In Christianity, evangelism is the commitment to or act of publicly preaching of the Gospel with the intention of spreading the message and teachings of Jesus Christ. Christians who specialize in evangelism are known as evangelists, whether they are in their home communities or living as missionaries in the field, although some Christian traditions refer to such people as missionaries in either case; some Christian traditions consider evangelists to be in a leadership position. Christian groups who encourage evangelism are sometimes known as evangelist; the scriptures do not use the word evangelism, but evangelist is used in Acts 21:8, Ephesians 4:11, 2 Timothy 4:5. The word evangelist comes from the Koine Greek word εὐαγγέλιον via Latinised evangelium as used in the canonical titles of the Four Gospels, authored by Matthew, Mark and John; the Greek word εὐαγγέλιον meant a reward given to the messenger for good news and "good news" itself. The verb form of euangelion, occurs in older Greek literature outside the New Testament, making its meaning more difficult to ascertain.
Parallel texts of the Gospels of Luke and Mark reveal a synonymous relationship between the verb euangelizo and a Greek verb kerusso, which means "to proclaim". Some Christians distinguish between evangelism and proselytism, the latter viewed as unethical because it is taken to involve the abuse of people's freedom and the distortion of the gospel of grace by means of coercion, deception and exploitation; the term "proselytize" might be used when one group does not approve of the missional activities of another when one group is losing members to another group. Different denominations follow different theological interpretations which reflect upon the point of, doing the actual conversion, whether the evangelist or the Holy Spirit or both. Calvinists, among other Christian denominations, believe the soul is converted salutary to Christ only if the Holy Spirit is effective in the act. Catholic missionary work in Russia is seen as evangelism, not proselytism. Archbishop Kondrusiewicz stated, "that proselytism is unacceptable and cannot constitute a strategy for the development of our structures either in Russia or in any other country in the world".
Regarding claims by the Orthodox church that spreading the faith and receiving converts amounts to proselytism, the Catholic Church's Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith issued a document called "Doctrinal Note on some Aspects of Evangelization" which states that evangelism is "an inalienable right and duty, an expression of religious liberty...", added, "The incorporation of new members into the Church is not the expansion of a power group, but rather entrance into the network of friendship with Christ which connects heaven and earth, different continents and age. It is entrance into the gift of communion with Christ...." In recent history, certain Bible passages have been used to promote evangelism. William Carey, in a book entitled,'An Enquiry into the Obligations of Christians to Use Means for the Conversion of the Heathens' popularised a quotation, according to the Bible, during his last days on earth Jesus commanded his eleven disciples as follows: Therefore go and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, teaching them to obey everything I have commanded you.
And I am with you always, to the end of the age. However, recent scholarship by Chris Wright and others has suggested that such activity is promoted by the entire Bible, or at least the wider term'mission', although the meaning of the word'mission' and its relationship to'evangelism' is disputed amongst Christians. Breaking from tradition and going beyond television and radio a wide range of methods have been developed to reach people not inclined to attend traditional events in churches or revival meetings. Dramas such as Heaven's Gates, Hell's Flames have gained enormous popularity since the 1980s; these dramas depict fictional characters who die and learn whether they will go to heaven or hell. The child evangelism movement is a Christian evangelism movement that originated in the 20th century, it focuses on the 4/14 Window which centers on evangelizing children between the ages of 4 and 14 years old. Beginning in the 1970s, a group of Christian athletes known as The Power Team spawned an entire genre of Christian entertainment based on strong-man exploits mixed with a Christian message and accompanied by an opportunity to respond with a prayer for salvation.
