Republican Party (United States)
The Republican Party referred to as the GOP, is one of the two major political parties in the United States. The GOP was founded in 1854 by opponents of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, which had expanded slavery into U. S. territories. The party subscribed to classical liberalism and took ideological stands that were anti-slavery and pro-economic reform. Abraham Lincoln was the first Republican president in the history of the United States; the Party was dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System and Fourth Party System. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt formed the Progressive Party after being rejected by the GOP and ran unsuccessfully as a third-party presidential candidate calling for social reforms. After the 1912 election, many Roosevelt supporters left the Party, the Party underwent an ideological shift to the right; the liberal Republican element in the GOP was overwhelmed by a conservative surge begun by Barry Goldwater in 1964 that continued during the Reagan Era in the 1980s. After the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965, the party's core base shifted, with the Southern states becoming more reliably Republican in presidential politics and the Northeastern states becoming more reliably Democratic.
White voters identified with the Republican Party after the 1960s. Following the Supreme Court's 1973 decision in Roe v. Wade, the Republican Party made opposition to abortion a key plank of its national party platform and grew its support among evangelicals. By 2000, the Republican Party was aligned with Christian conservatism; the Party's core support since the 1990s comes chiefly from the South, the Great Plains, the Mountain States and rural areas in the North. The 21st century Republican Party ideology is American conservatism, which contrasts with the Democrats' liberal platform and progressive wing; the GOP supports lower taxes, free market capitalism, a strong national defense, gun rights and restrictions on labor unions. The GOP was committed to protectionism and tariffs from its founding until the 1930s when it was based in the industrial Northeast and Midwest, but has grown more supportive of free trade since 1952. In addition to advocating for conservative economic policies, the Republican Party is conservative.
Founded in the Northern states in 1854 by abolitionists, modernizers, ex-Whigs and ex-Free Soilers, the Republican Party became the principal opposition to the dominant Democratic Party and the popular Know Nothing Party. The party grew out of opposition to the Kansas–Nebraska Act, which repealed the Missouri Compromise and opened Kansas Territory and Nebraska Territory to slavery and future admission as slave states; the Northern Republicans saw the expansion of slavery as a great evil. The first public meeting of the general anti-Nebraska movement, at which the name Republican was suggested for a new anti-slavery party, was held on March 20, 1854 in a schoolhouse in Ripon, Wisconsin; the name was chosen to pay homage to Thomas Jefferson's Republican Party. The first official party convention was held on July 1854 in Jackson, Michigan. At the 1856 Republican National Convention, the party adopted a national platform emphasizing opposition to the expansion of slavery into U. S. territories. While Republican candidate John C.
Frémont lost the 1856 United States presidential election to James Buchanan, he did win 11 of the 16 northern states. The Republican Party first came to power in the elections of 1860 when it won control of both houses of Congress and its candidate, former congressman Abraham Lincoln, was elected President. In the election of 1864, it united with War Democrats to nominate Lincoln on the National Union Party ticket. Under Republican congressional leadership, the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution—which banned slavery in the United States—passed the Senate in 1864 and the House in 1865; the party's success created factionalism within the party in the 1870s. Those who felt that Reconstruction had been accomplished, was continued to promote the large-scale corruption tolerated by President Ulysses S. Grant, ran Horace Greeley for the presidency; the Stalwart faction defended Grant and the spoils system, whereas the Half-Breeds pushed for reform of the civil service. The Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act was passed in 1883.
The Republican Party supported hard money, high tariffs to promote economic growth, high wages and high profits, generous pensions for Union veterans, the annexation of Hawaii. The Republicans had strong support from pietistic Protestants, but they resisted demands for Prohibition; as the Northern postwar economy boomed with heavy and light industry, mines, fast-growing cities, prosperous agriculture, the Republicans took credit and promoted policies to sustain the fast growth. The GOP was dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System. However, by 1890 the Republicans had agreed to the Sherman Antitrust Act and the Interstate Commerce Commission in response to complaints from owners of small businesses and farmers; the high McKinley Tariff of 1890 hurt the party and the Democrats swept to a landslide in the off-year elections defeating McKinley himself. The Democrats elected Grover Cleveland in 1884 and 1892; the election of William McKinley in 1896 was marked by a resurgence of Republican dominance that lasted until 1932.
McKinley promised that high tariffs would end the severe hardship caused by the Pa
A war crime is an act that constitutes a serious violation of the laws of war that gives rise to individual criminal responsibility. Examples of war crimes include intentionally killing civilians or prisoners, destroying civilian property, taking hostages, performing a perfidy, using child soldiers, declaring that no quarter will be given, violating the principles of distinction and proportionality, such as strategic bombing of civilian populations; the concept of war crimes emerged at the turn of the twentieth century when the body of customary international law applicable to warfare between sovereign states was codified. Such codification occurred at the national level, such as with the publication of the Lieber Code in the United States, at the international level with the adoption of the treaties during the Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907. Moreover, trials in national courts during this period further helped clarify the law. Following the end of World War II, major developments in the law occurred.
