Henry Kenneth Bulmer was a British author of science fiction. Born in London, he married Pamela Buckmaster on 7 March 1953, they had one son and two daughters, they divorced in 1981. Bulmer lived in Tunbridge Wells, England, he died 16 December 2005. A prolific writer, Bulmer penned over 160 novels and numerous short stories, both under his real name and various pseudonyms. For instance, his long-running Dray Prescot series of planetary romances was published as Alan Burt Akers, as by the first-person protagonist of the series, Prescot himself. Bulmer's works are popular in translation Germany, to the extent that in some cases they have been published only in German editions, with the original English-language versions remaining unpublished. Bulmer did some work in comics, writing Jet-Ace Logan stories for Tiger, scripts for War Picture Library and Valiant, helping to create the British comics antihero The Steel Claw. Paul Grist's comics series Jack Staff acknowledges this in the real name of its character The Claw, Ben Kulmer.
Bulmer was active in science fiction fandom, including travelling to the United States in 1955 as the TransAtlantic Fan Fund delegate. In the 1970s he edited nine issues of the New Writings in Science Fiction anthology series in succession to John Carnell, who originated the series. Bulmer's pseudonyms include Alan Burt Akers, Frank Brandon, Rupert Clinton, Ernest Corley, Peter Green, Adam Hardy, Philip Kent, Bruno Krauss, Karl Maras, Manning Norvil, Chesman Scot, Nelson Sherwood, Richard Silver, H. Philip Stratford and Tully Zetford. Kenneth Johns was a collective pseudonym used for a collaboration with author John Newman; some of Bulmer's works were published along with the works of other authors under "house names" Ken Blake, Arthur Frazier, Neil Langholm, Charles R. Pike, Andrew Quiller, he ghost-wrote books for Barry Sadler. In some cases, Bulmer used not only a different name but included in the books a detailed imaginary biography giving specific personal details different from the true ones.
For example, the Viking series published under the name "Neil Langholm" included biographical details intended to create the impression that the series – as appropriate to its subject – was written by a Dane: Neil Langholm was born in Copenhagen in 1931, but was educated in England at Eton and Oxford. He gave up in 1960 to begin writing full time, he is the author of several bestselling western and science fiction series, which he writes under a pseudonym. Mr. Langholm now lives with five children in Ruislip, his hobbies are breeding dogs and archery. Consists of eleven cycles, four stand-alone novels, three stand-alone short stories as noted below; the first thirty-seven volumes were published by DAW Books from December 1972 – April 1988. English language ebooks of volumes 38–41 were issued by the now-defunct electronic publisher Savanti from September 1995 – December 1998. Publication was interrupted for close to six years between volumes 45 and 46 due to family illness and difficulty in locating the manuscripts.
As of 5 February 2014 it was reported that all the missing manuscripts had been found except that for Demons of Antares, being translated back into English from the German version, a process "almost finished." Publication of the volume followed in June 2014, with the remaining volumes appearing at intervals during the remainder of the year. Volume 52 was published in November 2014. Bladud Books, a sister imprint of Mushroom eBooks, has published collected omnibus editions of all volumes in hardcover and ebook formats. 1. Transit to Scorpio ISBN 978-1-84319-333-3 2; the Suns of Scorpio 3. Warrior of Scorpio 4. Swordships of Scorpio 5. Prince of Scorpio Collected in The Saga of Dray Prescot: The Delian Cycle ISBN 978-1-84319-557-3 6. Manhounds of Antares 7. Arena of Antares 8. Fliers of Antares 9. Bladesman of Antares 10. Avenger of Antares 11. Armada of Antares "Wizard of Scorpio" Collected in The Saga of Dray Prescot: The Havilfar Cycle I and The Saga of Dray Prescot: The Havilfar Cycle II 12; the Tides of Kregen 13.
