Franklin Pierce was the 14th president of the United States, a northern Democrat who saw the abolitionist movement as a fundamental threat to the unity of the nation. He alienated anti-slavery groups by championing and signing the Kansas–Nebraska Act and enforcing the Fugitive Slave Act, yet he failed to stem conflict between North and South, setting the stage for Southern secession and the American Civil War. Pierce was born in New Hampshire, served in the U. S. House of Representatives and the Senate until he resigned from the Senate in 1842, his private law practice in New Hampshire was a success, he was appointed U. S. Attorney for his state in 1845, he took part in the Mexican–American War as a brigadier general in the Army. He was seen by Democrats as a compromise candidate uniting northern and southern interests and was nominated as the party's candidate for president on the 49th ballot at the 1852 Democratic National Convention, he and running mate William R. King defeated the Whig Party ticket of Winfield Scott and William A.
Graham in the 1852 presidential election. As president, Pierce attempted to enforce neutral standards for civil service while satisfying the diverse elements of the Democratic Party with patronage, an effort which failed and turned many in his party against him, he was a Young America expansionist who signed the Gadsden Purchase of land from Mexico and led a failed attempt to acquire Cuba from Spain. He signed trade treaties with Britain and Japan, while his Cabinet reformed their departments and improved accountability, but these successes were overshadowed by political strife during his presidency, his popularity declined in the Northern states after he supported the Kansas–Nebraska Act, which nullified the Missouri Compromise, while many whites in the South continued to support him. Passage of the act led to violent conflict over the expansion of slavery in the American West. Pierce's administration was further damaged when several of his diplomats issued the Ostend Manifesto calling for the annexation of Cuba, a document, roundly criticized.
He expected to be renominated by the Democrats in the 1856 presidential election, but was abandoned by his party and his bid failed. His reputation in the North suffered further during the American Civil War as he became a vocal critic of President Abraham Lincoln. Pierce was popular and outgoing, but his family life was a grim affair, with his wife Jane suffering from illness and depression for much of her life. All of their children died young, their last son being gruesomely killed in a train accident while the family was traveling shortly before Pierce's inauguration, he was a heavy drinker for much of his life, he died of cirrhosis of the liver in 1869. Historians and scholars rank Pierce as one of the worst and least memorable U. S. Presidents. Franklin Pierce was born on November 1804 in a log cabin in Hillsborough, New Hampshire, he was a sixth-generation descendant of Thomas Pierce, who had moved to the Massachusetts Bay Colony from Norwich, England in about 1634. His father Benjamin was a lieutenant in the American Revolutionary War who moved from Chelmsford, Massachusetts to Hillsborough after the war, purchasing 50 acres of land.
Pierce was the fifth of eight children born to his second wife Anna Kendrick. Benjamin was a prominent Democratic-Republican state legislator and tavern-keeper. During Pierce's childhood, his father was involved in state politics, while two of his older brothers fought in the War of 1812. Pierce's father ensured that his sons were educated, he placed Pierce in a school at Hillsborough Center in childhood and sent him to the town school at Hancock at age 12; the boy, not fond of schooling, grew homesick at Hancock and walked 12 miles back to his home one Sunday. His father fed him dinner and drove him part of the distance back to school before kicking him out of the carriage and ordering him to walk the rest of the way in a thunderstorm. Pierce cited this moment as "the turning-point in my life"; that year, he transferred to Phillips Exeter Academy to prepare for college. By this time, he had built a reputation as a charming student, sometimes prone to misbehavior. In fall 1820, Pierce entered Bowdoin College in Brunswick, one of 19 freshmen.