Other entertainment-based Christian evangelism events include live theater and music. The Christian music industry has played a significant role in modern evangelism. Rock concerts in which the artist exhort non-believing attendees to pray a prayer for salvation have become common, just as common are concerts that are focused on activity not on prayer and conversion, thus forming an environment, not driven by conversion, but instead relaying of a message. Evangelists such as Reinhard Bonnke conduct mass evangelistic crusades around the world. Hundreds of church denominations and organizations participate in an evangelism movement known as the Billion Soul Harvest, a comprehensive initiative to convert a billion people to Christianity. New opportunities for evangelization have been provided in recen
Shelby County, Tennessee
Shelby County is a county in the U. S. state of Tennessee. As of the 2010 census, the population was 927,644, it is the state's largest county both in terms of population and geographic area. Its county seat is Memphis, a port on the Mississippi River and the second most populous city in Tennessee; the county was named for Governor Isaac Shelby of Kentucky. Shelby County is part of TN-MS-AR Metropolitan Statistical Area, it is bordered on the west by the Mississippi River. Located within the Mississippi Delta, the county was developed as a center of cotton plantations in the antebellum era, cotton continued as an important commodity crop well into the 20th century; the economy has become more diversified. This area along the Mississippi River valley was long occupied by varying cultures of indigenous peoples. In historic times, the Chickasaw controlled much of this area, they are believed to be descendants of the important Mississippian culture, which established fortified and complex cities. The largest of these was Cahokia, active from about 950CE into the 15th century.
It was developed on the east side of the Mississippi in present-day southern Illinois. The Shelby County area was part of the lands acquired by the United States government from the Chickasaw as part of the Jackson Purchase of 1818. Shelby County was established by European-American migrants in 1819 and named for Isaac Shelby, the former governor of Kentucky who had helped negotiate the land acquisition. From 1826 to 1868, the county seat was located at Tennessee on the Wolf River. After the American Civil War, in recognition of the growth of Memphis and its importance to the state economy, the seat was moved there; the lowlands in the Mississippi Delta, closest to the Mississippi River, were developed for large cotton plantations. Well before the American Civil War, the population of the county was majority black, most of whom were slaves. Memphis developed with many brokers. After the war, many freedmen stayed on the land by working as sharecroppers. Tennessee had competitive politics; the eastern part of the state supported the Republican Party.
Blacks in the west supported the Republican Party. Most conservative whites supported the Democrats. From 1877-1950, there were 20 lynchings of blacks by whites in Shelby County, the highest number of any county in the state. Most blacks were disenfranchised around the turn of the century when the state passed laws raising barriers to voter registration. Blacks were closed out of the political system for more than six decades. In the 20th century, mechanization of agriculture reduced the need for farm workers at a time when industries and railroads in the North were recruiting workers; the Great Migration resulted in many African Americans moving from rural areas into Memphis or out of state to northern cities for work and social and political opportunities. After World War II, highways were constructed that led to development of much new housing on the outskirts of Memphis where land was cheap. Suburbanization, with retail businesses following new residents, took place in the county, drawing population out of the city.
With continued residential and suburban development, the population of the metropolitan area became majority white. Six towns in the county have become incorporated. Residents enjoy many parks in the area as well as attractions in the city of Memphis. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 785 square miles, of which 763 square miles is land and 22 square miles is water, it is the largest county in Tennessee by area. The lowest point in the state of Tennessee is located on the Mississippi River in Shelby County, where the river flows out of Tennessee and into Mississippi. Loosahatchie River Mississippi River Nonconnah Creek Wolf River Tipton County Fayette County Marshall County, Mississippi DeSoto County, Mississippi Crittenden County, Arkansas As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 927,644 people residing in the county. 52.1% were Black or African American, 40.6% White, 2.3% Asian, 0.2% Native American, 3.3% of some other race and 1.4 of two or more races.
5.6% were Hispanic or Latino. As of the census of 2000, there were 897,472 people, 338,366 households, 228,735 families residing in the county; the population density was 1,189 people per square mile. There were 362,954 housing units at an average density of 481 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 48.56% Black, or African American, 47.34% White, 0.20% Native American, 1.64% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 1.20% from other races, 1.02% from two or more races. 2.60% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 338,366 households out of which 34.20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.80% were married couples living together, 20.10% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.40% were non-families. 27.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.70% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.60 and the average family size was 3.18. In the county, the population was spread out with 28.20% under the age of 18, 9.70% from 18 to 24, 31.10% from 25 to 44, 21.00% from 45 to 64, 10.00% who were 65 years
In Christianity, a minister is a person authorized by a church, or other religious organization, to perform functions such as teaching of beliefs. The term is taken from Latin minister. In the Catholic Church, Oriental Orthodox, Nordic Lutheran, Eastern Orthodox churches, the concept of a priesthood is emphasized. In other Christian denominations, such as the Baptist, Congregationalist, Methodist and Reformed churches, the term "minister" refers to members of the ordained clergy who leads a congregation or participates in a role in a parachurch ministry. With respect to ecclesiastical address, many ministers are styled as "The Reverend"; the Church of England defines the ministry of priests as follows: Priests are called to be servants and shepherds among the people to whom they are sent. With their Bishop and fellow ministers, they are to proclaim the word of the Lord and to watch for the signs of God's new creation, they are to be messengers and stewards of the Lord. Formed by the word, they are to call their hearers to repentance and to declare in Christ's name the absolution and forgiveness of their sins.