Renegade of Kregen 14. Krozair of Kregen Collected in The Saga of Dray Prescot: The Krozair Cycle 15. Secret Scorpio 16. Savage Scorpio 17. Captive Scorpio 18. Golden Scorpio Collected in The Saga of Dray Prescot: The Vallian Cycle 19. A Life for Kregen 20. A Sword for Kregen 21. A Fortune for Kregen 22. A Victory for Kregen Collected in The Saga of Dray Prescot: The Jikaida Cycle 23. Beasts of Antares 24. Rebel of Antares 25. Legions of Antares 26. Allies of Antares Collected in The Saga of Dray Prescot: The Spikatur Cycle 27. Mazes of Scorpio "Green Shadows" "Lallia the Slave Girl" 28. Delia of Vallia 29. Fires of Scorpio 30. Talons of Scorpio 3
Ray Douglas Bradbury was an American author and screenwriter. He worked in a variety of genres, including fantasy, science fiction and mystery fiction. Known for his dystopian novel Fahrenheit 451, his science-fiction and horror-story collections, The Martian Chronicles, The Illustrated Man, I Sing the Body Electric, Bradbury was one of the most celebrated 20th- and 21st-century American writers. While most of his best known work is in speculative fiction, he wrote in other genres, such as the coming-of-age novel Dandelion Wine and the fictionalized memoir Green Shadows, White Whale. Recipient of numerous awards, including a 2007 Pulitzer Citation, Bradbury wrote and consulted on screenplays and television scripts, including Moby Dick and It Came from Outer Space. Many of his works were adapted to comic book and film formats. Upon his death in 2012, The New York Times called Bradbury "the writer most responsible for bringing modern science fiction into the literary mainstream". Bradbury was born on August 22, 1920, in Waukegan, Illinois, to Esther Bradbury, a Swedish immigrant, Leonard Spaulding Bradbury, a power and telephone lineman of English ancestry.
He was given the middle name "Douglas" after the actor Douglas Fairbanks. Bradbury was related to the American Shakespeare scholar Douglas Spaulding and descended from Mary Bradbury, tried at one of the Salem witch trials in 1692. Bradbury was surrounded by an extended family during his early childhood and formative years in Waukegan. An aunt read him short stories; this period provided foundations for his stories. In Bradbury's works of fiction, 1920s Waukegan becomes Illinois; the Bradbury family lived in Tucson, during 1926–1927 and 1932–1933 while their father pursued employment, each time returning to Waukegan. They settled in Los Angeles in 1934 when Bradbury was 14 years old; the family arrived with only US$40, which paid for rent and food until his father found a job making wire at a cable company for $14 a week. This meant that they could stay, Bradbury—who was in love with Hollywood—was ecstatic. Bradbury was active in the drama club, he roller-skated through Hollywood in hopes of meeting celebrities.
Among the creative and talented people Bradbury met were special-effects pioneer Ray Harryhausen and radio star George Burns. Bradbury's first pay as a writer, at age 14, was for a joke he sold to George Burns to use on the Burns and Allen radio show. Throughout his youth, Bradbury was an avid reader and writer and knew at a young age that he was "going into one of the arts." Bradbury began writing his own stories at age 11, during the Great Depression — sometimes writing on the only available paper, butcher paper. In his youth, he spent much time in the Carnegie library in Waukegan, reading such authors as H. G. Wells, Jules Verne, Edgar Allan Poe. At 12, Bradbury began writing traditional horror stories and said he tried to imitate Poe until he was about 18. In addition to comics, he loved Edgar Rice Burroughs, creator of Tarzan of the Apes Burroughs' John Carter of Mars series; the Warlord of Mars impressed him so much. The young Bradbury was a cartoonist and loved to illustrate, he drew his own Sunday panels.