He joined the Athenian Society, a progressive literary society, alongside Jonathan Cilley and Nathaniel Hawthorne, with whom he formed lasting friendships. He was the last in his class after two years, but he worked hard to improve his grades and graduated in fifth place in 1824 in a graduating class of 14. John P. Hale enrolled at Bowdoin in Pierce's junior year. Pierce organized and led an unofficial militia company called the Bowdoin Cadets during his junior year, which included Cilley and Hawthorne; the unit performed drill on campus near the president's house, until the noise caused him to demand that it halt. The students went on strike, an event that Pierce was suspected of leading. During his final year at Bowdoin, he spent several months teaching at a school in rural Hebron, where he earned his first salary and his students included future Congressman John J. Perry. Pierce read law with former New Hampshire Governor Levi Woodbury, a family friend in Portsmouth, New Hampshire, he spent a semester at Northampton Law School in Northampton, followed by a period of study in 1826 and 1827 under Judge Edmund Parker in Amherst, New Hampshire.
He was admitt
25th United States Congress
The Twenty-fifth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D. C. from March 4, 1837, to March 4, 1839, during the first two years of Martin Van Buren's presidency. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the Fifth Census of the United States in 1830. Both chambers had a Democratic majority. March 4, 1837: Martin Van Buren became President of the United States May 10, 1837: Panic of 1837 January 6, 1838: First public demonstration of Samuel Morse's telegraph May 26, 1838: Trail of Tears: The Cherokee removal began June 12, 1838: Iowa Territory was formed from the Wisconsin Territory. President: Richard Mentor Johnson President pro tempore: William R. King Speaker: James K. Polk This list is arranged by chamber by state. Senators are listed in order of seniority, Representatives are listed by district.
Skip to House of Representatives, below Senators were elected by the state legislatures every two years, with one-third beginning new six-year terms with each Congress. Preceding the names in the list below are Senate class numbers, which indicate the cycle of their election. In this Congress, Class 1 meant their term ended with this Congress, requiring reelection in 1838; the names of members of the House of Representatives are preceded by their district numbers. The count below reflects changes from the beginning of the first session of this Congress. Replacements: 6 Democrats: no net change Whigs: no net change Deaths: 1 Resignations: 6 Total seats with changes: 7 Replacements: 16 Democrats: 5-seat net loss Whigs: 5-seat net gain Deaths: 9 Resignations: 6 Contested election:1 Total seats with changes: 20 Lists of committees and their party leaders. Agriculture Audit and Control the Contingent Expenses of the Senate Claims Commerce Danger of Steam Vessels Distributing Public Revenue Among the States District of Columbia Finance Foreign Relations Indian Affairs Judiciary Letter of Mr. Ruggles Manufactures Memorial of A. B.
Quinby Memorial of the Citizens of Georgetown for the Retrocession of that Part of the District Memorial of Duff Green Memorial of Edward D. Tippett Mileage of Members of Congress Military Affairs Militia Naval Affairs Occupation of the Columbia River Oregon Territory Patents and the Patent Office Pensions Post Office and Post Roads Private Land Claims Public Buildings and Grounds Public Lands Purchasing Boyd Reilly's Gas Apparatus Revolutionary Claims Roads and Canals Tariff Regulation Whole Accounts Agriculture Amendment to the Constitution Claims Commerce District of Columbia Elections Expenditures in the Navy Department Expenditures in the Post Office Department Expenditures in the State Department Expenditures in the Treasury Department Expenditures in the War Department Expenditures on Public Buildings Foreign Affairs Indian Affairs Invalid Pensions Manufactures Mileage Military Affairs Militia Naval Affairs Patents Post Office and Post Roads Public Buildings and Grounds Public Expenditures Public Lands Revisal and Unfinished Business Revolutionary Claims Roads and Canals Rules Standards of Official Conduct Territories Ways and Means Whole Enrolled Bills Librarian of Congress: John Silva Meehan Chaplain: John R. Goodman, elected December 28, 1836 Henry Slicer, elected September 11, 1837 Secretary: Asbury Dickens Sergeant at Arms: John Shackford Stephen Haight, elected September 4, 1837 Chaplain: Septimus Tustin, elected September 4, 1837 Levi R. Reese, elected December 4, 1837 Clerk: Walter S. Franklin, until September 20, 1838 Hugh A. Garland, elected December 3, 1838 Doorkeeper: Overton Carr Postmaster: William J. McCormick Reading Clerks: Sergeant at Arms: Roderick Dorsey United States elections, 1836 United States presidential election, 1836 United States Senate elections, 1836 and 1837 United States House of Representatives elections, 1836 United States elections, 1838 United States Senate elections, 1838 and 1839 United States House of Representatives elections, 1838 Martis, Kenneth C..
