Dutch art describes the history of visual arts in the Netherlands, after the United Provinces separated from Flanders. Earlier painting in the area is covered in Early Netherlandish painting and Dutch and Flemish Renaissance painting; the history of Dutch art is dominated by the Dutch Golden Age painting of about 1620 to 1680, when a distinct style and new types of painting were developed, though still keeping close links with Flemish Baroque painting. After the end of the Golden Age, production of paintings remained high, but ceased to influence the rest of Europe as strongly; the Hague School of the 19th century re-interpreted the range of subjects of the Golden Age in contemporary terms, made Dutch painting once again a European leader. In the successive movements of art since the 19th century, the Dutch contribution has been best known from the work of the individual figures of Vincent van Gogh and Piet Mondrian, though both did their best work outside the Netherlands, took some time to be appreciated.
Amsterdam Impressionism had a local impact, but the De Stijl movement, of which Mondrian was a member, was influential abroad. Dutch Golden Age painting was among the most acclaimed in the world at the time, during the seventeenth century. There was an enormous output of painting, so much so that prices declined during the period. From the 1620s, Dutch painting broke decisively from the Baroque style typified by Rubens in neighboring Flanders into a more realistic style of depiction much concerned with the real world. Types of paintings included historical paintings, portraiture and cityscapes, still lifes and genre paintings. In the last four of these categories, Dutch painters established styles upon which art in Europe depended for the next two centuries. Paintings had a moralistic subtext; the Golden Age never recovered from the French invasion of 1671, although there was a twilight period lasting until about 1710. Dutch painters in the northern provinces, tried to evoke emotions in the spectator by letting the person be a bystander to a scene of profound intimacy.
Portrait painting thrived in the Netherlands in the seventeenth century. Many portraits were commissioned by wealthy individuals. Group portraits were ordered by prominent members of a city's civilian guard, by boards of trustees and regents, the like. Group portraits were paid for by each portrayed person individually; the amount paid determined each person's place in the picture, either head to toe in full regalia in the foreground or face only in the back of the group. Sometimes all group members paid an equal sum, to lead to quarrels when some members gained a more prominent place in the picture than others. Allegories, in which painted objects conveyed symbolic meaning about the subject, were applied. Many genre paintings, which only depicted everyday life illustrated Dutch proverbs and sayings, or conveyed a moralistic message, the meaning of, not always easy to decipher nowadays. Favourite topics in Dutch landscapes were the dunes along the western sea coast, rivers with their broad adjoining meadows where cattle grazed a silhouette of a city in the distance.
Rembrandt had by 1631 established such a good reputation that he received several assignments for portraits from Amsterdam. In about 1640, his work became more sober. Exuberance was replaced by more sincere emotions. Biblical scenes were now derived more from the New Testament instead of the Old Testament. One of his most famous paintings is The Night Watch, completed in 1642, at the peak of Holland's golden age; the painting was commissioned to be hung in the banquet hall of the newly-built Kloveniersdoelen in Amsterdam. Johannes Vermeer's works are admired for their transparent colors, careful composition, brilliant use of light. Vermeer painted domestic interior scenes, his two known landscapes are framed with a window; the interior scenes are genre pieces or portraits. The Utrecht School refers to a group of painters active in the city of Utrecht in the Netherlands in the early part of the seventeenth century, it is part of. They were all influenced by the recently deceased Caravaggio, who died in 1610.
The Bamboccianti were a group of Dutch genre painters active in Rome from 1625 to 1700, during high and late Baroque. Their works were small parlor paintings or etchings of everyday life, including peasants in picturesque scenes. By the 19th century the Netherlands were far behind the up-to-date art schools; the best known Dutch painter in the first half of the 19th century, Johan Barthold Jongkind, after getting an art education in the country, moved over to France and spend most of his life in Paris. At the same time, Dutch art responded to the realistic tendencies which were developing in France about the same time; the Hague School were around at the start of the nineteenth century. They included Jozef Israëls. Jacob Maris showed all, gravest or brightest in the landscape of Holland, all, heaviest or clearest in its atmosphere. "No painter," says M. Philippe Zilcken, "has so well expressed the ethereal effects, bathed in air and light through floating silvery mist, in which painters delight, the characteristic remote horizons blurred by haze.