He listened to the radio show Chandu the Magician, every night when the show went off the air, he would sit and write the entire script from memory. As a teen in Beverly Hills, he visited his mentor and friend science-fiction writer Bob Olsen, sharing ideas and maintaining contact. In 1936, at a secondhand bookstore in Hollywood, Bradbury discovered a handbill promoting meetings of the Los Angeles Science Fiction Society. Excited to find there were others sharing his interest, Bradbury joined a weekly Thursday-night conclave at age 16. Bradbury cited H. G. Jules Verne as his primary science-fiction influences. Bradbury identified with Verne, saying, "He believes the human being is in a strange situation in a strange world, he believes that we can triumph by behaving morally". Bradbury admitted that he stopped reading science-fiction books in his 20s and embraced a broad field of literature that included Alexander Pope and poet John Donne. Bradbury had just graduated from high school when he met Robert Heinlein 31 years old.
Bradbury recalled, "He was well known, he wrote humanistic science fiction, which influenced me to dare to be human instead of mechanical."In young adulthood Bradbury read stories published in Astounding Science Fiction, read everything by Robert A. Heinlein, Arthur C. Clarke, the early writings of Theodore Sturgeon and A. E. van Vogt. The family lived about four blocks from the Fox Uptown Theatre on Western Avenue in Los Angeles, the flagship theater for MGM and Fox. There, Bradbury learned how to sneak in and watched previews every week, he rollerskated there, as well as all over town, as he put it, "hell-bent on getting autographs from glamorous stars. It was glorious." Among stars the young Bradbury was thrilled to encounter were Norma Shearer and Hardy, Ronald Colman. Sometimes, he spent all day in front of Paramount Pictures or Columbia Pictures and skated to the Brown Derby to watch the stars who came and went for meals, he recounted seeing Cary Grant, Marlene Dietrich, Mae West, whom he learned made a regular appearance every Friday night, bodyguard in tow.
Bradbury relates the following meeting with Sergei Bondarchuk, director of Soviet epic film series War and Peace, at a Hollywood award ceremony in Bondarchuk's honor: They forme
Sword and planet
Sword and planet is a subgenre of science fantasy that features rousing adventure stories set on other planets, featuring humans as protagonists. The name derives from the heroes of the genre engaging their adversaries in hand-to-hand combat with simple melée weapons such as swords in a setting that has advanced technology. Although there are works that herald the genre, such as Percy Greg's Across the Zodiac and Edwin Lester Arnold's Lieut. Gullivar Jones: His Vacation, the prototype for the genre is A Princess of Mars by Edgar Rice Burroughs serialized by All-Story in 1912 as "Under the Moons of Mars"; the genre predates the mainstream popularity of science fiction proper, does not feature any scientific rigor, being instead romantic tales of high adventure. For example, little thought is given to explaining why the environment of the alien planet is compatible with life from Earth, just that it does in order to allow the hero to move about and interact with the natives. Native technology will break the known laws of physics.
The genre tag "sword and planet" is constructed to mimic the terms sword and sorcery and sword and sandal. The phrase appears to have first been coined in the 1960s by Donald A. Wollheim, editor of Ace Books, of DAW Books at a time when the genre was undergoing a revival. Both Ace Books and DAW Books were instrumental in bringing much of the earlier pulp sword and planet stories back into print, as well as publishing a great deal of new, imitative work by a new generation of authors. There is a fair amount of overlap between sword and planet and planetary romance although some works are considered to belong to one and not the other. Influenced by the likes of A Princess of Mars yet more modern and technologically savvy and planet more directly imitates the conventions established by Burroughs in the Mars series; that is to say that the hero is alone as the only human being from Earth, swords are the weapon of choice, while the alien planet has some advanced technology, it is used only in limited applications to advance the plot or increase the grandeur of the setting.
In general the alien planet will seem to be more primitive than Earth. This leads to anachronistic situations such as flying ships held aloft by anti-gravity technology, while ground travel is done by riding domesticated native animals. In A Princess of Mars, John Carter, a Confederate officer and soldier, has taken up prospecting in Arizona after the war to regain his fortune. Under mysterious circumstances, he is transported to Mars, called Barsoom by its inhabitants. There he encounters savage and monstrous aliens, a beautiful princess, a life of adventure and wonder. Burroughs followed up this first book with several more Barsoom stories, another series that could be considered Sword & Planet, featuring as hero Carson Napier and his adventures on Venus, natively known as Amtor. Burroughs' Pellucidar series could arguably be considered sword-and- planet, as it follows most of the plot conventions described below. Burroughs established a set of conventions that were followed closely by most other entries in the sword and planet genre.