The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Statutes at Large, 1789-1875 Senate Journal, First Forty-three Sessions of Congress House Journal, First Forty-three Sessions of Congress Biographical Directory of the U. S. Congress U. S. House of Representatives: House History U. S. Senate: Statistics and Lists Congressional Directory for the 25th Congress, 3rd Session
New Hampshire's at-large congressional district
The New Hampshire At-large congressional district is obsolete, with representation having since been divided into districts. However, from 1789 to 1847, New Hampshire elected members to the United States House of Representatives at-large: From 1789 to 1793, three members represented the state At-large. From 1793 to 1803, four members represented the state At-large. From 1803 to 1813, five members represented the state At-large. From 1813 to 1833, six members represented the state At-large. From 1833 to 1843, five members represented the state At-large. From 1843 to 1847, four members represented the state At-large. In 1847 at-large representation was replaced by four electoral districts. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present
Nashua, New Hampshire
Nashua is a city in Hillsborough County, New Hampshire, United States. As of the 2010 census, Nashua had a population of 86,494, making it the second-largest city in the state after Manchester; as of 2017 the population had risen to an estimated 88,341. Built around the now-departed textile industry, in recent decades it has been swept up in southern New Hampshire's economic expansion as part of the Boston region. Nashua was twice named "Best Place" in annual surveys by Money magazine, it is the only city to get the No. 1 ranking on two occasions—in 1987 and 1998. The area was part of a 200-square-mile tract of land in Massachusetts called "Dunstable", awarded to Edward Tyng of Dunstable, England. Nashua lies in the center of the original 1673 grant. In 1732, Dunstable was split along the Merrimack River, with the town of Nottingham created out of the eastern portion; the disputed boundary between Massachusetts and New Hampshire was fixed in 1741 when the governorships of the two provinces were separated.
As a result, the township of Dunstable was divided in two. Tyngsborough and some of Dunstable remained in Massachusetts, while Dunstable, New Hampshire, was incorporated in 1746 from the northern section of the town. Located at the confluence of the Nashua and Merrimack rivers, Dunstable was first settled about 1654 as a fur trading town. Like many 19th century riverfront New England communities, it would be developed during the Industrial Revolution with textile mills operated from water power. By 1836, the Nashua Manufacturing Company had built three cotton mills which produced 9.3 million yards of cloth annually on 710 looms. On December 31, 1836, the New Hampshire half of Dunstable was renamed "Nashua", after the Nashua River, by a declaration of the New Hampshire legislature; the Nashua River was named by the Nashuway Indians, in the Penacook language it means "beautiful stream with a pebbly bottom", with an alternative meaning of "land between two rivers". In 1842 the town split again in two for eleven years following a dispute between the area north of the Nashua, the area south of the river.
During that time the northern area called itself "Nashville", while the southern part kept the name Nashua. They reconciled in 1853 and joined together to charter the "city of Nashua". Six railroad lines crossed the mill town, namely the Boston and Nashua; these various railroads led to all sections of the country, east and west. The Jackson Manufacturing Company employed hundreds of workers in the 1870s. Like the rival Amoskeag Manufacturing Company upriver in Manchester, the Nashua mills prospered until about World War I, after which a slow decline set in. Water power was replaced with newer forms of energy to run factories. Cotton could be manufactured into fabric; the textile business started moving to the South during the Great Depression, with the last mill closing in 1949. Many citizens were left unemployed, but Sanders Associates, a newly created defense firm, now part of BAE Systems, moved into one of the closed mills and launched the city's rebirth. Besides being credited with reviving the city's economy, Sanders Associates played a key role in the development of the home video game console market.