Numerous trials of Axis war criminals established the Nuremberg principles, such as notion that war crimes constituted crimes defined by international law. Additionally, the Geneva Conventions in 1949 defined new war crimes and established that states could exercise universal jurisdiction over such crimes. In the late 20th century and early 21st century, following the creation of several international courts, additional categories of war crimes applicable to armed conflicts other than those between states, such as civil wars, were defined; the trial of Peter von Hagenbach by an ad hoc tribunal of the Holy Roman Empire in 1474 was the first "international" war crimes trial, of command responsibility. He was convicted and beheaded for crimes that "he as a knight was deemed to have a duty to prevent", although he had argued that he was "just following orders". In 1865, Henry Wirz, a Confederate States Army officer, was held accountable by a military tribunal and hanged for the appalling conditions at Andersonville Prison, where many Union prisoners of war died during the American Civil War.
The Hague Conventions were international treaties negotiated at the First and Second Peace Conferences at The Hague, Netherlands, in 1899 and 1907 and were, along with the Geneva Conventions, among the first formal statements of the laws of war and war crimes in the nascent body of secular international law. The Geneva Conventions are four related treaties adopted and continuously expanded from 1864 to 1949 that represent a legal basis and framework for the conduct of war under international law; every single member state of the United Nations has ratified the conventions, which are universally accepted as customary international law, applicable to every situation of armed conflict in the world. However, the Additional Protocols to the Geneva Conventions adopted in 1977 containing the most pertinent and virulent protections of international humanitarian law for persons and objects in modern warfare are still not ratified by a number of States continuously engaged in armed conflicts, namely the United States, India, Iraq and others.
Accordingly, states retain different values with regard to wartime conduct. Some signatories have violated the Geneva Conventions in a way which either uses the ambiguities of law or political maneuvering to sidestep the laws' formalities and principles. Three conventions were revised and expanded with the fourth one added in 1949: First Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armed Forces in the Field. Second Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of Wounded and Shipwrecked Members of Armed Forces at Sea. Third Geneva Convention relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War. Fourth Geneva Convention relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War. Two Additional Protocols were adopted in 1977 with the third one added in 2005, completing and updating the Geneva Conventions: Protocol I relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts. Protocol II relating to the Protection of Victims of Non-International Armed Conflicts.
Protocol III relating to the Adoption of an Additional Distinctive Emblem. A small number of German military personnel of the First World War were tried in 1921 by the German Supreme Court for alleged war crimes; the modern concept of war crime was further developed under the auspices of the Nuremberg Trials based on the definition in the London Charter, published on August 8, 1945. Along with war crimes the charter defined crimes against peace and crimes against humanity, which are committed during wars and in concert with war crimes. Known as the Tokyo Trial, the Tokyo War Crimes Tribunal or as the Tribunal, it was convened on May 3, 1946 to try the leaders of the Empire of Japan for three types of crimes: "Class A", "Class B", "Class C", committed during World War II. On July 1, 2002, the International Crimi
Imperialism is policy or ideology of extending a nation's rule over foreign nations by military force or by gaining political and economic control of other areas. Imperialism was both normal and common worldwide throughout recorded history, the earliest examples dating from the mid-third millennium BC, diminishing only in the late 20th century. In recent times, it has been prohibited by international law. Therefore, the term is used in international propaganda to denounce an opponent's foreign policy; the term can be applied to the colonization of the Americas between the 15th and 19th centuries, as opposed to New Imperialism, which describes the expansion of Western Powers and Japan during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. However, both are examples of imperialism; the word imperialism originated from the Latin word imperium. It first became common with its current sense in Great Britain, during the 1870s and was used with a negative connotation; the word imperialism had been used to describe to what was perceived as Napoleon III's attempts of obtaining political support through foreign military interventions.
The term was and is applied to Western political and economic dominance in Asia and Africa, in the 19th and 20th centuries. Its precise meaning continues to be debated by scholars; some writers, such as Edward Said, use the term more broadly to describe any system of domination and subordination organised with an imperial center and a periphery. This definition encompasses both nominal empires and neocolonialism. "The word'empire' comes from the Latin word imperium. The greatest distinction of an empire is through the amount of land that a nation has conquered and expanded. Political power grows from conquering land. A distinction about empires is "that although political empires were built by expansion overland and cultural influences spread at least as much by sea"; some of the main aspects of trade that went overseas consisted of animals and plant products. European empires in Asia and Africa "have come to be seen as the classic forms of imperialism: and indeed most books on the subject confine themselves to the European seaborne empires".