The typical first book in a sword and planet series uses some or all of the following plot points: A tough but chivalrous male protagonist, from Earth of a period not too distant from our own, finds himself transported to a distant world. The transportation may be via astral projection, time travel, or any similar form of scientific magic, but should not imply that travel between worlds is either easy or common; the Earthman thus finds himself the sole representative of his own race on an alien planet. This planet is at a pre-modern barbaric stage of civilization, but may here and there have remarkable technologies that hint at a more advanced past. There is no obligation for the physical properties or biology of the alien planet to follow any scientific understanding of the potential conditions of habitable worlds. A lower gravity may be invoked to explain such things as large flying animals or people, or the superhuman strength of the hero, but will otherwise be ignored.. Not long after discovering his predicament, the Earthman finds himself caught in a struggle between two or more factions, nations, or species.
He sides, of course, with the nation with the prettiest woman, who will sometimes turn out to be a princess. Before he can set about courting her, she is kidnapped by a fiendish villain or villains; the Earthman, taking up his sword, sets out on a quest to recover the woman and wallop the kidnappers. On the way, he crosses wild and inhospitable terrain, confronts savage animals and monsters, discovers lost civilizations ruled by cruel tyrants or wicked priests, will engage in swashbuckling sword-fights, be imprisoned, daringly escape and rescue other prisoners, kill any men or beasts who stand in his way. At the end of the story he will defeat the villain and free the captive princess, only to find another crisis emerging that will require all his wit and muscle, but will not be resolved until the next thrilling novel in the adventures of...!. Stories in the sword and planet genre fall into two chronological classes; the first includes the stories of Burroughs himself and his early imitators, of whom Otis
Edgar Rice Burroughs
Edgar Rice Burroughs was an American fiction writer best known for his celebrated and prolific output in the adventure and science-fiction genres. Among the most notable of his creations are the jungle hero Tarzan, the heroic Mars adventurer John Carter and the fictional landmass within Earth known as Pellucidar. Burroughs' California ranch is now the center of the Tarzana neighborhood in Los Angeles. Burroughs was born on September 1, 1875, in Chicago, the fourth son of Major George Tyler Burroughs, a businessman and Civil War veteran, his wife, Mary Evaline Burroughs, his middle name is from Mary Coleman Rice Burroughs. He was of entirely English ancestry, with a family line, in North America since the Colonial era. Through his Rice grandmother, Burroughs was descended from settler Edmund Rice, one of the English Puritans who moved to Massachusetts Bay Colony in the early 17th Century, he once remarked, "I can trace my ancestry back to Deacon Edmund Rice." The Burroughs side of the family was of English origin and emigrated to Massachusetts around the same time.
Many of his ancestors fought in the American Revolution. Some of his ancestors settled in Virginia during the colonial period, Burroughs emphasized his connection with that side of his family, seeing it as romantic and warlike, and, in fact, could have counted among his close cousins no less than seven signers of the U. S. Declaration of Independence, including his third cousin, four times removed, 2nd President of the United States John Adams. Burroughs was educated at a number of local schools, he attended Phillips Academy, in Andover and the Michigan Military Academy. Graduating in 1895, failing the entrance exam for the United States Military Academy at West Point, he became an enlisted soldier with the 7th U. S. Cavalry in Fort Grant, Arizona Territory. After being diagnosed with a heart problem and thus ineligible to serve, he was discharged in 1897. After his discharge Burroughs worked a number of different jobs. During the Chicago influenza epidemic of 1891, he spent half a year at his brother's ranch on the Raft River in Idaho, as a cowboy, drifted somewhat afterward worked at his father's Chicago battery factory in 1899, marrying his childhood sweetheart, Emma Hulbert, in January 1900.