Amsterdam Impressionism was current during the middle of the nineteenth century at about the same time as French Impressionism. The painters put their impressions onto canvas with visible strokes of the brush, they focused on depicting the everyday life of the city. Late nineteenth-
Etching is traditionally the process of using strong acid or mordant to cut into the unprotected parts of a metal surface to create a design in intaglio in the metal. In modern manufacturing, other chemicals may be used on other types of material; as a method of printmaking, it is, along with engraving, the most important technique for old master prints, remains in wide use today. In a number of modern variants such as microfabrication etching and photochemical milling it is a crucial technique in much modern technology, including circuit boards. In traditional pure etching, a metal plate is covered with a waxy ground, resistant to acid; the artist scratches off the ground with a pointed etching needle where he or she wants a line to appear in the finished piece, so exposing the bare metal. The échoppe, a tool with a slanted oval section, is used for "swelling" lines; the plate is dipped in a bath of acid, technically called the mordant or etchant, or has acid washed over it. The acid "bites" into the metal where it is exposed, leaving behind lines sunk into the plate.
The remaining ground is cleaned off the plate. The plate is inked all over, the ink wiped off the surface, leaving only the ink in the etched lines; the plate is put through a high-pressure printing press together with a sheet of paper. The paper picks up the ink from the etched lines; the process can be repeated many times. The work on the plate can be added to by repeating the whole process. Etching has been combined with other intaglio techniques such as engraving or aquatint. Etching by goldsmiths and other metal-workers in order to decorate metal items such as guns, armour and plates has been known in Europe since the Middle Ages at least, may go back to antiquity; the elaborate decoration of armour, in Germany at least, was an art imported from Italy around the end of the 15th century—little earlier than the birth of etching as a printmaking technique. Printmakers from the German-speaking lands and Central Europe perfected the art and transmitted their skills over the Alps and across Europe.
The process as applied to printmaking is believed to have been invented by Daniel Hopfer of Augsburg, Germany. Hopfer was a craftsman who decorated armour in this way, applied the method to printmaking, using iron plates. Apart from his prints, there are two proven examples of his work on armour: a shield from 1536 now in the Real Armeria of Madrid and a sword in the Germanisches Nationalmuseum of Nuremberg. An Augsburg horse armour in the German Historical Museum, dating to between 1512 and 1515, is decorated with motifs from Hopfer's etchings and woodcuts, but this is no evidence that Hopfer himself worked on it, as his decorative prints were produced as patterns for other craftsmen in various media; the oldest dated etching is by Albrecht Dürer in 1515, although he returned to engraving after six etchings instead of developing the craft. The switch to copper plates was made in Italy, thereafter etching soon came to challenge engraving as the most popular medium for artists in printmaking.
Its great advantage was that, unlike engraving where the difficult technique for using the burin requires special skill in metalworking, the basic technique for creating the image on the plate in etching is easy to learn for an artist trained in drawing. On the other hand, the handling of the ground and acid need skill and experience, are not without health and safety risks, as well as the risk of a ruined plate. Prior to 1100 AD, the New World Hohokam independently utilized the technique of acid etching in marine shell designs. Jacques Callot from Nancy in Lorraine made important technical advances in etching technique, he developed the échoppe, a type of etching-needle with a slanting oval section at the end, which enabled etchers to create a swelling line, as engravers were able to do. Callot appears to have been responsible for an improved, recipe for the etching ground, using lute-makers' varnish rather than a wax-based formula; this enabled lines to be more bitten, prolonging the life of the plate in printing, greatly reducing the risk of "foul-biting", where acid gets through the ground to the plate where it is not intended to, producing spots or blotches on the image.
The risk of foul-biting had always been at the back of an etcher's mind, preventing too much time on a single plate that risked being ruined in the biting process. Now etchers could do the detailed work, the monopoly of engravers, Callot made full use of the new possibilities. Callot made more extensive and sophisticated use of multiple "stoppings-out" than previous etchers had done; this is the technique of letting the acid bite over the whole plate stopping-out those parts of the work which the artist wishes to keep light in tone by covering them with ground before bathing the plate in acid again. He achieved unprecedented subtlety in effects of distance and light and shade by careful control of this process. Most of his prints were small—up to about six inches or 15 cm on their longest dimension, but packed with detail. One of his followers, the Parisian Abraham Bosse, spread Callot's innovations all over Europe with the first published manual of etching, translated into Italian, Dutch and English.