European expansion caused the world to be divided by how developed and developing nation are portrayed through the world systems theory. The two main regions are the periphery; the core consists of areas of high profit. These critical theories of geo-politics have led to increased discussion of the meaning and impact of imperialism on the modern post-colonial world; the Russian leader Lenin suggested that "imperialism was the highest form of capitalism, claiming that imperialism developed after colonialism, was distinguished from colonialism by monopoly capitalism". This idea from Lenin stresses. Geopolitics now focuses on states becoming major economic players in the market; the term "imperialism" is conflated with "colonialism". Imperialism and colonialism have been used in order to describe one's perceived superiority and influence upon a person or group of people. Robert Young writes that while imperialism operates from the center, is a state policy and is developed for ideological as well as financial reasons, colonialism is the development for settlement or commercial intentions.
However, colonialism still includes invasion. Colonialism in modern usage tends to imply a degree of geographic separation between the colony and the imperial power. Edward Said distinguishes the difference between imperialism and colonialism by stating. Contiguous land empires such as the Russian or Ottoman have traditionally been excluded from discussions of colonialism, though this is beginning to change, since it is accepted that they sent populations into the territories they ruled. Imperialism and colonialism both dictate the political and economic advantage over a land and the indigenous populations they control, yet scholars sometimes find it difficult to illustrate the difference between the two. Although imperialism and colonialism focus on the suppression of an other, if colonialism refers to the process of a country taking physical control of another, imperialism refers to the political and monetary dominance, either formally or informally. Colonialism is seen to be the architect deciding how to start dominating areas and imperialism can be seen as creating the idea behind conquest cooperating with colonialism.
Colonialism is when the imperial nation begins a conquest over an area and eventually is able to rule over the areas the previous nation had controlled. Colonialism's core meaning is the exploitation of the valuable assets and supplies of the nation, conquered and the conquering nation gaining the benefits from the spoils of the war; the meaning of imperialism is to create an empire, by conquering the other state's lands and therefore increasing its own dominance. Colonialism is the builder and preserver of the colonial possessions in an area by a population coming from a for
Mark W. Izard
Mark Whitaker Izard was an Arkansas Democratic politician is best known for being the 3rd Governor of the Nebraska Territory. Izard was born in Lexington, Kentucky to Nicholas H and Rebecca Izard on December 25, 1799, his family were among the early settlers of the Huntsville, Alabama area and he was educated there in public schools. Izard married the daughter of George Shackleford of Charleston, South Carolina in 1823; the next year he moved his family to frontier town of Arkansas. Over the next several years he acquired a appreciable amount of land and slaves. Mark Izard served in the Arkansas Territorial Council and as a delegate to the Arkansas Constitutional Convention of 1836, he was a member of both the Arkansas State Senate 1836, 1838–1840, 1850–1853. Izard served in the Arkansas House of Representatives and served as its speaker, he became the governor of the Nebraska Territory in 1855 to 1857. He died in 1866 and is buried in Forrest City, Arkansas
Francis Burt (Nebraska)
Francis Burt was an American politician from South Carolina who served as the first Governor of Nebraska Territory. Burt was born on January 1807 to Francis and Katherine Burt in Pendleton, South Carolina; the fifth of ten children, he did not graduate. After completing his formal education, Burt read law under Warren R. Davis before establishing his own legal practice. In 1831, he married Georgianna Hall of Charleston; the marriage produced three boys and five girls: Frank, George Ann, Harriett Giraud, Joanna Lois, Mary Eliza and George Abbott. Burt entered politics as a member of South Carolina's Nullification Convention, being one of the 136 delegates voting in support of the Ordinance of Nullification. In addition to the convention, 1832 saw Burt elected to the South Carolina General Assembly, he remained in the state legislature until 1844. Burt left office after a single term and served as editor of the Pendleton Messenger from 1847 till 1851. In 1852 he was a member of the South Carolina Constitutional Convention.
Due to his active participation in the Democratic Party, President Franklin Pierce appointed Burt Third Auditor of the United States Treasury Department in 1853. The next year Pierce needed to select a governor for the newly created Nebraska Territory. After William Orlando Butler declined the position, the President selected Burt; the new governor was commissioned on August 2, 1854 and left his home in Pendleton for Nebraska on September 11. Burt's son Armistead and several of his neighbors accompanied him of the four-week trip to the new territory; the new governor had suffered from digestive problems for several years and experienced an intensification of symptoms while en route. His medical condition was such that he spent several days in St. Louis, Missouri under care of a physician. Upon his October 7 arrival in Bellevue, Burt had experienced a relapse and was confined to a sick bed in the local Presbyterian mission to the Oto and Omaha. Judge Fenner Ferguson administered the oath of office to Burt on October 16, 1854.