In 1903, Burroughs joined his brothers, Yale graduates George and Harry, who were, by prominent Pocatello area ranchers in southern Idaho, partners in the Sweetser-Burroughs Mining Company, where he took on managing their ill-fated Snake River gold dredge, a classic bucket-line dredge. The Burroughs brothers were the sixth cousins, once removed, of famed miner Kate Rice, a brilliant and statuesque Maths professor who, in 1914, became the first female prospector in the Canadian North. Journalist and publisher C. Allen Thorndike Rice was his third cousin; when the new mine proved unsuccessful, the brothers secured for Burroughs a position with the Oregon Short Line Railroad in Salt Lake City. Burroughs resigned from the railroad in October 1904. By 1911, after seven years of low wages as a pencil-sharpener wholesaler. By this time, Emma and he had two children and Hulbert. During this period, he began reading pulp-fiction magazines. In 1929, he recalled thinking that...if people were paid for writing rot such as I read in some of those magazines, that I could write stories just as rotten.
As a matter of fact, although I had never written a story, I knew that I could write stories just as entertaining and a whole lot more so than any I chanced to read in those magazines. In 1913, Burroughs and Emma had their third and last child, John Coleman Burroughs known for his illustrations of his father's books. In the 1920s, Burroughs became a pilot, purchased a Security Airster S-1, encouraged his family to learn to fly. Daughter Joan married Tarzan film actor, James Pierce, starring with her husband, as the voice of Jane, during 1932-34 for the Tarzan radio series; the pair were wed for more than forty years, until her death, in 1972. Burroughs divorced Emma in 1934 and, in 1935, married the former actress Florence Gilbert Dearholt, the former wife of his friend, Ashton Dearholt, with whom he had co-founded Burroughs-Tarzan Enterprises while filming The New Adventures of Tarzan. Burroughs adopted the Dearholts' two children, he and Florence divorced in 1942. Burroughs was in his late 60s and was in Honolulu at the time of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor.
Despite his age, he applied for and received permission to become a war correspondent, becoming one of the oldest U. S. war correspondents during World War II. This period of his life is mentioned in William Brinkley's bestselling novel Don't Go Near the Water. After the war ended, Burroughs moved back to Encino, where after many health problems, he died of a heart attack on March 19, 1950, having written 80 novels, he is buried at Tarzana, California, US. When he died, he was believed to have been the writer who had made the most from films, earning over $2 million in royalties from 27 Tarzan pictures; the Science Fiction Hall of Fame inducted Burroughs in 2003. Aiming his work at the pulps, Burroughs had his first story, Under the Moons of Mars, serialized by Frank Munsey in the February to July 1912 issues of The All-Story – under the name "Norman Bean" to protect his reputation. Under the Moons of Mars inaugurated the Barsoom series and earned Burroughs US$400, it was first published as a book by A.
Arkansas is a state in the southern region of the United States, home to over 3 million people as of 2018. Its name is of Siouan derivation from the language of the Osage denoting their related kin, the Quapaw Indians; the state's diverse geography ranges from the mountainous regions of the Ozark and the Ouachita Mountains, which make up the U. S. Interior Highlands, to the densely forested land in the south known as the Arkansas Timberlands, to the eastern lowlands along the Mississippi River and the Arkansas Delta. Arkansas is the 33rd most populous of the 50 United States; the capital and most populous city is Little Rock, located in the central portion of the state, a hub for transportation, business and government. The northwestern corner of the state, such as the Fayetteville–Springdale–Rogers Metropolitan Area and Fort Smith metropolitan area, is a population and economic center; the largest city in the state's eastern part is Jonesboro. The largest city in the state's southeastern part is Pine Bluff.
