Norman Brook, 1st Baron Normanbrook
Norman Craven Brook, 1st Baron Normanbrook, known as Sir Norman Brook between 1946 and 1964, was a British civil servant. He was Cabinet Secretary between 1947 and 1962 as well as joint permanent secretary to HM Treasury and head of the Home Civil Service from 1956 to 1962. Brook was the son of Frederick Charles Brook, of Bristol and Annie, daughter of Thomas Smith, he was educated at Oxford. Brook joined the Home Civil Service in 1925 and attained the grade of Principal in 1933 and of Assistant Secretary in 1938, he was Principal Private Secretary to Sir John Anderson from 1938 to 1942, Deputy Secretary to the War Cabinet in 1942, Permanent Secretary at the Ministry of Reconstruction from 1943 to 1945, Additional Secretary to the Cabinet from 1945 to 1946, Secretary of the Cabinet from 1947 to 1962. He was joint permanent secretary to HM Treasury and head of the Home Civil Service from 1956 to 1962. Brook was appointed a Companion of the Order of the Bath in 1942, promoted to Knight Commander in 1946 and Knight Grand Cross in 1951, sworn of the Privy Council in 1953.
Churchill and Brook were colleagues during the Second World War and Churchill's 1951-1955 government. Brook was his adviser. Brook was a member of The Other Club. Brook succeeded Sir Edward Bridges as a secretary to the treasury in 1956, he served there to 1962. On 24 January 1963 he was raised to the peerage as Baron Normanbrook, of Chelsea in the County of London. Between 1964 and 1967 he was Chairman of the Board of Governors of the BBC, he was one of the twelve pall bearers at Sir Winston Churchill's funeral in 1965. Lord Normanbrook married Ida Mary, daughter of E. A. Goshawk, in 1929, he died in June 1967, aged 65. List of residents of Wolverhampton Bridges, Edward Ettingdene. Colville, John. 1981. The Churchillians. London:Weidenfeld and Nicolson. Gilbert Martin. 1983-1988. Winston S. Churchill. Vol.6-8. London:Heinemann. Seldon Abthony.1981. Churchill's Indian Summer. London:Hodder and Stoughton. Trend, Lord.1981."Brook, Norman Craven, Baron Normanbrook". In the Dictionary of National Biography 1961-1970, edited by E.
T. Williams andC. S. Nicholls. Oxford:Oxford University Press
George Douglas-Hamilton, 10th Earl of Selkirk
Group Captain George Nigel "Geordie" Douglas-Hamilton, 10th Earl of Selkirk, was a Scottish nobleman and Conservative politician. Born at Merly, Dorset, he was the second son of the 13th Duke of Hamilton and Brandon and Nina Mary Benita, youngest daughter of Major R. Poore, Salisbury, he was educated at Eton College, Balliol College, Edinburgh University and at the University of Bonn, Vienna University and the Sorbonne. He was admitted to the Faculty of Advocates in 1935, taking silk in 1959, he played cricket for Wiltshire in the 1927 Minor Counties Championship. He was a member of Edinburgh Town Council from 1935–40 and served as a Commissioner of General Board of Control from 1936 to 1939 and as a Commissioner for Special Areas in Scotland 1937–39, he commanded No. 603 Squadron in the Royal Auxiliary Air Force 1934–38. With the outbreak of the Second World War, Douglas-Hamilton joined the Royal Air Force, he served as Fighter Command's chief intelligence officer and the personal assistant to Air Chief Marshal Sir Hugh Dowding.
Douglas-Hamilton was involved in countering the German task force operating near Ceylon. Douglas-Hamilton was twice Mentioned in Despatches, awarded the Air Force Cross in 1938, appointed an Officer of the Order of the British Empire in 1941, he succeeded to the earldom upon the death of his father in 1940, under the terms of a special remainder, his elder brother becoming the 14th Duke of Hamilton. On 6 August 1947, Douglas-Hamilton married Audrey Sale-Barker, an alpine skiing champion and prominent aviator, he was elected as a Scottish representative peer 1945–63, during which time he served as a Lord in Waiting to King George VI and to Queen Elizabeth II. He held Ministerial office as Paymaster-General from November 1953 to December 1955, as Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster from December 1955 to January 1957 and as First Lord of the Admiralty from 1957 to October 1959, he was appointed a Privy Counsellor in 1955, appointed a Knight Grand Cross of the Order of St Michael and St George in 1959 and a Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the British Empire in 1963.