Two days on October 18, 1854, the governor died. Following the death of Governor Burt, Territorial Secretary Thomas B. Cuming became acting governor until the arrival of Governor Mark W. Izard. Governor Burt's body was returned to South Carolina for burial. In January 1855, the Nebraska Territorial Legislature named Burt County, Nebraska in honor of the deceased governor
Julius Sterling Morton
Julius Sterling Morton was a Nebraska newspaper editor who served as President Grover Cleveland's Secretary of Agriculture. He was a prominent Bourbon Democrat, taking the conservative position on political and social issues, opposing agrarianism. Among his most notable achievements was the founding of Arbor Day in 1872. In 1897 he started a weekly magazine entitled The Conservative. Morton was born on April 22, 1832, in the town of Adams in New York. In 1834, his parents and his grandfather, Abner Morton, moved to Monroe, south of Detroit on Lake Erie; when he was fourteen, Morton's parents sent him to Wesleyan Seminary in Albion, about 100 miles northwest of Monroe. In 1850, Morton enrolled in the University of Michigan. In his junior year he attempted to launch a new periodical, the Peninsular Quarterly and University Magazine, which proved short-lived, he was an active member of the Chi Phi fraternity, opposed an attempt by the faculty to discourage such secret societies. In May 1854, six weeks before Morton was due to graduate, the university's Board of Regents dismissed the head of the medical department, Dr. J. Adams Allen, a popular faculty member.
That evening, Morton, a friend and admirer of Allen's, addressed a mass meeting protesting Allen's dismissal and other autocratic actions taken by university officials. On the following day, Morton was expelled from the university, ostensibly for excessive absences and for general inattention to his duties as a student, his expulsion prompted protests across the state. He was readmitted after signing a conditional document, stating that if the charges against him had been true his expulsion would have been justified; the readmission did not last: the university's president, Henry Philip Tappan, released a version of his statement from which the conditionals had been removed, making it a straightforward admission of fault. He was re-expelled and not allowed to graduate with his class. In 1856, under unclear circumstances, he was awarded an honorary Bachelor of Arts degree by Union College of Schenectady, New York. In the fall 1854, he moved with his bride, Caroline Joy French, to the Nebraska Territory, in 1855 purchased 160 acres in Nebraska City.
Soon after arriving there, Morton became the editor of the Nebraska City News. Morton served in the Nebraska Territorial House of Representatives, he was appointed Secretary of Nebraska Territory by President James Buchanan on July 12, 1858, a position he held until 1861. Morton served as Acting Governor of Nebraska from December 5, 1858, to May 2, 1859. Morton built a 30-room mansion, his son, expanded it to a 52-room mansion, a look-alike of the White House in what is now Arbor Lodge State Historical Park, Nebraska City, Nebraska. On the surrounding estate, Morton indulged his fascination with trees, planting many rare varieties and heirloom apple trees. Respected as an agriculturalist, Morton sought to instruct people in the modern techniques of farming and forestry. Among his most significant achievements was the founding of Arbor Day, he became well known in Nebraska for his political and literary activities and from there was appointed as United States Secretary of Agriculture by President Cleveland.
He is credited with helping change that department into a coordinated service to farmers, he supported Cleveland in setting up national forest reservations. In 1897, Morton began to edit the multi-volume Illustrated History of Nebraska, he began publishing a weekly periodical, The Conservative. Morton died on April 27, 1902 in Lake Forest, where he was seeking medical treatment; the Morton home and estate in Nebraska City is now a state park, the Arbor Lodge State Historical Park and Arboretum. In 1937, the state of Nebraska donated a bronze statue of Morton to the National Statuary Hall Collection at the United States Capitol. Morton is a member of the Nebraska Hall of Fame; the J. Sterling Morton Beltway, a highway near Nebraska City, made up of U. S. Route 75 and Nebraska Highway 2, is named for him. J. Sterling Morton Magnet Middle School in Omaha, Nebraska bears his name, as do Morton College and J. Sterling Morton High School District 201 in Berwyn and Cicero, Illinois, his son Joy Morton was the founder of the Morton Salt Company, Illinois.
The son created The Morton Arboretum in Lisle, Illinois in 1922. Today, Joy Morton's original 400-acre Thornhill Estate, which he acquired in 1910, has been transformed into a 1,700-acre living history museum of over 4,000 different types of trees and other woody plants. Although Morton was a "Bourbon" Democrat, his son Paul Morton served as Secretary of the Navy under President Theodore Roosevelt from 1904 to 1905 as a Progressive Republican. Beaty, Sandy. Champion of Arbor Day: J. Sterling Morton. Kansas City, Missouri: Acorn Books. Olson, James C.. J. Sterling Morton. Lincoln, Nebraska: Nebraska State Historical Society Foundation. Julius Sterling Morton at www.aoc.gov The Arbor Day F