The Territory of Arkansas was admitted to the Union as the 25th state on June 15, 1836. In 1861, Arkansas withdrew from the United States and joined the Confederate States of America during the Civil War. On returning to the Union in 1868, the state continued to suffer due to its earlier reliance on slavery and the plantation economy, causing the state to fall behind economically and socially. White rural interests continued to dominate the state's politics until the civil rights movement. Arkansas began to diversify its economy following World War II and relies on its service industry, poultry, tourism and rice; the culture of Arkansas is observable in museums, novels, television shows and athletic venues across the state. People such as politician and educational advocate William Fulbright; the name Arkansas was applied to the Arkansas River and derives from a French term, the plural term for Quapaws, a Dhegiha Siouan-speaking Native American people who settled in Arkansas around the 13th century.
This comes from an Algonquian term, /akansa/, for the Quapaws, is also the root term for Kansas. The name has been spelled in a variety of fashions. In 1881, the pronunciation of Arkansas with the final "s" being silent was made official by an act of the state legislature after a dispute arose between Arkansas's two U. S. senators as one favored the pronunciation as AR-kən-saw while the other favored ar-KAN-zəs. In 2007, the state legislature passed a non-binding resolution declaring that the possessive form of the state's name is Arkansas's, followed by the state government. Arkansas borders Louisiana to the south, Texas to the southwest, Oklahoma to the west, Missouri to the north, Tennessee and Mississippi to the east; the United States Census Bureau classifies Arkansas as a southern state, sub-categorized among the West South Central States. The Mississippi River forms most of Arkansas's eastern border, except in Clay and Greene, counties where the St. Francis River forms the western boundary of the Missouri Bootheel, in many places where the channel of the Mississippi has meandered from its original 1836 course.
Arkansas can be split into two halves, the highlands in the northwest half and the lowlands of the southeastern half. The highlands are part of the Southern Interior Highlands, including The Ozarks and the Ouachita Mountains; the southern lowlands include the Arkansas Delta. This dual split can yield to general regions named northwest, northeast, southeast, or central Arkansas; these directionally named regions are broad and not defined along county lines. Arkansas has seven distinct natural regions: the Ozark Mountains, Ouachita Mountains, Arkansas River Valley, Gulf Coastal Plain, Crowley's Ridge, the Arkansas Delta, with Central Arkansas sometimes included as a blend of multiple regions; the southeastern part of Arkansas along the Mississippi Alluvial Plain is sometimes called the Arkansas Delta. This region is a flat landscape of rich alluvial soils formed by repeated flooding of the adjacent Mississippi. Farther away from the river, in the southeast portion of the state, the Grand Prairie consists of a more undulating landscape.
Both are fertile agricultural areas. The Delta region is bisected by a geological formation known as Crowley's Ridge. A narrow band of rolling hills, Crowley's Ridge rises from 250 to 500 feet above the surrounding alluvial plain and underlies many of the major towns of eastern Arkansas. Northwest Arkansas is part of the Ozark Plateau including the Ozark Mountains, to the south are the Ouachita Mountains, these regions are divided by the Arkansas River; these mountain ranges are part of the U. S. Interior Highlands region, the only major mountainous region between the Rocky Mountains and the Appalachian Mountains; the highest point in the state is Mount Magazine in the Ouachita Mountains, which rises to 2,753 feet above sea level. Arkansas has many rivers and reservoirs within or along its borders. Major tributaries of the Mississippi River include the Arkansas River, the White River, the St. Francis River; the Arkansas is fed by the Mulberry River and the Fou
Psychology is the science of behavior and mind. Psychology includes the study of conscious and unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and thought, it is an academic discipline of immense scope. Psychologists seek an understanding of the emergent properties of brains, all the variety of phenomena linked to those emergent properties; as a social science it aims to understand individuals and groups by establishing general principles and researching specific cases. In this field, a professional practitioner or researcher is called a psychologist and can be classified as a social, behavioral, or cognitive scientist. Psychologists attempt to understand the role of mental functions in individual and social behavior, while exploring the physiological and biological processes that underlie cognitive functions and behaviors. Psychologists explore behavior and mental processes, including perception, attention, intelligence, motivation, brain functioning, personality; this extends to interaction between people, such as interpersonal relationships, including psychological resilience, family resilience, other areas.
