Sandwich, New Hampshire
Sandwich is a town in Carroll County, New Hampshire, United States. Its population was 1,326 at the 2010 census. Sandwich includes the villages of North Sandwich. Part of the White Mountain National Forest is in the north, part of Squam Lake is in the southwestern corner of the town. Chartered in 1763 by Colonial Governor Benning Wentworth, the land was considered so inaccessible that the grant was enlarged, making Sandwich one of the largest towns in the state, it was named in honor of John Montagu, 4th Earl of Sandwich, said to be the inventor of the sandwich. The earliest European settlers arrived in 1767. By 1830 Sandwich had grown to a population of 2700 double the current population. At that time the town contained farms, mills, schools, carpenters and wheelwrights. By the end of the 1800s much of the population had left Sandwich to live in cities to the west. Sandwich began to be an attraction for visitors, summer residents and artists, which continues to this day; the League of New Hampshire Craftsmen began in Sandwich as "Sandwich Home Industries" in 1920, continues statewide today.
Each fall the town hosts the Sandwich Fair. The Durgin Bridge, built in 1864, is a covered bridge in the eastern section of town. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 93.5 square miles, of which 90.2 square miles is land and 3.2 square miles is water, comprising 3.47% of the town. Sandwich is drained to the east by the Bearcamp and Cold rivers, to the northwest by the Beebe River, to the southwest by Squam Lake, to the south by the Red Hill River. Mount Israel, elevation 2,630 feet above sea level, is at the center. Part of the Squam Mountains is in the west. Part of the Sandwich Range is in the north, including the 3,993-foot Sandwich Mountain, the highest point in town; the primary settlement in the town is Center Sandwich. Other villages include Sandwich, North Sandwich, Whiteface. Many scenes from the iconic opening credits of the TV series Newhart were filmed in the Sandwich and Squam Lake area; the footage used for the series was leftover stock recorded for the film On Golden Pond, filmed in the area.
As of the census of 2010, there were 1,326 people, 617 households, 405 families residing in the town. There were 1,057 housing units, of which 440, or 41.6%, were vacant. 373 of the vacant units were for seasonal or recreational use. The racial makeup of the town was 98.0% white, 0.2% African American, 0.2% Native American, 0.5% Asian, 0.1% Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander, 0.0% some other race, 1.1% from two or more races. 0.5% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. Of the 617 households, 19.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.1% were headed by married couples living together, 7.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.4% were non-families. 27.4% of all households were made up of individuals, 13.9% were someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.15, the average family size was 2.59. In the town, 16.3% of the population were under the age of 18, 3.8% were from 18 to 24, 15.9% from 25 to 44, 40.9% from 45 to 64, 23.2% were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 53.2 years. For every 100 females, there were 96.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.7 males. For the period 2011-2015, the estimated median annual income for a household was $57,000, the median income for a family was $63,824. Male full-time workers had a median income of $57,917 versus $40,804 for females; the per capita income for the town was $31,599. 10.0% of the population and 7.3% of families were below the poverty line. 22.3% of the population under the age of 18 and 5.3% of those 65 or older were living in poverty. Sandwich Historical Society Museum Sandwich Fair Dixi Crosby and educator, born in the town Claude Rains, earned four Oscar nominations for supporting actor and portrayed Captain Renault in the film Casablanca. Wiener and his wife Margaret are buried in Sandwich. Sandwich, named after Sandwich, New Hampshire Town of Sandwich official website Sandwich Historical Society New Hampshire Economic and Labor Market Information Bureau Profile Squam Lakes Association
Odd Fellows, or Oddfellows Odd Fellowship or Oddfellowship, is an international fraternity consisting of lodges first documented in 1730 in London. The first known lodge was called Loyal Aristarcus Lodge No. 9, suggesting there were earlier ones in the 18th century. Notwithstanding, convivial meetings were held "in much revelry and as not, the calling of the Watch to restore order." Names of several British pubs today suggest past Odd Fellows affiliations. In the mid-18th century, following the Jacobite risings, the fraternity split into the rivaling Order of Patriotic Oddfellows in southern England, favouring William III of England, the Ancient Order of Oddfellows in northern England and Scotland, favouring the House of Stuart. Odd Fellows from that time include John Wilkes and Sir George Savile, 8th Baronet of Thornton, advocating civil liberties and reliefs, including Catholic emancipation. Political repressions such as the Unlawful Oaths Act and the Unlawful Societies Act, resulted in neutral amalgamation of the Grand United Order of Oddfellows in 1798.
