Gulf Tower is a 44-story, 177.4 m Art Deco skyscraper in downtown Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The tower is one of the major distinctive and recognizable features of the city and is named for the Gulf Oil Corporation, one of the leading multinational oil companies of its time ranking among the largest 10 corporations in the country. In 1984, Gulf and Chevron took part in the world's largest merger to that time. Built as the headquarters for the Gulf Oil Company, known as the Gulf Building, the structure was designed by the firm of Trowbridge & Livingston and completed in 1932 at a cost of $10.05 million. As late as 1981 Gulf Oil employed 3,100 within the building. Now called Gulf Tower, it rises 177.4 m above Downtown Pittsburgh. The crown of the skyscraper is modeled after the Mausoleum of Halicarnassus in the style of a step pyramid; the building was listed as a Pittsburgh History & Landmarks Foundation Historic Landmark in 1973. On June 13, 1974, a bomb was detonated on the 29th floor of the Gulf Tower.
The Weather Underground Organization took credit for the attack claiming it was in protest to Gulf Oil's involvement in the oil rich regions affected by the Angolan War of Independence. Prior to the late 1970s, the entire multistory "step-pyramid/mausoleum" structure at the top of the building was neon-illuminated, changing colors to provide a weather forecast that could be seen for many miles; this concept was developed by the building manager Edward H. Heath, he used the Gulf Oil colors to create a simplified forecast: steady blue meant colder and fair. Subsequently, in an effort to conserve energy, the weather forecasting role had been limited to the weather beacon at the pinnacle of the pyramid, which would glow blue for precipitation and red for fair weather. Although the terraced sides were once again illuminated at night, the entire pyramid structure no longer changed color with the weather. Since 2001, the opening of PNC Park across the Allegheny River, fans have noticed that after Pittsburgh Pirates home-runs, the "beam" light flashes in celebration.
It was revealed that the afternoon and evening receptionist at the lobby desk was the one responsible for this fan favorite, following the games on her cabinet radio. The slogan "Flash the beam, Regina – that one's out of here!" has gained popularity among Pirates fans recently. The KDKA Weather Beacon, the most recent weather beacon to adorn the pyramid atop the tower, was dedicated on July 4, 2012. In partnership with KDKA-TV, the Gulf Tower has been retrofit with a modern, automated LED weather beacon that will tell a more complete forecast than before; the Design concepts were created & implemented by the Design Team of Cindy Limauro and Christopher Popowich of C & C Lighting, LLC. A Pittsburgh based company. For more info on the company and team go to www.cclightingdesign.com. It will feature holiday displays. Hearkening back to the original 1950's beacon, the entire pyramid will once again change colors at night depending on the current weather conditions; the new color-coded, tiered system works as such:Floor By Floor Breakdown 44th floor – temperature 43rd floor – temperature 42nd floor – temperature 41st floor – precipitation 40th floor – humidity 39th floor – wind speed List of tallest buildings in Pittsburgh List of tallest buildings in Pennsylvania Toker, Franklin.
Buildings of Pittsburgh. Pittsburgh: Chicago: Society of Architectural Historians. ISBN 0-8139-2650-5. 1987 feature on Tower's history and transition from Gulf Oil 1989 news feature 1990 news feature Media related to Gulf Tower at Wikimedia Commons Gulf Tower description on the City of Pittsburgh tour page
Benair C. Sawyer
Benair Clement Sawyer, sometimes incorrectly referred to as "Benjamin" Sawyer, was the Mayor of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania from 1862 to 1864. His family was in the soap making business. While he was mayor the American Civil War's single worst civilian accident occurred when, on September 17, 1862, the Allegheny Arsenal exploded and claimed the lives of seventy-eight people. Most of the fatalities were young women. After his political career, the Panic of 1873 decimated Sawyer's assets, forcing him to move to Colorado, he would prosper there from investments in mining. He died in California. List of mayors of Pittsburgh
George Wilson (mayor)
George Wilson was Mayor of Pittsburgh from 1860 to 1862. Wilson was born in Baltimore. Moved to Pittsburgh in 1818, his Father Robert Wilson and Mother Ester Armstrong Wilson immigrated to the U. S. in 1814 from Ireland. Robert worked as a millwright and died in 1818, he was cared for by his sister Mrs. Margaret Marshall, he worked in the Tobacco factory of William Diller where he acquired a thorough knowledge of his own. He saved his money and went into business for himself with James Fullerton in 1838 "Wilson & Fullerton" on Liberty Street, he bought out his partner. He conducted it with much success for many years. Wilson was much sought after in business enterprise becoming a director in the Peoples Savings Bank, Duquesne National Bank and Citizens Insurance Company; as soon as he became of age he took an interest in civics. Wilson was elected to City Council in 1844 and served as the Director of the Public School and served for a long time, he took a strong stand in favor of the establishment of the High School.