Psychologists of diverse orientations consider the unconscious mind. Psychologists employ empirical methods to infer causal and correlational relationships between psychosocial variables. In addition, or in opposition, to employing empirical and deductive methods, some—especially clinical and counseling psychologists—at times rely upon symbolic interpretation and other inductive techniques. Psychology has been described as a "hub science" in that medicine tends to draw psychological research via neurology and psychiatry, whereas social sciences most draws directly from sub-disciplines within psychology. While psychological knowledge is applied to the assessment and treatment of mental health problems, it is directed towards understanding and solving problems in several spheres of human activity. By many accounts psychology aims to benefit society; the majority of psychologists are involved in some kind of therapeutic role, practicing in clinical, counseling, or school settings. Many do scientific research on a wide range of topics related to mental processes and behavior, work in university psychology departments or teach in other academic settings.
Some are employed in industrial and organizational settings, or in other areas such as human development and aging, sports and the media, as well as in forensic investigation and other aspects of law. The word psychology derives from Greek roots meaning study of soul; the Latin word psychologia was first used by the Croatian humanist and Latinist Marko Marulić in his book, Psichiologia de ratione animae humanae in the late 15th century or early 16th century. The earliest known reference to the word psychology in English was by Steven Blankaart in 1694 in The Physical Dictionary which refers to "Anatomy, which treats the Body, Psychology, which treats of the Soul."In 1890, William James defined psychology as "the science of mental life, both of its phenomena and their conditions". This definition enjoyed widespread currency for decades. However, this meaning was contested, notably by radical behaviorists such as John B. Watson, who in his 1913 manifesto defined the discipline of psychology as the acquisition of information useful to the control of behavior.
Since James defined it, the term more connotes techniques of scientific experimentation. Folk psychology refers to the understanding of ordinary people, as contrasted with that of psychology professionals; the ancient civilizations of Egypt, China and Persia all engaged in the philosophical study of psychology. In Ancient Egypt the Ebers Papyrus mentioned thought disorders. Historians note that Greek philosophers, including Thales and Aristotle, addressed the workings of the mind; as early as the 4th century BC, Greek physician Hippocrates theorized that mental disorders had physical rather than supernatural causes. In China, psychological understanding grew from the philosophical works of Laozi and Confucius, from the doctrines of Buddhism; this body of knowledge involves insights drawn from introspection and observation, as well as techniques for focused thinking and acting. It frames the universe as a division of, interaction between, physical reality and mental reality, with an emphasis on purifying the mind in order to increase virtue and power.
An ancient text known as The Yellow Emperor's Classic of Internal Medicine identifies the brain as the nexus of wisdom and sensation, includes theories of personality based on yin–yang balance, analyzes mental disorder in terms of physiological and social disequilibria. Chinese scholarship focused on the brain advanced in the Qing Dynasty with the work of Western-educated Fang Yizhi, Liu Zhi, Wang Qingren. Wang Qingren emphasized the importance of the brain as the center of the nervous system, linked mental disorder with brain diseases, investigated the causes of dreams and insomnia, advanced a theory of hemispheric lateralization in brain function. Distinctions in types of awareness appear in the ancient thought of India, influenced by Hinduism. A central idea of the Upanishads is the distinction between a person's transient mundane self and their eternal unchanging soul. Divergent Hindu doctrines, Buddhism, have challenged this hierarchy of selves, but have all emphasized the importance of reaching higher
John D. MacDonald
John Dann MacDonald was an American writer of novels and short stories, known for his thrillers. MacDonald was a prolific author of crime and suspense novels, many of them set in his adopted home of Florida. One of the most successful American novelists of his time, MacDonald sold an estimated 70 million books in his career, his best-known works include the popular and critically acclaimed Travis McGee series, his novel The Executioners, filmed as Cape Fear and remade in 1991. In 1972, MacDonald was named a grandmaster of the Mystery Writers of America, he won a 1980 U. S. National Book Award in the one-year category Mystery. Stephen King praised MacDonald as "the great entertainer of our age, a mesmerizing storyteller." Kingsley Amis said, MacDonald "is by any standards a better writer than Saul Bellow, only MacDonald writes thrillers and Bellow is a human-heart chap, so guess who wears the top-grade laurels." MacDonald was born in Sharon, where his father, Eugene Macdonald, worked for the Savage Arms Corporation.