Since the fraternity has remained religiously and politically independent. George IV of the United Kingdom, admitted in 1780, was the first documented of many Odd Fellows to attend freemasonry, although the societies remain mutually independent. In 1810, further instigations led to the establishment of the Independent Order of Oddfellows Manchester Unity in England. Odd Fellows spread overseas, including formally chartering the fraternity in the United States in 1819. In 1842, due to British authorities intervening in the customs and ceremonies of British Odd Fellows and in light of post-colonial American sovereignty, the American Odd Fellows became independent as the Independent Order of Odd Fellows under British-American Thomas Wildey, soon constituting the largest sovereign grand lodge. By the mid-19th century, the Independent Order of Oddfellows Manchester Unity become the largest and richest fraternal organisation in the United Kingdom. To this day, beyond recreational activities, Odd Fellows promote philanthropy, the ethic of reciprocity and charity, albeit with some grand lodges implying Judeo-Christian affiliation.
Still largest, the American-seated Independent Order of Odd Fellows enrolls some 600,000 members divided in 10,000 lodges in 30 countries, inter-fraternally recognised by the second largest, the British-seated Independent Order of Oddfellows Manchester Unity. In total, members of all international branches combined are estimated in the millions worldwide. Several theories aim to explain the etymological background of the name "Odd Fellows" spelled "Oddfellows" in British English. In the 18th century United Kingdom, major trades were organised in guilds or other forms of syndicates, but smaller trades did not have equivalent social or financial security. One theory has it that "odd fellows", people who exercised unusual, miscellaneous "odd trades" joined together to form a larger group of "odd fellows". Another theory suggests that in the beginning of odd fellowship in the 18th century, at the time of the early era of industrialisation, it was rather odd to find people who followed noble values such as fraternalism and charity.
The name was adopted at a time when the severance into sects and classes was so wide that persons aiming at social union and mutual help were a marked exception to the general rule. It met a mixed reaction from the upper classes, who may have seen them as a source of revenue by taxes, but as a threat to their authority. Any suggestion of history before the 18th century is considered mere speculation; the Odd Fellows are one of the earliest and oldest fraternal societies, but their early history is obscure and undocumented. Due to increased trade during the Middle Ages, guilds came to make up a part of the urban culture, grouping people from a number of trades banded together. Hence, people of an odd assortment of trades speculatively brought the background of the early history of Odd Fellows; when the English King Henry VIII broke with the Roman Catholic Church, the guilds were viewed by him as supporting the Pope, in 1545 he confiscated all material property of the guilds. Queen Elizabeth I took from the guilds the responsibility for training apprentices, by the end of her reign, most guilds had been suppressed.
Dubious traditions, tracing the fraternity's origins back to Roman Emperors Nero in A. D. 55, its name to Titus in A. D. 79 because of their odd signs and ceremonies, are at best considered peculiarities. Although some of these legends are at best dubious, the evolution from the guilds is more reliably documented. By the 13th century, the tradesmen's guilds had become prosperous. During the 14th century, with the growth of trade, the guild "Masters" moved to protect their power by restricting access to the guilds. In response, the less experienced "Fellows" set up their own rival guilds; the exact origin of Oddfellowship is involved in obscurity. It must have had a beginning, but just when and where, no historian has been able to ascertain. All of its history prior to the introduction of the Order into England is conjecture founded upon proofless, and, in most cases, absurd traditions. Great antiquity has been claimed for the order... Oddfellows themselves, now admit that the institution cannot be traced back beyond the first half of the 18th century.
There were numerous Oddfellow organizations in England in the 1700s. One Edwardian Oddfellow history argued that in 1710 there was a'Loyal Lintot of Oddfellows' in London; the first Oddfellows group in South Yorkshire, dates from 1730. The earliest surviving documented eviden
John H. Stevens
John Harrington Stevens was the first authorized resident on the west bank of the Mississippi River in what would become Minneapolis, Minnesota. He was granted permission to occupy the site part of the Fort Snelling military reservation, in exchange for providing ferry service to St. Anthony across the river; the Stevens House was moved several times to Minnehaha Park in south Minneapolis in 1896. The house is now a museum, with tours available on summer weekends; the home was considered to be a civic and social hub of the city, was used to organize both Hennepin County and the city of Minneapolis. Stevens was born in Brompton Falls, Canada, he attained the rank of colonel in the U. S. Army, was involved in the Mexican–American War, he served in the Minnesota House of Representatives in 1857–1858 and the Minnesota Senate in 1859–1860. He returned to the house once in 1876. Minneapolis and St. Anthony merged in 1872, so there are others who can claim to be earlier Minneapolis residents; the oldest existing house from that earlier settlement was built by Ard Godfrey in 1848, two years before Stevens' home.