With all God's people, they are to tell the story of God's love. They are to baptize new disciples in the name of the Father, of the Son, of the Holy Spirit, to walk with them in the way of Christ, nurturing them in the faith, they are to unfold the Scriptures, to preach the word in season and out of season, to declare the mighty acts of God. They are to preside at the Lord's table and lead his people in worship, offering with them a spiritual sacrifice of praise and thanksgiving, they are to bless the people in God's name. They are to resist evil, support the weak, defend the poor, intercede for all in need, they prepare the dying for their death. Guided by the Spirit, they are to discern and foster the gifts of all God's people, that the whole Church may be built up in unity and faith. Ministers may perform some or all of the following duties: assist in co-ordinating volunteers and church community groups assist in any general administrative service conduct marriage ceremonies and memorial services, participate in the ordination of other clergy, confirming young people as members of a local church encourage local church endeavors engage in welfare and community services activities of communities establish new local churches keep records as required by civil or church law plan and conduct services of public worship preach pray and encourage others to be theocentric preside over sacraments of the church.
Such as: the Lord's Supper known as the Lord's Table, or Holy Communion, the Baptism of adults or children provide leadership to the congregation, parish or church community, this may be done as part of a team with lay people in roles such as elders refer people to community support services, psychologists or doctors research and study religion and theology supervise prayer and discussion groups and seminars, provide religious instruction teach on spiritual and theological subjects train leaders for church and youth leadership work on developing relationships and networks within the religious community provide pastoral care in various contexts provide personal support to people in crises, such as illness and family breakdown visit the sick and elderly to counsel and comfort them and their families administer Last Rites when designated to do so the first style of ministering is the player coach style. In this style, the pastor is a "participant in all the processes that the church uses to reach people and see them transformed the second style of ministering is the delegating style, in which the minister develops members of the church to point that they can be trusted the third style of ministering is the directing style where the minister gives specific instructions and supervises the congregation the last and fourth style of ministering is the combination style, which a minister allows directional ministering from a pastoral staff member mention prayer of salvation to those interested in becoming a believer Depending on the denomination the requirements for ministry vary.
All denominations require. In regards to training, denominations vary in their requirements, from those that emphasize natural gifts to those that require advanced tertiary education qualifications, for example, from a seminary, theological college or university. One of the clearest references is found in 1 Timothy 3:1-16, which outlines the requirements of a bishop: This is a true saying, if a man desire the office of a bishop, he desireth a good work. A bishop must be blameless, the husband of one wife, sober, of good behaviour, given to hospitality, apt to teach.
Hazlehurst is a city in and the county seat of Copiah County, United States, located about 30 miles south of the state capital Jackson along Interstate 55. The population was 4,009 at the 2010 census, it is part of the Jackson Metropolitan Statistical Area. Its economy is based on agriculture tomatoes and cabbage; the first settlement here by European Americans became known as the town of Gallatin. They built their homes in the western part of Copiah County. Other settlers came with them, in 1829 the state legislature incorporated the town; the first decades of agriculture were based on the use of slave labor of African Americans. The incorporation charter was repealed on January 18, 1862; the construction of the New Orleans and Great Northern Railroad began on November 3, 1865, stimulating development of Hazlehurst at the railway stop. It was named for an engineer for the new railroad. A city in Georgia is named for him; as Hazlehurst grew, Gallatin declined into a settlement at a crossroads. In April 1872, the legislature ordered the county board of supervisors to hold an election to decide whether the county seat should be moved from Gallatin to Hazlehurst.