The family relocated to Utica, New York in 1926, with his father becoming treasurer of the Utica office of Savage Arms. In 1934, MacDonald was sent to Europe for several weeks, which began a desire for travel and for photography. After graduating from high school, he enrolled at the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania, but he quit during his sophomore year. MacDonald worked at menial jobs in New York City for a brief time was admitted to Syracuse University, where he met his future wife, Dorothy Prentiss, they married in 1937, he graduated from Syracuse University the next year. The couple would have a son. In 1939, MacDonald received an MBA from Harvard University, he was able to make good use of his education in business and economics by incorporating elaborate business swindles into the plots of several of his novels. In 1940, MacDonald accepted a direct commission as a first lieutenant of the Army Ordnance Corps. During World War II, he served in the Office of Strategic Services in the China-Burma-India Theater of Operations.
He was discharged in September 1945 as a lieutenant colonel. In 1949, he moved his family to Florida settling in Sarasota. MacDonald's literary career began by accident. In 1945, while still in the Army, he mailed it to his wife, she submitted it to the magazine Esquire. She sent it to Story magazine, which accepted for $25, he learned of this. After his discharge, MacDonald spent four months writing short stories, generating some 800,000 words and losing 20 pounds while typing 14 hours a day, seven days a week, he received hundreds of rejection slips, but made a $40 sale to the pulp magazine Dime Detective. He would sell nearly 500 short stories to detective, adventure, sports and science fiction magazines. Several times, MacDonald's stories were the only ones in an issue of a magazine, but this was hidden by using pseudonyms. Between 1946 and 1951, in addition to publishing over 200 short stories under his own name, MacDonald published stories as Peter Reed, John Farrell, Scott O'Hara, Robert Henry, Harry Reiser, John Lane.
These pseudonyms were all retired by the end of 1951, MacDonald thereafter published all his work under his real name. As the boom in paperback novels expanded, MacDonald made the change to longer fiction with his first novel, The Brass Cupcake, published in 1950, by Fawcett Publications' Gold Medal Books, his science fiction included the stories "Cosmetics" in Astounding and "Common Denominator" in Galaxy Science Fiction, the three novels, Wine of the Dreamers, Ballroom of the Skies, The Girl, the Gold Watch, & Everything, which were collected as an omnibus edition named Time and Tomorrow. Between 1953 and 1964, MacDonald specialized in crime thrillers of the so-called "hardboiled" genre. Most of these novels were published as paperback originals, although some were republished as hardbound editions. Many, such as Dead Low Tide and Murder in the Wind, were set in his adopted home of Florida. Novels such as The Executioners and One Monday We Killed Them All concerned psychopathic killers. MacDonald is credited with being one of the earliest to write on the effect of real estate booms on the environment, his novel A Flash Of Green is a good example of this.
Many Florida crime and mystery writers, such as Paul Levine, Randy Wayne White, James Hall and Jonathon King, have followed suit. MacDonald's protagonists were intelligent and cynical men. Travis McGee, the "salvage consultant" and "knight-errant," was all of that. McGee made his living by recovering the loot from thefts and swindles, keeping half to finance his "retirement," which he took in segments as he went along, he first appeared in the 1964 novel The Deep Blue Good-by and starred in 21 novels through to the series' final release, 1985's The Lonely Silver Rain. All titles in the series include a color, a mnemonic device, suggested by his publisher so that when harried travelers in airports looked to buy a book, they could at once see those MacDonald titles they had not yet read; the McGee novels feature an ever-changing array of female companions.