He was appointed a Knight of the Order of the Thistle in 1976. He held the office of Deputy Keeper of Holyroodhouse from 1937 until his death, the Duke of Hamilton being hereditary Keeper, he was made a Freeman of Hamilton, Scotland in 1938. He was an Honorary Chief of the Saulteaux Indians, 1967, an Honorary Citizen of the City of Winnipeg and of the town of Selkirk, Manitoba, he was UK Commissioner for Singapore and Commissioner General for South-East Asia from 1959 to 1963, UK Council Representative to Southeast Asia Treaty Organization 1960–63. While in Singapore, Douglas-Hamilton was the British representative for the Internal Security Council, a tripartite committee responsible for Singapore's internal security. Douglas Douglas-Hamilton, 14th Duke of Hamilton Lord Malcolm Douglas-Hamilton Lord David Douglas-Hamilton Oxford Dictionary of National Biography – Hamilton, George Nigel Douglas Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by the Earl of Selkirk
Alma mater is an allegorical Latin phrase for a university, school, or college that one attended. In US usage it can mean the school from which one graduated; the phrase is variously translated as "nourishing mother", "nursing mother", or "fostering mother", suggesting that a school provides intellectual nourishment to its students. Fine arts will depict educational institutions using a robed woman as a visual metaphor. Before its current usage, alma mater was an honorific title for various Latin mother goddesses Ceres or Cybele, in Catholicism for the Virgin Mary, it entered academic usage when the University of Bologna adopted the motto Alma Mater Studiorum, which describes its heritage as the oldest operating university in the Western world. It is related to alumnus, a term used for a university graduate that means a "nursling" or "one, nourished". Although alma was a common epithet for Ceres, Cybele and other mother goddesses, it was not used in conjunction with mater in classical Latin. In the Oxford Latin Dictionary, the phrase is attributed to Lucretius' De rerum natura, where it is used as an epithet to describe an earth goddess: After the fall of Rome, the term came into Christian liturgical usage in association with the Virgin Mary.
"Alma Redemptoris Mater" is a well-known 11th century antiphon devoted to Mary. The earliest documented use of the term to refer to a university in an English-speaking country is in 1600, when the University of Cambridge printer, John Legate, began using an emblem for the university's press; the device's first-known appearance is on the title-page of William Perkins' A Golden Chain, where the Latin phrase Alma Mater Cantabrigia is inscribed on a pedestal bearing a nude, lactating woman wearing a mural crown. In English etymological reference works, the first university-related usage is cited in 1710, when an academic mother figure is mentioned in a remembrance of Henry More by Richard Ward. Many historic European universities have adopted Alma Mater as part of the Latin translation of their official name; the University of Bologna Latin name, Alma Mater Studiorum, refers to its status as the oldest continuously operating university in the world. Other European universities, such as the Alma Mater Lipsiensis in Leipzig, Germany, or Alma Mater Jagiellonica, have used the expression in conjunction with geographical or foundational characteristics.
At least one, the Alma Mater Europaea in Salzburg, Austria, an international university founded by the European Academy of Sciences and Arts in 2010, uses the term as its official name. In the United States, the College of William & Mary in Williamsburg, has been called the "Alma Mater of the Nation" because of its ties to the country's founding. At Queen's University in Kingston and the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, British Columbia, the main student government is known as the Alma Mater Society; the ancient Roman world had many statues of the Alma Mater, some still extant. Modern sculptures are found in prominent locations on several American university campuses. For example, in the United States: there is a well-known bronze statue of Alma Mater by Daniel Chester French situated on the steps of Columbia University's Low Library. An altarpiece mural in Yale University's Sterling Memorial Library, painted in 1932 by Eugene Savage, depicts the Alma Mater as a bearer of light and truth, standing in the midst of the personified arts and sciences.