After a majority voted for the change, Gallatin's old brick courthouse was torn down and reassembled in Hazlehurst. Several years the old courthouse suffered a fire and was replaced by a new building; the courthouse has been rebuilt more than 15 times during the town's history. This city had civil rights activity during the mid-1960s; because of violence against blacks in this area, the armed Deacons for Defense and Justice established centers here and in nearby Crystal Springs in 1966 and 1967. They provided physical protection for protesters working with the NAACP on a commercial boycott of white merchants to force integration of facilities and employment, to gain jobs for African Americans following passage of civil rights legislation in 1964. On January 23, 1969, F4 tornado devastated the south side of Hazelhurst, killing 11 people in town and damaging or destroying 175 homes. Hazlehurst is located east of the center of Copiah County. U. S. Route 51 passes through the center of the city, leading north 9 miles to Crystal Springs and south 20 miles to Brookhaven.
Interstate 55 runs west of and parallel to US 51, with access to Hazlehurst from exits 59 and 61. Mississippi Highway 28 crosses US 51 and I-55 in the northern part of town, leading east 14 miles to Georgetown and west 46 miles to Fayette. According to the United States Census Bureau, Hazlehurst has a total area of 4.4 square miles, of which 4.4 square miles is land and 0.04 square miles, or 1.02%, is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 4,400 people, 1,594 households, 1,131 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,004.9 people per square mile. There were 1,752 housing units at an average density of 400.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 29.30% White, 68.59% African American, 0.02% Native American, 0.48% Asian, 0.59% from other races, 1.02% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.05% of the population. There were 1,594 households out of which 34.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 36.5% were married couples living together, 28.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.0% were non-families.
26.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.68 and the average family size was 3.20. In the city, the population was spread out with 28.1% under the age of 18, 10.4% from 18 to 24, 25.6% from 25 to 44, 19.9% from 45 to 64, 16.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 82.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 76.3 males. The median income for a household in the city was $25,008, the median income for a family was $26,081. Males had a median income of $27,066 versus $19,475 for females; the per capita income for the city was $11,839. About 24.0% of families and 26.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 35.8% of those under age 18 and 26.7% of those age 65 or over. The city is served by the Hazlehurst City School District; the Copiah-Jefferson Regional Library operates a branch in Hazlehurst. Amtrak, the national passenger rail system, provides service to Hazlehurst.
Amtrak Train 59, the southbound City of New Orleans, is scheduled to depart Hazlehurst at 11:55 am daily with service to Brookhaven, McComb and New Orleans. Amtrak Train 58, the northbound City of New Orleans, is scheduled to depart Hazlehurst at 4:17 pm daily with service to Jackson, Yazoo City, Memphis, Newbern-Dyersburg, Carbondale, Effingham, Champaign-Urbana, Kankakee and Chicago. Joe Bailey, an attorney and US Senator from Texas and worked in Hazlehurst before moving. Alvin Chester Cockrell Jr.. Her Pulitzer Prize-winning play, Crimes of the Heart, is set in Hazlehurst. Robert Johnson, the Delta blues musician, was born in Hazlehurst. A monument to him
Holy Spirit in Christianity
For the majority of Christian denominations, the Holy Spirit or Holy Ghost is the third person of the Trinity: the Triune God manifested as God the Father, God the Son,and God the Holy Spirit. Nontrinitarian Christians, who reject the doctrine of the Trinity, differ from mainstream Christianity in their beliefs about the Holy Spirit and fall into several distinct categories such as Unitarianism, Binitarianism and others; some Christian theologians identify the Holy Spirit with the Ruach Hakodesh in Jewish scripture, with many similar names including the Ruach Elohim, Ruach YHWH, the Ruach Hakmah. In the New Testament it is identified with the Spirit of Christ, the Spirit of Truth, the Paraclete and the Holy Spirit; the New Testament details a close relationship between the Holy Spirit and Jesus during his earthly life and ministry. The Gospels of Matthew and Luke and the Nicene Creed state that Jesus was "conceived by the Holy Spirit, born of the Virgin Mary"; the Holy Spirit descended on Jesus like a dove during his baptism, in his Farewell Discourse after the Last Supper Jesus promised to send the Holy Spirit to his disciples after his departure.