Ralph H. Baer, an employee of Sanders, developed what would become the Magnavox Odyssey, the first commercial home video game system. Sam Tamposi is credited with much of the city's revival; the arrival of Digital Equipment Corp. in the 1970s made the city part of the Boston-area high-tech corridor. Nashua is in southeastern Hillsborough County at 42°45′04″N 71°28′51″W, it is bordered to the south by Massachusetts. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 31.9 square miles, of which 30.8 square miles is land and 1.0 square mile is water, comprising 3.25% of the city. The eastern boundary of Nashua is formed by the Merrimack River, the city is drained by the Nashua River and Salmon Brook, tributaries of the Merrimack; the Nashua River bisects the city. Pennichuck Brook forms the city's northern boundary; the highest point in Nashua is Gilboa Hill in the southern part of the city, at 426 feet above sea level. The city is bordered on the east by the Merrimack River, across which lies the town of Hudson, New Hampshire.
Nashua has a four-season humid continental climate, with long, snowy winters, warm and somewhat humid summers. The monthly daily average temperature ranges from 22.7 °F in January to 70.9 °F in July. On average, there are 9.4 days of 8.7 days of sub-0 °F lows. Precipitation is well-spread throughout the year. Snowfall, the heaviest of which comes from nor'easters, averages around 55 inches per season, but can vary from year to year; as of the census of 2010, there were 86,494 people, 35,044 households, 21,876 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,719.9 people per square mile. There were 37,168 housing units at an average density of 1,202.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 83.4% White, 2.7% African American, 0.3% Native American, 6.5% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 4.6% from some other race, 2.5
Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, with about 6,700 undergraduate students and about 15,250 postgraduate students. Established in 1636 and named for its first benefactor, clergyman John Harvard, Harvard is the United States' oldest institution of higher learning, its history and wealth have made it one of the world's most prestigious universities; the Harvard Corporation is its first chartered corporation. Although never formally affiliated with any denomination, the early College trained Congregational and Unitarian clergy, its curriculum and student body were secularized during the 18th century, by the 19th century, Harvard had emerged as the central cultural establishment among Boston elites. Following the American Civil War, President Charles W. Eliot's long tenure transformed the college and affiliated professional schools into a modern research university. A. Lawrence Lowell, who followed Eliot, further reformed the undergraduate curriculum and undertook aggressive expansion of Harvard's land holdings and physical plant.
James Bryant Conant led the university through the Great Depression and World War II and began to reform the curriculum and liberalize admissions after the war. The undergraduate college became coeducational after its 1977 merger with Radcliffe College; the university is organized into eleven separate academic units—ten faculties and the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study—with campuses throughout the Boston metropolitan area: its 209-acre main campus is centered on Harvard Yard in Cambridge 3 miles northwest of Boston. Harvard's endowment is worth $39.2 billion, making it the largest of any academic institution. Harvard is a large residential research university; the nominal cost of attendance is high, but the university's large endowment allows it to offer generous financial aid packages. The Harvard Library is the world's largest academic and private library system, comprising 79 individual libraries holding over 18 million items; the University is cited as one of the world's top tertiary institutions by various organizations.
Harvard's alumni include eight U. S. presidents, more than thirty foreign heads of state, 62 living billionaires, 359 Rhodes Scholars, 242 Marshall Scholars. As of October 2018, 158 Nobel laureates, 18 Fields Medalists, 14 Turing Award winners have been affiliated as students, faculty, or researchers. In addition, Harvard students and alumni have won 10 Academy Awards, 48 Pulitzer Prizes and 108 Olympic medals, have founded a large number of companies worldwide. Harvard was established in 1636 by vote of the Great and General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. In 1638, it acquired British North America's first known printing press. In 1639, it was named Harvard College after deceased clergyman John Harvard, an alumnus of the University of Cambridge, who had left the school £779 and his scholar's library of some 400 volumes; the charter creating the Harvard Corporation was granted in 1650. A 1643 publication gave the school's purpose as "to advance learning and perpetuate it to posterity, dreading to leave an illiterate ministry to the churches when our present ministers shall lie in the dust".