Index to Politicians: Stevens, J. The Political Graveyard; the Papers of John Harrington StevensPhotos at the Hennepin County Library John H. StevensPhotos at the Minnesota Historical Society John H. Stevens 01 John H. Stevens 02 John H. Stevens 03 John H. Stevens 04
Minnesota is a state in the Upper Midwest and northern regions of the United States. Minnesota was admitted as the 32nd U. S. state on May 11, 1858, created from the eastern half of the Minnesota Territory. The state has a large number of lakes, is known by the slogan the "Land of 10,000 Lakes", its official motto is L'Étoile du Nord. Minnesota is the 12th largest in area and the 22nd most populous of the U. S. states. This area is the center of transportation, industry and government, while being home to an internationally known arts community; the remainder of the state consists of western prairies now given over to intensive agriculture. Minnesota was inhabited by various indigenous peoples for thousands of years prior to the arrival of Europeans. French explorers and fur traders began exploring the region in the 17th century, encountering the Dakota and Ojibwe/Anishinaabe tribes. Much of what is today Minnesota was part of the vast French holding of Louisiana, purchased by the United States in 1803.
Following several territorial reorganizations, Minnesota in its current form was admitted as the country's 32nd state on May 11, 1858. Like many Midwestern states, it remained centered on lumber and agriculture. During the 19th and early 20th centuries, a large number of European immigrants from Scandinavia and Germany, began to settle the state, which remains a center of Scandinavian American and German American culture. In recent decades, immigration from Asia, the Horn of Africa, the Middle East, Latin America has broadened its demographic and cultural composition; the state's economy has diversified, shifting from traditional activities such as agriculture and resource extraction to services and finance. Minnesota's standard of living index is among the highest in the United States, the state is among the best-educated and wealthiest in the nation; the word Minnesota comes from the Dakota name for the Minnesota River: The river got its name from one of two words in the Dakota language,'Mní sóta' which means "clear blue water", or'Mnißota', which means cloudy water.
Native Americans demonstrated the name to early settlers by dropping milk into water and calling it mnisota. Many places in the state have similar names, such as Minnehaha Falls, Minneota, Minnetonka and Minneapolis, a combination of mni and polis, the Greek word for "city". Minnesota is the second northernmost U. S. state and northernmost contiguous state. Its isolated Northwest Angle in Lake of the Woods county is the only part of the 48 contiguous states lying north of the 49th parallel; the state is part of the U. S. region known as part of North America's Great Lakes Region. It shares a Lake Superior water border with Michigan and a land and water border with Wisconsin to the east. Iowa is to the south, North Dakota and South Dakota are to the west, the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Manitoba are to the north. With 86,943 square miles, or 2.25% of the United States, Minnesota is the 12th-largest state. Minnesota has gneisses that are about 3.6 billion years old. About 2.7 billion years ago, basaltic lava poured out of cracks in the floor of the primordial ocean.
The roots of these volcanic mountains and the action of Precambrian seas formed the Iron Range of northern Minnesota. Following a period of volcanism 1.1 billion years ago, Minnesota's geological activity has been more subdued, with no volcanism or mountain formation, but with repeated incursions of the sea, which left behind multiple strata of sedimentary rock. In more recent times, massive ice sheets at least one kilometer thick ravaged the state's landscape and sculpted its terrain; the Wisconsin glaciation left 12,000 years ago. These glaciers covered all of Minnesota except the far southeast, an area characterized by steep hills and streams that cut into the bedrock; this area is known as the Driftless Zone for its absence of glacial drift. Much of the remainder of the state outside the northeast has 50 feet or more of glacial till left behind as the last glaciers retreated. Gigantic Lake Agassiz formed in the northwest 13,000 years ago, its bed created the fertile Red River valley, its outflow, glacial River Warren, carved the valley of the Minnesota River and the Upper Mississippi downstream from Fort Snelling.