Outside the United States, there is an Alma Mater sculpture on the steps of the monumental entrance to the Universidad de La Habana, in Havana, Cuba. The statue was cast in 1919 by Mario Korbel, with Feliciana Villalón Wilson as the inspiration for Alma Mater, it was installed in its current location in 1927, at the direction of architect Raul Otero. Media related to Alma mater at Wikimedia Commons The dictionary definition of alma mater at Wiktionary Alma Mater Europaea website
Southwark is a district of Central London and is the north-west of the London Borough of Southwark. Centred 1 1⁄2 miles east of Charing Cross, it fronts the River Thames and the City of London to the north, it was at the lowest bridging point of the Thames in Roman Britain, providing a crossing from Londinium, for centuries had the only Thames bridge in the area, until a bridge was built upstream more than 10 miles to the west. It was a 1295-enfranchised Borough in the county of Surrey created a burh in 886, containing various parishes by the high medieval period succombing to City attempts to constrain its free trade and entertainment, its entertainment district, in its heyday at the time of Shakespare's Globe Theatre has revived in the form of the Southbank which overspills imperceptibly into the ancient boundaries of Lambeth and commences at the post-1997 reinvention of the original theatre, Shakespeare's Globe, incorporating other smaller theatre spaces, an exhibition about Shakespeare's life and work and which neighbours Vinopolis and the London Dungeon.
After the 18th century decline of Southwark's small wharves, the borough grew in population and saw the growth of great docks, printing/paper, goods yards, small artesan and other low-wage industries and Southwark was among many such inner districts to see slum clearance and replacement with social housing during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. It is now at an advanced stage of regeneration and has the City Hall offices of the Greater London Authority. At its heart is the area known as Borough, which has an eclectic covered and semi-covered market and numerous food and drink venues as well as the skyscraper The Shard. Another landmark is Southwark Cathedral, a priory parish church created a cathedral in 1905, noted for its Merbecke Choir; the area has three main tube stations: Borough, Southwark nearby and one close to the river, combined with a major railway station above, London Bridge. The name Suthriganaweorc or Suthringa geweorche is recorded for the area in the 10th-century Anglo-Saxon document known as the Burghal Hidage and means "fort of the men of Surrey" or "the defensive work of the men of Surrey".
Southwark is recorded in the 1086 Domesday Book as Sudweca. The name is formed from the Old English sūþ and weorc; the southern location is in reference to the City of London to the north, Southwark being at the southern end of London Bridge. Until 1889, the county of Surrey included the present-day London Borough of Southwark, yet the name has been used for various areas of civil administration, including the ancient Borough of Southwark, the Metropolitan Borough of Southwark and the current London Borough of Southwark; the ancient borough of Southwark was known as The Borough—or Borough—and this name, in distinction from'The City', has persisted as an alternative name for the area. The medieval heart of Southwark was referred to as the ward of Bridge Without when administered by the City and as an aldermanry until 1978. For the toponymy of the area's street names see Street names of Southwark Southwark is sited on a once marshy area south of the River Thames. Recent excavation has revealed prehistoric activity including evidence of early ploughing, burial mounds and ritual activity.
Much was in pre-Roman years a series of tidal islands in the Thames, formalised into ditches such as the so-called River Neckinger. This formed the best place to bridge the Thames and the area became an important part of Londinium, owing its importance to its position as the endpoint of the Roman London Bridge. Two Roman roads, Stane Street and Watling Street, met at Southwark in what is now Borough High Street. Archaeological work at Tabard Street in 2004 discovered a plaque with the earliest reference to'Londoners' from the Roman period on it. Londinium was abandoned at the end of the Roman occupation in the early 5th century and both the city and its bridge collapsed in decay. Archaeologically, evidence of settlement is replaced by a featureless soil called the Dark Earth which represents an urban area abandoned. Southwark appears to recover only during the time of his successors. Sometime about 886, the burh of Southwark was created and the Roman city area reoccupied, it was fortified to defend the bridge and hence the reemerging City of London to the north.
This defensive role is highlighted by the use of the bridge in 1016 as a defence against King Sweyn and his son King Cnut by Ethelred the Unready and again, in 1066, against Duke William the Conqueror. He failed to force the bridge during the Norman conquest of England. Southwark appears in the Domesday Book of 1086 within the hundred of Brixton as held by several Surrey manors, its assets were: Bishop Odo of Bayeux held the monastery and the tideway – which still exists as St Mary Overie dock. Southwark's value to the King was £16. Much of Southwark was owned by the church – the greatest reminder of monastic London is Southwark Cathedral the priory of St Mary Overie. During the early Middle Ages, Southwark developed and was one of the four Surrey towns which returned Members of Parliament for the first commons assembly in 1295. An important market occupied the High Street from some
Night of the Long Knives (1962)
In British politics, the "Night of the Long Knives" was a major Cabinet reshuffle that took place on 13 July 1962. Prime Minister Harold Macmillan dismissed seven members of his Cabinet, one-third of the total; the speed and scale of the reshuffle caused it to be associated by its critics with the 1934 Night of the Long Knives in Nazi Germany. The reshuffle took place against a backdrop of declining Conservative popularity in Britain. Conservative candidates fared poorly in several by-elections. Concerned that traditional Conservative voters were expressing their disapproval with the government's economic policies by switching to the Liberals, Harold Macmillan planned to replace his Chancellor of the Exchequer, Selwyn Lloyd, with Reginald Maudling. Lloyd had clashed with Macmillan over his economic strategies, Maudling was considered to be more amenable to the economic policies Macmillan wished to implement; the reshuffle was an attempt to reinvigorate the party, bringing in younger and more dynamic figures and replacing some of the older and less capable ministers.