It offered a classic curriculum on the English university model—many leaders in the colony had attended the University of Cambridge—but conformed to the tenets of Puritanism. It was never affiliated with any particular denomination, but many of its earliest graduates went on to become clergymen in Congregational and Unitarian churches; the leading Boston divine Increase Mather served as president from 1685 to 1701. In 1708, John Leverett became the first president, not a clergyman, marking a turning of the college from Puritanism and toward intellectual independence. Throughout the 18th century, Enlightenment ideas of the power of reason and free will became widespread among Congregational ministers, putting those ministers and their congregations in tension with more traditionalist, Calvinist parties; when the Hollis Professor of Divinity David Tappan died in 1803 and the president of Harvard Joseph Willard died a year in 1804, a struggle broke out over their replacements. Henry Ware was elected to the chair in 1805, the liberal Samuel Webber was appointed to the presidency of Harvard two years which signaled the changing of the tide from the dominance of traditional ideas at Harvard to the dominance of liberal, Arminian ideas.
In 1846, the natural history lectures of Louis Agassiz were acclaimed both in New York and on the campus at Harvard College. Agassiz's approach was distinctly idealist and posited Americans' "participation in the Divine Nature" and the possibility of understanding "intellectual existences". Agassiz's perspective on science combined observation with intuition and the assumption that a person can grasp the "divine plan" in all phenomena; when it came to explaining life-forms, Agassiz resorted to matters of shape based on a presumed archetype for his evidence. This dual view of knowledge was in concert with the teachings of Common Sense Realism derived from Scottish philosophers Thomas Reid and Dugald Stewart, whose works were part of the Harvard curriculum at the time; the popularity of Agassiz's efforts to "soar with Plato" also derived from other writings to which Harvard students
New Hampshire House of Representatives
The New Hampshire House of Representatives is the lower house in the New Hampshire General Court, the bicameral legislature of the state of New Hampshire. The House of Representatives consists of 400 members coming from 204 legislative districts across the state, created from divisions of the state's counties. On average, each legislator represents about 3,300 residents. Districts vary in number of seats based on their populations, with the least-populous districts electing only one member and the most populous electing 11. In multi-member districts, voters are allowed to cast as many votes; this system results in one party winning all of the seats in the district, as the results below for the current representation attest. Unlike in many state legislatures, there is no single "aisle" to cross per se, as members of both parties sit segregated in five sections; the seat section and number is put on the legislator's motor vehicle license plate, which they pay for if they wish to put one on their personal automobiles, or in the case of the chairpersons and party leaders, their title is put on the legislative plate.
Seating location is enforced, as seating is pre-assigned, although the personal preference of the legislator is asked chairmen and those with special needs are given the preferred aisle seats. The sixth section is the Speaker's seat at the head of the hall; the House of Representatives has met in Representatives Hall of the New Hampshire State House since 1819. Representatives Hall is thus the oldest chamber in the United States still in continuous legislative use. Large arched windows line the walls. On the rostrum hang portraits of John P. Hale, Abraham Lincoln, George Washington, Franklin Pierce, Daniel Webster. ↑ Member was first elected in a special election. ↑ Member was first elected in a special election. ↑ Member was first elected in a special election. ↑ Member was first elected in a special election. ↓ If a candidate receives enough votes in two parties' primaries, they are listed as being the nominee of both parties in the general election. ↑ Member was first elected in a special election.