Minnesota is geologically quiet today. The state's high point is Eagle Mountain at 2,301 feet, only 13 miles away from the low of 601 feet at the shore of Lake Superior. Notwithstanding dramatic local differences in elevation, much of the state is a rolling peneplain. Two major drainage divides meet in Minnesota's northeast in rural Hibbing, forming a triple watershed. Precipitation can follow the Mississippi River south to the Gulf of Mexico, the Saint Lawrence Seaway east to the Atlantic Ocean, or the Hudson Bay watershed to the Arctic Ocean; the state's nickname, "Land of 10,000 Lakes", is apt, as there are 11,842 Minnesota lakes over 10 acres in size. Minnesota's portion of Lake Superior is the largest at 962,700 acres and deepest body of wate
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Philadelphia, sometimes known colloquially as Philly, is the largest city in the U. S. state and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, the sixth-most populous U. S. city, with a 2017 census-estimated population of 1,580,863. Since 1854, the city has been coterminous with Philadelphia County, the most populous county in Pennsylvania and the urban core of the eighth-largest U. S. metropolitan statistical area, with over 6 million residents as of 2017. Philadelphia is the economic and cultural anchor of the greater Delaware Valley, located along the lower Delaware and Schuylkill Rivers, within the Northeast megalopolis; the Delaware Valley's population of 7.2 million ranks it as the eighth-largest combined statistical area in the United States. William Penn, an English Quaker, founded the city in 1682 to serve as capital of the Pennsylvania Colony. Philadelphia played an instrumental role in the American Revolution as a meeting place for the Founding Fathers of the United States, who signed the Declaration of Independence in 1776 at the Second Continental Congress, the Constitution at the Philadelphia Convention of 1787.
Several other key events occurred in Philadelphia during the Revolutionary War including the First Continental Congress, the preservation of the Liberty Bell, the Battle of Germantown, the Siege of Fort Mifflin. Philadelphia was one of the nation's capitals during the revolution, served as temporary U. S. capital while Washington, D. C. was under construction. In the 19th century, Philadelphia became a railroad hub; the city grew from an influx of European immigrants, most of whom came from Ireland and Germany—the three largest reported ancestry groups in the city as of 2015. In the early 20th century, Philadelphia became a prime destination for African Americans during the Great Migration after the Civil War, as well as Puerto Ricans; the city's population doubled from one million to two million people between 1890 and 1950. The Philadelphia area's many universities and colleges make it a top study destination, as the city has evolved into an educational and economic hub. According to the Bureau of Economic Analysis, the Philadelphia area had a gross domestic product of US$445 billion in 2017, the eighth-largest metropolitan economy in the United States.
Philadelphia is the center of economic activity in Pennsylvania and is home to five Fortune 1000 companies. The Philadelphia skyline is expanding, with a market of 81,900 commercial properties in 2016, including several nationally prominent skyscrapers. Philadelphia has more outdoor murals than any other American city. Fairmount Park, when combined with the adjacent Wissahickon Valley Park in the same watershed, is one of the largest contiguous urban park areas in the United States; the city is known for its arts, culture and colonial history, attracting 42 million domestic tourists in 2016 who spent US$6.8 billion, generating an estimated $11 billion in total economic impact in the city and surrounding four counties of Pennsylvania. Philadelphia has emerged as a biotechnology hub. Philadelphia is the birthplace of the United States Marine Corps, is the home of many U. S. firsts, including the first library, medical school, national capital, stock exchange and business school. Philadelphia contains 67 National Historic Landmarks and the World Heritage Site of Independence Hall.
The city became a member of the Organization of World Heritage Cities in 2015, as the first World Heritage City in the United States. Although Philadelphia is undergoing gentrification, the city maintains mitigation strategies to minimize displacement of homeowners in gentrifying neighborhoods. Before Europeans arrived, the Philadelphia area was home to the Lenape Indians in the village of Shackamaxon; the Lenape are a Native American tribe and First Nations band government. They are called Delaware Indians, their historical territory was along the Delaware River watershed, western Long Island, the Lower Hudson Valley. Most Lenape were pushed out of their Delaware homeland during the 18th century by expanding European colonies, exacerbated by losses from intertribal conflicts. Lenape communities were weakened by newly introduced diseases smallpox, violent conflict with Europeans. Iroquois people fought the Lenape. Surviving Lenape moved west into the upper Ohio River basin; the American Revolutionary War and United States' independence pushed them further west.
In the 1860s, the United States government sent most Lenape remaining in the eastern United States to the Indian Territory under the Indian removal policy. In the 21st century, most Lenape reside in Oklahoma, with some communities living in Wisconsin, in their traditional homelands. Europeans came to the Delaware Valley in the early 17th century, with the first settlements founded by the Dutch, who in 1623 built Fort Nassau on the Delaware River opposite the Schuylkill River in what is now Brooklawn, New Jersey; the Dutch considered the entire Delaware River valley to be part of their New Netherland colony. In 1638, Swedish settlers led by renegade Dutch established the colony of New Sweden at Fort Christina and spread out in the valley. In 1644, New Sweden supported the Susquehannocks in their military defeat of the English colony of Maryland. In 1648, the Dutch built Fort Beversreede on the west bank of the Delaware, south of the Schuylkill near the present-day Eastwick neighborhood, to reassert their dominion over the area.