After discussions with Conservative Party chairman Iain Macleod and Home Secretary Rab Butler, a reshuffle was planned for Autumn 1962. Macmillan was overtaken by events when Butler leaked the details of the reshuffle to press baron Lord Rothermere over lunch on 11 July; the newspapers reported the impending changes on 12 July, Macmillan made the decision to press ahead with the reshuffle at once. Lloyd was dismissed; the remaining six were informed 13 July. Macmillan faced sharp criticism over the scale of the changes, his political opponents both within the Conservative Party and in the Opposition characterised him as ruthless and opportunistic. Despite an initial sharp drop in his approval ratings, opinion swung back in his favour and the Party recovered. Macmillan regretted the way the reshuffle was carried out, was concerned about his treatment of Lloyd, a loyal confidant. Despite the dramatic changes in the Cabinet, the Conservatives were rocked by a series of scandals in 1963 and Macmillan retired in October of that year after being misdiagnosed with cancer.
He was replaced as Prime Minister by Sir Alec Douglas-Home, defeated in the 1964 general election. The Conservatives won a convincing majority at the 1959 general election, increasing their lead over their nearest rivals, Labour; the Labour party were further weakened by internal disputes, but the Conservatives' economic policies unveiled in the 1960 Budget proved damaging. The tax cuts of 1959 were reversed, decreasing the government's popularity while the Liberals began a revival; the Conservatives were forced into third place in several by-elections, culminating in the loss of the safe seat of Orpington in a March 1962 by-election victory for the Liberal candidate, Eric Lubbock. The by-election result, announced on 14 March, came one day after the Blackpool North by-election, another former Conservative safe seat; the Conservatives were struggling with deep unpopularity over their economic policies. A pay-pause and rising prices, together with discontent at high taxation, demonstrably inequitable, drove voters to protest against government policies by switching their votes to the Liberals, or by abstaining from voting Conservative.
Macmillan saw in the by-election results evidence that former Conservative voters would abandon their candidates in support of the Liberals, who were well placed in Conservative safe seats. In instances where the Liberals had no candidate standing, such as the Labour safe seat of Pontefract, the Conservatives maintained their share of the vote; when a Liberal candidate was fielded, such as at the Stockton-on-Tees by-election in April, in a seat Macmillan himself held, the Conservatives saw large numbers of voters desert them for the Liberals. By-elections confirmed the trend. By July the Chairman of the Conservative Party Iain Macleod warned that a government reshuffle was necessary to revitalise flagging support, a view confirmed by Martin Redmayne, the Conservative Chief Whip. Macmillan met with Rab Butler on 21 June. With Conservative unpopularity stemming from economic issues, they discussed replacing Selwyn Lloyd as Chancellor of the Exchequer with Reginald Maudling. Lloyd and Macmillan had clashed over economic policy: Lloyd was opposed to an incomes policy and reflation, his austerity measures were causing discontent.
The Cabinet was relatively elderly, with younger political leaders on the scene, like American President John F. Kennedy, at a time of dramatic social changes, Macmillan resolved to bring some younger men into important posts; the seven ministers earmarked for replacement averaged 59 years of age. The incoming seven would have an average age of 50. Butler was in favour of the move, together with Macleod, they worked out an orderly reshuffle of several Cabinet posts, including the Chancellor of the Exchequer. In all, seven ministers were to be replaced, amounting to one third of the total Cabinet of twenty-one. Macmillan intended to carry out the reshuffle in autumn 1962 after parliament returned from its summer recess. Events overtook him when, on 11 July, Butler lunched with Lord Rothermere, proprietor of several newspapers, including the Daily Mail. Butler let slip the details of the impending reshuffle, the following day the Daily Mail broke the plans to the public with the headline "Mac's Master Plan".