↑ Member was elected in a special election. ↓ If a candidate receives enough votes in two parties' primaries, they are listed as being the nominee of both parties in the general election. ↑ Member was elected in a special election. State of New Hampshire House of Representatives official government website Leadership Project Vote Smart – State House of New Hampshire voter information The Legislative Branch of State Government
United States House of Representatives
The United States House of Representatives is the lower chamber of the United States Congress, the Senate being the upper chamber. Together they compose the legislature of the United States; the composition of the House is established by Article One of the United States Constitution. The House is composed of Representatives who sit in congressional districts that are allocated to each of the 50 states on a basis of population as measured by the U. S. Census, with each district entitled to one representative. Since its inception in 1789, all Representatives have been directly elected; the total number of voting representatives is fixed by law at 435. As of the 2010 Census, the largest delegation is that of California, with fifty-three representatives. Seven states have only one representative: Alaska, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota and Wyoming; the House is charged with the passage of federal legislation, known as bills, after concurrence by the Senate, are sent to the President for consideration.
In addition to this basic power, the House has certain exclusive powers, among them the power to initiate all bills related to revenue. The House meets in the south wing of the United States Capitol; the presiding officer is the Speaker of the House, elected by the members thereof. The Speaker and other floor leaders are chosen by the Democratic Caucus or the Republican Conference, depending on whichever party has more voting members. Under the Articles of Confederation, the Congress of the Confederation was a unicameral body in which each state was represented, in which each state had a veto over most action. After eight years of a more limited confederal government under the Articles, numerous political leaders such as James Madison and Alexander Hamilton initiated the Constitutional Convention in 1787, which received the Confederation Congress's sanction to "amend the Articles of Confederation". All states except Rhode Island agreed to send delegates; the issue of how to structure Congress was one of the most divisive among the founders during the Convention.
Edmund Randolph's Virginia Plan called for a bicameral Congress: the lower house would be "of the people", elected directly by the people of the United States and representing public opinion, a more deliberative upper house, elected by the lower house, that would represent the individual states, would be less susceptible to variations of mass sentiment. The House is referred to as the lower house, with the Senate being the upper house, although the United States Constitution does not use that terminology. Both houses' approval is necessary for the passage of legislation; the Virginia Plan drew the support of delegates from large states such as Virginia and Pennsylvania, as it called for representation based on population. The smaller states, favored the New Jersey Plan, which called for a unicameral Congress with equal representation for the states; the Convention reached the Connecticut Compromise or Great Compromise, under which one house of Congress would provide representation proportional to each state's population, whereas the other would provide equal representation amongst the states.
The Constitution was ratified by the requisite number of states in 1788, but its implementation was set for March 4, 1789. The House began work on April 1789, when it achieved a quorum for the first time. During the first half of the 19th century, the House was in conflict with the Senate over regionally divisive issues, including slavery; the North was much more populous than the South, therefore dominated the House of Representatives. However, the North held no such advantage in the Senate, where the equal representation of states prevailed. Regional conflict was most pronounced over the issue of slavery. One example of a provision supported by the House but blocked by the Senate was the Wilmot Proviso, which sought to ban slavery in the land gained during the Mexican–American War. Conflict over slavery and other issues persisted until the Civil War, which began soon after several southern states attempted to secede from the Union; the war culminated in the abolition of slavery. All southern senators except Andrew Johnson resigned their seats at the beginning of the war, therefore the Senate did not hold the balance of power between North and South during the war.
The years of Reconstruction that followed witnessed large majorities for the Republican Party, which many Americans associated with the Union's victory in the Civil War and the ending of slavery. The Reconstruction period ended in about 1877; the Democratic Party and Republican Party each held majorities in the House at various times. The late 19th and early 20th centuries saw a dramatic increase in the power of the Speaker of the House; the rise of the Speaker's influence began in the 1890s, during the tenure of Republican Thomas Brackett Reed. "Czar Reed", as he was nicknamed, attempted to put into effect his view that "The best system is to have one party govern and the other party watch." The leadership structure of the House developed during the same period, with the positions of Majority Leader and Minority Leader being created in 1899. While the Minority Leader