The Vicar of Wakefield
The Vicar of Wakefield – subtitled A Tale, Supposed to be written by Himself – is a novel by Irish writer Oliver Goldsmith. It was written from 1761 to 1762 and published in 1766, it was one of the most popular and read 18th-century novels among Victorians. Dr. Samuel Johnson, one of Goldsmith's closest friends, told how The Vicar of Wakefield came to be sold for publication: The novel was The Vicar of Wakefield, Johnson had sold it to Francis Newbery, a nephew of John. Newbery "kept it by him for nearly two years unpublished", it was illustrated by English illustrator Arthur Rackham for the 1929 edition. The Vicar – Dr. Charles Primrose – lives an idyllic life in a country parish with his wife Deborah, son George, daughters Olivia and Sophia, three other children, he is wealthy due to investing an inheritance he received from a deceased relative, he donates the £35 that his job pays annually to local orphans and war veterans. On the evening of George's wedding to wealthy Arabella Wilmot, the Vicar loses all his money through the bankruptcy of his merchant investor who has left town abruptly.
The wedding is called off by Arabella's father, known for his prudence with money. George, educated at Oxford and is old enough to be considered an adult, is sent away to town; the rest of the family move to a new and more humble parish on the land of Squire Thornhill, known to be a womanizer. On the way, they hear about the dubious reputation of their new landlord. References are made to the squire's uncle Sir William Thornhill, known throughout the country for his worthiness and generosity. A poor and eccentric friend, Mr. Burchell, whom they meet at an inn, rescues Sophia from drowning, she is attracted to him, but her ambitious mother does not encourage her feelings. Follows a period of happy family life, interrupted only by regular visits of the dashing Squire Thornhill and Mr. Burchell. Olivia is captivated by Thornhill's hollow charm, but he encourages the social ambitions of Mrs. Primrose and her daughters to a ludicrous degree. Olivia is reported to have fled. First Burchell is suspected, but after a long pursuit Dr. Primrose finds his daughter, in reality deceived by Squire Thornhill.
He planned to marry her in a mock ceremony and leave her shortly after, as he had done with several women before. When Olivia and her father return home, they find their house in flames. Although the family has lost all their belongings, the evil Squire Thornhill insists on the payment of the rent; as the vicar cannot pay, he is brought to prison. Afterwards is a chain of dreadful occurrences; the vicar's daughter, Olivia, is reported dead, Sophia is abducted, George too is sent to prison in chains and covered with blood, as he had challenged Thornhill to a duel when he had heard about his wickedness. But Mr. Burchell arrives and solves all problems, he rescues Sophia, Olivia is not dead, it emerges that Mr. Burchell is in reality the worthy Sir William Thornhill, who travels through the country in disguise. In the end, there is a double wedding: George marries Arabella, as he intended, Sir William Thornhill marries Sophia. Squire Thornhill's servant turns out to have tricked him, thus the sham marriage of the Squire and Olivia is real.
The wealth of the vicar is restored, as the bankrupt merchant is reported to be found. The book consists of 32 chapters which fall into three parts: Chapters 1 – 3: beginning Chapters 4 – 29: main part Chapters 30 – 32: endingChapter 17, when Olivia is reported to be fled, can be regarded as the climax as well as an essential turning point of the novel. From chapter 17 onward it changes from a comical account of eighteenth-century country life into a pathetic melodrama with didactic traits. There are quite a few interpolations of different literary genres, such as poems, histories or sermons, which widen the restricted view of the first person narrator and serve as didactic fables; the novel can be regarded as a fictitious memoir, as it is told by the vicar himself by retrospection. He is the vicar in the title, the narrator of the story, he presents one of the most harmlessly simple and unsophisticated yet ironically complex figures to appear in English fiction. He has a forgiving temper, as seen when he forgives his daughter Olivia with open arms.