The Holy Spirit is referred to as "the Lord, the Giver of Life" in the Nicene Creed, which summarises several key beliefs held by many Christian denominations. The participation of the Holy Spirit in the tripartite nature of conversion is apparent in Jesus' final post-resurrection instruction to his disciples at the end of the Gospel of Matthew: "make disciples of all the nations, baptizing them into the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit," and "For where two or three are gathered together in my name, there am I in the midst of them." Since the first century, Christians have called upon God with the trinitarian formula "Father and Holy Spirit" in prayer and benediction. In the book of the Acts of the Apostles the arrival of the Holy Spirit happens fifty days after the resurrection of the Christ, is celebrated in Christendom with the feast of Pentecost. In Christian theology, pneumatology refers to the study of the Holy Spirit; the Koine Greek word pneûma is found around 385 times in the New Testament, with some scholars differing by three to nine occurrences.
Pneuma appears 105 times in the four canonical gospels, 69 times in the Acts of the Apostles, 161 times in the Pauline epistles, 50 times elsewhere. These usages vary: in 133 cases, it refers to "spirit" in a general sense and in 153 cases to "spiritual". Around 93 times, the reference to the Holy Spirit, sometimes under the name pneuma and sometimes explicitly as the pneûma tò Hagion, it was translated into the Vulgate as Spiritus and Spiritus Sanctus. The English terms "Holy Ghost" and "Holy Spirit" are complete synonyms: one derives from the Old English gast and the other from the Latin loanword spiritus. Like pneuma, they both refer to the breath, to its animating power, to the soul; the Old English term is shared by all other Germanic languages and is older, but the King James Bible used both interchangeably, 20th-century translations of the Bible overwhelmingly prefer "Holy Spirit" because the general English term "ghost" has come to refer only to the spirit of a dead person. Source: וְר֣וּחַ קָדְשׁ֑וֹ – His Holy Spirit וְר֣וּחַ קָ֝דְשְׁךָ֗ – Thy Holy Spirit וְר֣וּחַ אֱלֹהִ֔ים – Spirit of God נִשְׁמַת־ר֨וּחַ חַיִּ֜ים – The Breath of the Spirit of Life ר֣וּחַ יְהוָ֑ה – Spirit of YHWH ר֧וּחַ חָכְמָ֣ה וּבִינָ֗ה – Spirit of Wisdom and Understanding ר֤וּחַ עֵצָה֙ וּגְבוּרָ֔ה – Spirit of Counsel and Might ר֥וּחַ דַּ֖עַת וְיִרְאַ֥ת יְהוָֽה – Spirit of Knowledge and Fear of YHWH πνεύματος ἁγίου – Holy Spirit πνεύματι θεοῦ – Spirit of God ὁ παράκλητος – The Comforter, cf. Paraclete John 14:26 πνεῦμα τῆς ἀληθείας – Spirit of Truth Πνεῦμα Χριστοῦ – Spirit of Christ Depending on context: πνεῦμα – Spirit Πνεύματος – Spirit What the Hebrew Bible calls "Spirit of God" and "Spirit of Elohim" is called in the Talmud and Midrash "Holy Spirit".
Although the expression "Holy Spirit" occurs in Ps. 51:11 and in Isa. 63:10–11, it had not yet acquired quite the same meaning, attached to it in rabbinical literature: in the latter it is equivalent to the expression "Spirit of the Lord". In Gen.1:2 God's spirit hovered over the form of lifeless matter, thereby making the Creation possible. Although the ruach ha-kodesh may be named instead of God, it was conceived of as being something distinct; the most characteristic sign of the presence of the ruach ha-kodesh is the gift of prophecy. The use of the word "ruach" in the phrase ruach ha-kodesh seems to suggest that Judaic authorities believed the Holy Spirit was a kind of communication medium like the wind; the spirit talks sometimes sometimes with a feminine voice. The term Holy Spirit appears at least 90 times in the New Testament; the sacredness of the Holy Spirit to Christians is affirmed in all three Syno
William J. Seymour
William Joseph Seymour was an African American, holiness preacher who initiated the Azusa Street Revival, an influential event in the rise of the Pentecostal and Charismatic movements. He was the second of eight children born to emancipated slaves and was raised in extreme poverty in Louisiana. Seymour was a student of early Pentecostal minister Charles Parham, he adopted Parham's belief that speaking in tongues was the sign of receiving the baptism in the Holy Spirit. In 1906, Seymour moved to Los Angeles, where he preached the Pentecostal message and sparked the Azusa Street Revival; the revival drew large crowds of believers as well as media coverage that focused on the controversial religious practices as well as the racially integrated worship services, which violated the racial norms of the time. Seymour's leadership of the revival and publication of The Apostolic Faith newspaper launched him into prominence within the young Pentecostal movement. Seymour broke with Parham in 1906 over theological differences as well as Parham's unhappiness with interracial revival meetings.