The Swedes responded by building Fort Nya Korsholm, or New Korsholm, named after a town in Finland with a Swedish majority. In 1655, a
Hennepin County, Minnesota
Hennepin County is a county in the U. S. state of Minnesota. As of the 2010 census the population was 1,152,425, it is the 35th-most populous county in the United States. Its county seat is the state's most populous city; the county is named in honor of the 17th-century explorer Father Louis Hennepin. Hennepin County is included in the Minneapolis-St. Paul-Bloomington, MN-WI Metropolitan Statistical Area; the center of population of Minnesota is in the city of Minneapolis. Hennepin County was created in 1852 by the Minnesota Territorial Legislature. Father Louis Hennepin's name was chosen because he named St. Anthony Falls and recorded some of the earliest accounts of the area for the Western world. Hennepin County's early history is linked to the establishment of the cities of Minneapolis and St. Anthony; the history of Hennepin County is cataloged at the Hennepin History Museum, located in Minneapolis. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 607 square miles, of which 554 square miles is land and 53 square miles is water.
Hennepin is one of 17 Minnesota counties with more savanna soils than either prairie or forest soils, is one of only two Minnesota counties with more than 75% of its area in savanna soils. The highest waterfall on the Mississippi River, the Saint Anthony Falls is in Hennepin County next to downtown Minneapolis, but in the 19th century, the falls were converted to a series of dams. Barges and boats now pass through locks to move between the parts of the river above and below the dams. Anoka County Ramsey County Dakota County Scott County Carver County Wright County Sherburne County Minnesota Valley National Wildlife Refuge Mississippi National River and Recreation Area As of the 2010 Census, there were 1,152,425 people, 475,913 households, 272,885 families residing in the county; the racial makeup of the county was 74.4% White, 11.8% Black or African American, 0.9% Native American, 6.2% Asian, 3.4% from other races, 3.2% from two or more races. 6.7% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
According to the 2010–2015 American Community Survey, the largest ancestry groups were German, Norwegian and Swedish. At the 2000 Census, there were 1,116,200 people, 456,129 households, 267,291 families residing in the county; the population density was 774/km². There were 468,824 housing units at an average density of 325/km²; the racial makeup of the county was 80.53% White, 8.95% Black or African American, 1.00% Native American, 4.80% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 2.06% from other races, 2.60% from two or more races. 4.07% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 456,129 households out of which 28.80% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.30% were married couples living together, 9.90% had a female householder with no husband present, 41.40% were non-families. 31.80% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.40% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.39 and the average family size was 3.07. In the county 24.00% of the population was under the age of 18, 9.70% was between 18 and 24, 33.70% from 25 to 44, 21.70% from 45 to 64, 11.00% were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females there were 97.00 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.70 males. The median income for a household in the county was $51,711, the median income for a family was $65,985 Accounting for inflation, these figures rise again to $76,202.87 for individuals, $92,353.46 for households, adjusted for 2014 dollars. Males had a median income of $42,466 versus $32,400 for females; the per capita income for the county was $28,789. About 5.00% of families and 8.30% of the population were below the poverty line, including 10.50% of those under age 18 and 5.90% of those age 65 or over. Hennepin County is the wealthiest county in Minnesota and one of the 100 highest-income counties in the United States. Besides English, languages with significant numbers of speakers in Hennepin County include Arabic, Khmer, Russian, Somali and Vietnamese. Like all counties in Minnesota, Hennepin is governed by an elected and nonpartisan board of commissioners.
In Minnesota, county commissions have five members, but Hennepin, Dakota, Anoka and St Louis counties have seven members. Each commissioner represents a district of equal population. In Hennepin the county commission appoints the medical examiner, county auditor-treasurer and county recorder; the sheriff and county attorney are elected on a nonpartisan ticket. The county government's headquarters are in downtown Minneapolis in the Hennepin County Government Center; the county oversees the Hennepin County Library system, Hennepin County Medical Center. The county commission elects a chair. Commissioners as of January 7, 2019 Hennepin County's normal operations are coordinated by the County Administrator David Hough, Deputy County Administrator for Health and Human Services Jennifer DeCubellis, Assistant County Administrator for Operations Chester Cooper, Acting Assistant County Administrator for Public Works Chris Sagsveen, Assistant County Administrator for Public Safety Mark Thompson. Under Administrator H