He is a father of six healthy, blooming children. However, though he has a sweet, benevolent temper, he can sometimes be a bit silly, stubborn, or vain. For instance, he is obsessed with a obscure, not important, matter of church doctrine. One of his "favourite topics", he declares, is matrimony, explains that he is proud of being "a strict monogamist." He tactlessly adheres to his "principles" in the face of a violent disagreement with the neighbour, soon to become his son's father-in-law: he "...was called out by one of my relations, with a face of concern, advised me to give up the dispute, at least till my son's wedding was over." However, he angrily cries that he will not "relinquish the cause of truth," and hotly says, "You might as well advise me to give up my fortune as my argument." This is ironic, as he finds out that his fortune is almost nothing. This makes Mr. Wilmot break off the intended marriage with Mr. Primrose's son George and Miss Arabella Wilmot, thus his son's happiness is shattered.
He is sometimes proud of what he fancies is his ability at arguing, misjudges his family's supposed friends and neighbors. However, despite all his faults, he is affectionate, loving and good-natured. Dr Charles Primrose's wife, she is faithful. She has some v
Adriaen van Ostade
Adriaen van Ostade was a Dutch Golden Age painter of genre works. According to Houbraken, he and his brother were pupils of Frans Hals and like him, spent most of their lives in Haarlem, he thought. He was the eldest son of a weaver from the town of Ostade near Eindhoven. Although Adriaen and his brother Isaack were born in Haarlem, they adopted the name "van Ostade" as painters. According to the RKD, he became a pupil in 1627 of the portrait painter Frans Hals, at that time the master of Jan Miense Molenaer. In 1632 he is registered in Utrecht, but in 1634 he was back in Haarlem where he joined the Haarlem Guild of St. Luke. At twenty-six he joined a company of the civic guard at Haarlem, at twenty-eight he married, his wife died two years in 1640. In 1657, "as a widower", he married Anna Ingels, he again became a widower in 1666. He took on pupils, his notable pupils were Cornelis Pietersz Bega, Cornelis Dusart, Jan de Groot, Frans de Jongh, Michiel van Musscher, Isaac van Ostade, Evert Oudendijck, Jan Steen.
In 1662 and again in 1663 he is registered as deacon of the St. Luke guild in Haarlem. In the rampjaar he packed up his goods with the intention of fleeing to Lübeck, why Houbraken felt he had family there, he got as far as Amsterdam, when he was convinced to stay by the art collector "Konstantyn Sennepart", in whose house he stayed, where he made a series of colored drawings, that were bought for 1300 florins by Jonas Witsen, where Houbraken saw them and fell in love with his portrayals of village life. Jonas Witsen was the man, he had been the city secretary, was his patron. His successor, Johan van Schuylenburgh, who became city secretary in 1712, was the man to whom Houbraken dedicated the first volume of his Schouburg. Ostade was the contemporary of the Flemish painters David Teniers the Younger and Adriaen Brouwer and. Like them, he spent his life in delineation of the homeliest subjects: tavern scenes, village fairs and country quarters. Between Teniers and Ostade the contrast lies in the different condition of the agricultural classes of Brabant and Holland and in the atmosphere and dwellings peculiar to each region.
Brabant has more comfort. Holland, in the vicinity of Haarlem, seems to have suffered much from war. Brouwer, who painted the peasant in his frolics and passions, brought more of the spirit of Frans Hals into his depictions than did his colleague. During the first years of his career, Ostade tended toward the same exaggeration and frolic as his comrade, though he is distinguished from his rival by a more general use of light and shade a greater concentration of light on a small surface in contrast with a broad expanse of gloom; the key of his harmonies remained for a time in the scale of greys, but his treatment is dry and careful in a style which shuns no difficulties of detail. He shows us the cottages and out: vine leaves cloak the poverty of the outer walls; the greatness of Ostade lies in how he caught the poetic side of the peasant class in spite of its coarseness. He gave the magic light of a sun-gleam to their lowly sports, their quarrels their quieter moods of enjoyment, it was natural, given the tendency to effect which marked Ostade from the first, that he should have been fired by emulation to rival the masterpieces of Rembrandt.