As the revival's influence extended beyond Los Angeles through evangelism and missionary work, Seymour was in the process of developing the revival into a larger organization called the Apostolic Faith Movement. This process was defeated by power struggles with other ministers, such as Florence Crawford and William Howard Durham, which damaged the unity of the early Pentecostal movement and led to a decrease in Seymour's influence. By 1914, the revival was past its peak, but Seymour continued to pastor the Apostolic Faith Mission he founded until his death; the revival acted as a catalyst for the spread of Pentecostal practices, such as speaking in tongues and integrated worship, throughout the world. It played an important role in the history of most major Pentecostal denominations. William Joseph Seymour was the second of eight children born to emancipated slaves Simon and Phyllis Salabar Seymour in Centerville, Louisiana, he was baptized as a child at the Roman Catholic Church of the Assumption in Franklin.
In 1884, when Seymour was fourteen, his parents built a house about a mile and a half from his birthplace adjacent to the New Providence Baptist Church in Centerville that the family attended while remaining Catholics. While serving in the Union Army during the Civil War, Seymour's father contracted an illness from which he died in November 1891; the twenty-one year old William became the primary provider for his family, growing subsistence crops with limited income from other sources. The family lived at the poverty level. Seymour grew up during a period of heightened racism that led to his decision to move north, away from the persecution endured by southern blacks around the turn of the century. In 1895, Seymour moved to Indianapolis, where he attended the Simpson Chapel Methodist Episcopal Church and became a born-again Christian. In Indianapolis, Seymour was introduced to the Holiness movement through Daniel S. Warner's "Evening Light Saints", a group whose distinctive beliefs included non-sectarianism, faith healing, foot washing, the imminent Second Coming of Christ, separation from "the world" in actions and lifestyle, including not wearing jewelry or neckties.
In the summer of 1900, Seymour returned to Louisiana and worked as a farm hand. In 1901, Seymour moved to Cincinnati, where he worked as a waiter and attended God's Bible School and Training Home, a school founded by holiness preacher Martin Wells Knapp. At Knapp's school and whites studied side by side. Knapp taught Premillennialism—that Jesus would return prior to a literal millennium—and took "special revelation" such as dreams and visions. While in Cincinnati, Seymour was blinded in his left eye. Seymour blamed his disability on his reluctance to answer God's call to the ministry. Seymour moved to Houston in 1903. During the winter of 1904-1905, he was directed by a "special revelation to Jackson, Mississippi, to receive spiritual advice from a well-known colored clergyman", he met Charles Price Jones and Charles Harrison Mason, founders of what would become the Church of God in Christ. Between 1895 and 1905, Seymour met other holiness leaders, including John Graham Lake and Charles Parham, leading a growing movement in the Midwest.
Parham's Apostolic Faith Movement emphasized speaking in tongues. Although speaking in tongues had occurred in some isolated religious circles as early as 1897, Parham began to practice it in 1900 and made the doctrine central to his theological system, believing it to be a sign that a Christian had received the baptism with the Holy Spirit. On January 1, 1901, Parham and some of his students were praying over Agnes Ozman when she began to speak in what was interpreted to be Chinese, a language Ozman never learned. Pentecostals identify Ozman as the first person in modern times to receive the gift of speaking in tongues as an answer to prayer for the baptism of the Holy Spirit. Parham spoke in tongues and went on to open a Bible school in Houston as his base of operations in 1905; when Houston African American holiness leader Lucy F. Farrow took a position with Charles Parham's evangelistic team as his children's nanny, Farrow asked Seymour to pastor her church. In 1906, with Farrow's encouragement, Seymour joined Parham's newly founded Bible school.