Despite opposition from many leading citizens. His election to Mayor was a tribute to his good citizenship, he served in the State Legislature 1867, 68 and 69. In his final year in the state legislature he was the chairman of the means committee, he served as the third President of the Humane Society 1895 -1902. He was one of the incorporators of the Boy's Industrial Home of Western Pennsylvania. In addition, he was an attorney. Mr. Wilson came into office in a presidential election year; the business of the city was at a standstill. But the citizens more than made up for this inactivity in their fervor in the campaign for Abrahan Lincoln; as Mayor, Wilson introduced President-elect Abraham Lincoln from the balcony of the Monongahela House on a rain-soaked day in February 1861. The tenseness of the political campaign was eased for a moment when an 18-year-old Englishman traveling as "Baron Renfrew" Prince of Wales Edward VII of England arrived in Pittsburgh, in route to the White House. Mayor Wilson delivered an address of welcome upon his arrival.
He was an elder and member and at First Presbyterian Church for a long time, a founding elder and Sunday School Superintendent at Bellefield Presbyterian Church. He elder at Third Presbyterian Church. Was appointed to the Committee of Public Safety during the Pittsburgh Rail Road Riots in 1877. Married his first wife Miss Mary Frances Howe and there were six children in this union. Three died in infancy. Marie McEnulty, Bella Jane Wilson, Mary Frances. Mary Frances Howe died in 1839 after her death in 1854 he married his second wife Miss Emily Wilson in 1855-1879, they had 3 children together. He died in his home on February 5, 1902, of pneumonia. List of mayors of Pittsburgh Political Graveyard
James Lowry Jr.
James Lowry Jr. was Mayor of Pittsburgh from 1864 to 1866. Lowry was born in Scotland in 1820, he owned a foundry and was a Coal merchant. The city's industries were all booming during Mayor Lowry's term, he would be elected Coroner of Allegheny County. Lowry died in St. Louis, he is buried in Allegheny Cemetery. List of mayors of Pittsburgh James Lowry Jr. at Political Graveyard
Republican Party (United States)
The Republican Party referred to as the GOP, is one of the two major political parties in the United States. The GOP was founded in 1854 by opponents of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, which had expanded slavery into U. S. territories. The party subscribed to classical liberalism and took ideological stands that were anti-slavery and pro-economic reform. Abraham Lincoln was the first Republican president in the history of the United States; the Party was dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System and Fourth Party System. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt formed the Progressive Party after being rejected by the GOP and ran unsuccessfully as a third-party presidential candidate calling for social reforms. After the 1912 election, many Roosevelt supporters left the Party, the Party underwent an ideological shift to the right; the liberal Republican element in the GOP was overwhelmed by a conservative surge begun by Barry Goldwater in 1964 that continued during the Reagan Era in the 1980s. After the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965, the party's core base shifted, with the Southern states becoming more reliably Republican in presidential politics and the Northeastern states becoming more reliably Democratic.
White voters identified with the Republican Party after the 1960s. Following the Supreme Court's 1973 decision in Roe v. Wade, the Republican Party made opposition to abortion a key plank of its national party platform and grew its support among evangelicals. By 2000, the Republican Party was aligned with Christian conservatism; the Party's core support since the 1990s comes chiefly from the South, the Great Plains, the Mountain States and rural areas in the North. The 21st century Republican Party ideology is American conservatism, which contrasts with the Democrats' liberal platform and progressive wing; the GOP supports lower taxes, free market capitalism, a strong national defense, gun rights and restrictions on labor unions. The GOP was committed to protectionism and tariffs from its founding until the 1930s when it was based in the industrial Northeast and Midwest, but has grown more supportive of free trade since 1952. In addition to advocating for conservative economic policies, the Republican Party is conservative.