A horrified Macmillan, suspecting that the plans were delib
Privy Council of the United Kingdom
Her Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council known as the Privy Council of the United Kingdom or just the Privy Council, is a formal body of advisers to the Sovereign of the United Kingdom. Its membership comprises senior politicians who are current or former members of either the House of Commons or the House of Lords; the Privy Council formally advises the sovereign on the exercise of the Royal Prerogative, corporately it issues executive instruments known as Orders in Council, which among other powers enact Acts of Parliament. The Council holds the delegated authority to issue Orders of Council used to regulate certain public institutions; the Council advises the sovereign on the issuing of Royal Charters, which are used to grant special status to incorporated bodies, city or borough status to local authorities. Otherwise, the Privy Council's powers have now been replaced by its executive committee, the Cabinet of the United Kingdom. Certain judicial functions are performed by the Queen-in-Council, although in practice its actual work of hearing and deciding upon cases is carried out day-to-day by the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council.
The Judicial Committee consists of senior judges appointed as Privy Counsellors: predominantly Justices of the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom and senior judges from the Commonwealth. The Privy Council acted as the High Court of Appeal for the entire British Empire, continues to hear appeals from the Crown Dependencies, the British Overseas Territories, some independent Commonwealth states; the Privy Council of the United Kingdom was preceded by the Privy Council of Scotland and the Privy Council of England. The key events in the formation of the modern Privy Council are given below: In Anglo-Saxon England, Witenagemot was an early equivalent to the Privy Council of England. During the reigns of the Norman monarchs, the English Crown was advised by a royal court or curia regis, which consisted of magnates and high officials; the body concerned itself with advising the sovereign on legislation and justice. Different bodies assuming distinct functions evolved from the court; the courts of law took over the business of dispensing justice, while Parliament became the supreme legislature of the kingdom.
The Council retained the power to hear legal disputes, either in the first instance or on appeal. Furthermore, laws made by the sovereign on the advice of the Council, rather than on the advice of Parliament, were accepted as valid. Powerful sovereigns used the body to circumvent the Courts and Parliament. For example, a committee of the Council—which became the Court of the Star Chamber—was during the 15th century permitted to inflict any punishment except death, without being bound by normal court procedure. During Henry VIII's reign, the sovereign, on the advice of the Council, was allowed to enact laws by mere proclamation; the legislative pre-eminence of Parliament was not restored until after Henry VIII's death. Though the royal Council retained legislative and judicial responsibilities, it became a administrative body; the Council consisted of forty members in 1553, but the sovereign relied on a smaller committee, which evolved into the modern Cabinet. By the end of the English Civil War, the monarchy, House of Lords, Privy Council had been abolished.
The remaining parliamentary chamber, the House of Commons, instituted a Council of State to execute laws and to direct administrative policy. The forty-one members of the Council were elected by the House of Commons. In 1653, Cromwell became Lord Protector, the Council was reduced to between thirteen and twenty-one members, all elected by the Commons. In 1657, the Commons granted Cromwell greater powers, some of which were reminiscent of those enjoyed by monarchs; the Council became known as the Protector's Privy Council. In 1659, shortly before the restoration of the monarchy, the Protector's Council was abolished. Charles II restored the Royal Privy Council, but he, like previous Stuart monarchs, chose to rely on a small group of advisers. Under George I more power transferred to this committee, it now began to meet in the absence of the sovereign, communicating its decisions to him after the fact. Thus, the British Privy Council, as a whole, ceased to be a body of important confidential advisers to the sovereign.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the definition of the word privy in Privy Council is an obsolete meaning "of or pertaining to a particular person or persons, one's own". It is related to the word private, derives from the French word privé; the sovereign, when acting on the Council's advice, is known as the King-in-Council or Queen-in-Council. The members of the Council are collectively known as The Lords of Her Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council; the chief officer of the body is the Lord President of the Council, the fourth highest Great Officer of State, a Cabinet member and either the Leader of the House of Lords or of the House of Commons. Another important official is the Clerk, whose signature is appended to all orders made in the Council. Both Privy Counsellor and Privy Councillor may be used to refer to a member of the Council; the former, however, is preferred by the Privy Council Office, emphasising English usage of the term Counsellor a