Though Seymour's attendance at Parham's school violated Texas Jim Crow laws, with Parham's permission, Seymour took a seat just outside the classroom door. Parham and Seymour shared pulpits and street corners on several occasions during the early weeks of 1906, with Par
Arkansas is a state in the southern region of the United States, home to over 3 million people as of 2018. Its name is of Siouan derivation from the language of the Osage denoting their related kin, the Quapaw Indians; the state's diverse geography ranges from the mountainous regions of the Ozark and the Ouachita Mountains, which make up the U. S. Interior Highlands, to the densely forested land in the south known as the Arkansas Timberlands, to the eastern lowlands along the Mississippi River and the Arkansas Delta. Arkansas is the 33rd most populous of the 50 United States; the capital and most populous city is Little Rock, located in the central portion of the state, a hub for transportation, business and government. The northwestern corner of the state, such as the Fayetteville–Springdale–Rogers Metropolitan Area and Fort Smith metropolitan area, is a population and economic center; the largest city in the state's eastern part is Jonesboro. The largest city in the state's southeastern part is Pine Bluff.
The Territory of Arkansas was admitted to the Union as the 25th state on June 15, 1836. In 1861, Arkansas withdrew from the United States and joined the Confederate States of America during the Civil War. On returning to the Union in 1868, the state continued to suffer due to its earlier reliance on slavery and the plantation economy, causing the state to fall behind economically and socially. White rural interests continued to dominate the state's politics until the civil rights movement. Arkansas began to diversify its economy following World War II and relies on its service industry, poultry, tourism and rice; the culture of Arkansas is observable in museums, novels, television shows and athletic venues across the state. People such as politician and educational advocate William Fulbright; the name Arkansas was applied to the Arkansas River and derives from a French term, the plural term for Quapaws, a Dhegiha Siouan-speaking Native American people who settled in Arkansas around the 13th century.
This comes from an Algonquian term, /akansa/, for the Quapaws, is also the root term for Kansas. The name has been spelled in a variety of fashions. In 1881, the pronunciation of Arkansas with the final "s" being silent was made official by an act of the state legislature after a dispute arose between Arkansas's two U. S. senators as one favored the pronunciation as AR-kən-saw while the other favored ar-KAN-zəs. In 2007, the state legislature passed a non-binding resolution declaring that the possessive form of the state's name is Arkansas's, followed by the state government. Arkansas borders Louisiana to the south, Texas to the southwest, Oklahoma to the west, Missouri to the north, Tennessee and Mississippi to the east; the United States Census Bureau classifies Arkansas as a southern state, sub-categorized among the West South Central States. The Mississippi River forms most of Arkansas's eastern border, except in Clay and Greene, counties where the St. Francis River forms the western boundary of the Missouri Bootheel, in many places where the channel of the Mississippi has meandered from its original 1836 course.
Arkansas can be split into two halves, the highlands in the northwest half and the lowlands of the southeastern half. The highlands are part of the Southern Interior Highlands, including The Ozarks and the Ouachita Mountains; the southern lowlands include the Arkansas Delta. This dual split can yield to general regions named northwest, northeast, southeast, or central Arkansas; these directionally named regions are broad and not defined along county lines. Arkansas has seven distinct natural regions: the Ozark Mountains, Ouachita Mountains, Arkansas River Valley, Gulf Coastal Plain, Crowley's Ridge, the Arkansas Delta, with Central Arkansas sometimes included as a blend of multiple regions; the southeastern part of Arkansas along the Mississippi Alluvial Plain is sometimes called the Arkansas Delta. This region is a flat landscape of rich alluvial soils formed by repeated flooding of the adjacent Mississippi. Farther away from the river, in the southeast portion of the state, the Grand Prairie consists of a more undulating landscape.
Both are fertile agricultural areas. The Delta region is bisected by a geological formation known as Crowley's Ridge. A narrow band of rolling hills, Crowley's Ridge rises from 250 to 500 feet above the surrounding alluvial plain and underlies many of the major towns of eastern Arkansas. Northwest Arkansas is part of the Ozark Plateau including the Ozark Mountains, to the south are the Ouachita Mountains, these regions are divided by the Arkansas River; these mountain ranges are part of the U. S. Interior Highlands region, the only major mountainous region between the Rocky Mountains and the Appalachian Mountains; the highest point in the state is Mount Magazine in the Ouachita Mountains, which rises to 2,753 feet above sea level. Arkansas has many rivers and reservoirs within or along its borders. Major tributaries of the Mississippi River include the Arkansas River, the White River, the St. Francis River; the Arkansas is fed by the Mulberry River and the Fou