Founded in the Northern states in 1854 by abolitionists, modernizers, ex-Whigs and ex-Free Soilers, the Republican Party became the principal opposition to the dominant Democratic Party and the popular Know Nothing Party. The party grew out of opposition to the Kansas–Nebraska Act, which repealed the Missouri Compromise and opened Kansas Territory and Nebraska Territory to slavery and future admission as slave states; the Northern Republicans saw the expansion of slavery as a great evil. The first public meeting of the general anti-Nebraska movement, at which the name Republican was suggested for a new anti-slavery party, was held on March 20, 1854 in a schoolhouse in Ripon, Wisconsin; the name was chosen to pay homage to Thomas Jefferson's Republican Party. The first official party convention was held on July 1854 in Jackson, Michigan. At the 1856 Republican National Convention, the party adopted a national platform emphasizing opposition to the expansion of slavery into U. S. territories. While Republican candidate John C.
Frémont lost the 1856 United States presidential election to James Buchanan, he did win 11 of the 16 northern states. The Republican Party first came to power in the elections of 1860 when it won control of both houses of Congress and its candidate, former congressman Abraham Lincoln, was elected President. In the election of 1864, it united with War Democrats to nominate Lincoln on the National Union Party ticket. Under Republican congressional leadership, the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution—which banned slavery in the United States—passed the Senate in 1864 and the House in 1865; the party's success created factionalism within the party in the 1870s. Those who felt that Reconstruction had been accomplished, was continued to promote the large-scale corruption tolerated by President Ulysses S. Grant, ran Horace Greeley for the presidency; the Stalwart faction defended Grant and the spoils system, whereas the Half-Breeds pushed for reform of the civil service. The Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act was passed in 1883.
The Republican Party supported hard money, high tariffs to promote economic growth, high wages and high profits, generous pensions for Union veterans, the annexation of Hawaii. The Republicans had strong support from pietistic Protestants, but they resisted demands for Prohibition; as the Northern postwar economy boomed with heavy and light industry, mines, fast-growing cities, prosperous agriculture, the Republicans took credit and promoted policies to sustain the fast growth. The GOP was dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System. However, by 1890 the Republicans had agreed to the Sherman Antitrust Act and the Interstate Commerce Commission in response to complaints from owners of small businesses and farmers; the high McKinley Tariff of 1890 hurt the party and the Democrats swept to a landslide in the off-year elections defeating McKinley himself. The Democrats elected Grover Cleveland in 1884 and 1892; the election of William McKinley in 1896 was marked by a resurgence of Republican dominance that lasted until 1932.
McKinley promised that high tariffs would end the severe hardship caused by the Pa
John Herron (Pittsburgh)
John Herron, served as Mayor of Pittsburgh from 1849 to 1850. He was the son of the well-known Presbyterian Minister; the Herrons were among the founding families of Pittsburgh. He captained the Duquesne Grays in the Mexican War during the Siege of Veracruz, his war feats enhanced his electability and President Zachary Taylor visited the city during Mayor Herron's term. List of Mayors of Pittsburgh South Pittsburgh Development Corporation Political Graveyard
Jared M. Brush
Jared M. Brush was Mayor of Pittsburgh from 1869 to 1872. Jared Brush was born on October 1814 at the corner of Third Street and Cherry Way, he became a carpenter, a contractor. He married Sarah Dithridge, they had nine children of whom only two lived to adulthood. Brush was Overseer of the Poor of Pitt Township from 1842 to 1845. In 1854, Brush was elected a city councilman. During the American Civil War, Brush worked with the United States Sanitary Commission, a relief agency that ministered to the soldiers, he was Mayor of Pittsburgh from 1869 to 1872. Brush's administration was praised because of his extensive street construction projects and the establishment of the first full-time Fire Department. After his term ended, Brush served successively as a school director, superintendent of the city poor farm and clerk in the assessor's office and that of the treasurer, he was appointed as a police magistrate in 1888. Brush served as director of several Pittsburgh banks, he died on November 1895, of pneumonia.
Brushton, Pennsylvania was named in his honor. List of mayors of Pittsburgh Jared M. Brush at Political Graveyard