, For the silver balustrade for the bedroom,90,000 livres II
Bayreuth is a sizeable town in northern Bavaria, Germany, on the Red Main river in a valley between the Franconian Jura and the Fichtelgebirge Mountains. The towns roots date back to 1194, in the early 21st century, it is the capital of Upper Franconia and has a population of 72,576. It is world-famous for its annual Bayreuth Festival, at performances of operas by the 19th-century German composer Richard Wagner are presented. The town is believed to have founded by the counts of Andechs probably around the mid-12th century. The syllable -rute may mean Rodung or clearing, whilst Baier- indicates immigrants from the Bavarian region, already documented earlier, were villages merged into Bayreuth, Seulbitz and St. Johannis. Even the district of Altstadt west of the centre must be older than the town of Bayreuth itself. Even older traces of human presence were found in the hamlets of Meyernberg, pieces of pottery, while Bayreuth was previously referred to as a villa, the term civitas appeared for the first time in a document published in 1231.
One can therefore assume that Bayreuth was awarded its town charter between 1200 and 1230, the town was ruled until 1248 by the counts of Andechs-Merania. After they died out in 1260 the burgraves of Nuremberg from the House of Hohenzollern took over the inheritance, however, their residence and the centre of the territory was the castle of Plassenburg in Kulmbach. The town of Bayreuth developed slowly and was affected time and again by disasters, as early as 1361 Emperor Charles IV had conferred on Burgrave Frederick V the right to mint coins for the towns of Bayreuth and Kulmbach. Bayreuth was first published on a map in 1421, in February 1430, the Hussites devastated Bayreuth and the town hall and churches were razed. In 1605 a great fire, caused by negligence, destroyed 137 of the towns 251 houses, in 1620 plague broke out and, in 1621, there was another big fire in the town. The town suffered during the Thirty Years War, the first Hohenzollern palace was built in 1440-1457 under Margrave John the Alchemist.
It was the forerunner of todays Old Palace and was expanded and renovated many times, the development of the new capital stagnated due to the Thirty Years War, but afterwards many famous baroque buildings were added to the town. After Christians death in 1655 his grandson, Christian Ernest, followed him and he was an educated and well-travelled man, whose tutor had been the statesman Joachim Friedrich von Blumenthal. He founded the Christian-Ernestinum Grammar School and, in 1683, participated in the liberation of Vienna which had been besieged by the Turks. To commemorate this feat, he had the Margrave Fountain built as a monument on which he is depicted as the victor of the Turks, during this time, the outer ring of the town wall and the castle chapel were built. In 1705 he founded the Order of Sincerity, which was renamed in 1734 to the Order of the Red Eagle and had the church built
Johann Christoph Friedrich von Schiller was a German poet, physician and playwright. During the last seventeen years of his life, Schiller struck up a productive, if complicated, friendship with the already famous and they frequently discussed issues concerning aesthetics, and Schiller encouraged Goethe to finish works he left as sketches. This relationship and these led to a period now referred to as Weimar Classicism. They worked together on Xenien, a collection of satirical poems in which both Schiller and Goethe challenge opponents to their philosophical vision. Friedrich Schiller was born on 10 November 1759, in Marbach, Württemberg as the son of military doctor Johann Kaspar Schiller. Schiller grew up in a religious family and spent much of his youth studying the Bible. His father was away in the Seven Years War when Friedrich was born and he was named after king Frederick the Great, but he was called Fritz by nearly everyone. Kaspar Schiller was rarely home during the war, but he did manage to visit the family once in a while and his wife and children visited him occasionally wherever he happened to be stationed.
When the war ended in 1763, Schillers father became an officer and was stationed in Schwäbisch Gmünd. Due to the high cost of living—especially the rent—the family moved to nearby Lorch, although the family was happy in Lorch, Schillers father found his work unsatisfying. He sometimes took his son with him, in Lorch, Schiller received his primary education. The quality of the lessons was fairly bad, and Friedrich regularly cut class with his older sister, because his parents wanted Schiller to become a pastor, they had the pastor of the village instruct the boy in Latin and Greek. Pastor Moser was a teacher, and Schiller named the cleric in his first play Die Räuber after him. As a boy, Schiller was excited by the idea of becoming a cleric and often put on black robes, in 1766, the family left Lorch for the Duke of Württembergs principal residence, Ludwigsburg. Schillers father had not been paid for three years, and the family had been living on their savings but could no longer afford to do so, so Kaspar Schiller took an assignment to the garrison in Ludwigsburg.
There the Schiller boy came to the attention of Karl Eugen and he entered the Karlsschule Stuttgart, in 1773, where he eventually studied medicine. During most of his life, he suffered from illnesses that he tried to cure himself. While at the Karlsschule, Schiller read Rousseau and Goethe and discussed Classical ideals with his classmates, the plays critique of social corruption and its affirmation of proto-revolutionary republican ideals astounded its original audience