His early pictures are not so rare but that we can trace. Before the dispersal of the Jakob Gsell collection at Vienna in 1872, it was easy to study the steel-grey harmonies, the exaggerated caricature of his early works between 1632 and 1638. There is a picture in the Vienna Gallery of a Countryman Having his Tooth Drawn and painted about 1632; the same style marks most of those pieces. About 1638 or 1640, the influence of Rembrandt changed his style, he painted the Annunciation of the Brunswick Museum: angels, appearing in the sky to Dutch boors half-asleep amidst their cattle and dogs in front of a cottage, recall at once the similar subject by Rembrandt, who lighted the principal groups by rays propelled to earth from a murky sky. Ostade, did not succeed here in giving dramatic force and expression, his picture was an effect of light, masterly as such, in its sketchy rubbings of dark brown tone relieved by impasted lights, but without the qualities which made his usual subjects attractive.
In 1642 he painted the beautiful interior at the Louvre: a mother tending her cradled child, her husband sitting nearby, beside a great chimney.
Charles Pierre Baudelaire was a French poet who produced notable work as an essayist, art critic, pioneering translator of Edgar Allan Poe. His most famous work, a book of lyric poetry titled Les Fleurs du mal, expresses the changing nature of beauty in modern, industrializing Paris during the mid-19th century. Baudelaire's original style of prose-poetry influenced a whole generation of poets including Paul Verlaine, Arthur Rimbaud and Stéphane Mallarmé, among many others, he is credited with coining the term "modernity" to designate the fleeting, ephemeral experience of life in an urban metropolis, the responsibility of artistic expression to capture that experience. Baudelaire was born in Paris, France, on April 9, 1821, baptized two months at Saint-Sulpice Roman Catholic Church, his father, Joseph-François Baudelaire, a senior civil servant and amateur artist, was 34 years older than Baudelaire's mother, Caroline. François died during Baudelaire's childhood, at rue Hautefeuille, Paris, on February 10, 1827.
The following year, Caroline married Lieutenant Colonel Jacques Aupick, who became a French ambassador to various noble courts. Baudelaire's biographers have seen this as a crucial moment, considering that finding himself no longer the sole focus of his mother's affection left him with a trauma, which goes some way to explaining the excesses apparent in his life, he stated in a letter to her that, "There was in my childhood a period of passionate love for you." Baudelaire begged his mother for money throughout his career promising that a lucrative publishing contract or journalistic commission was just around the corner. Baudelaire was educated in Lyon. At fourteen he was described by a classmate as "much more refined and distinguished than any of our fellow pupils... we are bound to one another... by shared tastes and sympathies, the precocious love of fine works of literature." Baudelaire was erratic in his studies, at times diligent, at other times prone to "idleness". He attended the Lycée Louis-le-Grand in Paris, studying law, a popular course for those not yet decided on any particular career.
He may have contracted gonorrhea and syphilis during this period. He began to run up debts for clothes. Upon gaining his degree in 1839, he told his brother "I don't feel I have a vocation for anything." His stepfather had in mind a career in law or diplomacy, but instead Baudelaire decided to embark upon a literary career. His mother recalled: "Oh, what grief! If Charles had let himself be guided by his stepfather, his career would have been different.... He would not have left a name in literature, it is true, but we should have been happier, all three of us." His stepfather sent him on a voyage to Calcutta, India, in 1841 in the hope of ending his dissolute habits. The trip provided strong impressions of the sea and exotic ports, that he employed in his poetry. On returning to the taverns of Paris, he began to compose some of the poems of "Les Fleurs du Mal". At 21, he squandered much of it within a few years, his family obtained a decree to place his property in trust, which he resented bitterly, at one point arguing that allowing him to fail financially would have been the one sure way of teaching him to keep his finances in order.
Baudelaire became known in artistic circles as a dandy and free-spender, going through much of his inheritance and allowance in a short period of time. During this time, Jeanne Duval became his mistress, she was rejected by his family. His mother thought Duval a "Black Venus" who "tortured him in every way" and drained him of money at every opportunity. Baudelaire made a suicide attempt during this period, he wrote for a revolutionary newspaper. However, his interest in politics was passing, as he was to note in his journals. In the early 1850s, Baudelaire struggled with poor health, pressing debts, irregular literary output, he moved from one lodging to another to escape creditors. He undertook many projects that he was unable to complete, though he did finish translations of stories by Edgar Allan Poe. Upon the death of his stepfather in 1857, Baudelaire received no mention in the will but he was heartened nonetheless that the division with his mother might now be mended. At 36 he wrote her: "believe that I belong to you and that I belong only to you."
His mother died on August 16, 1871, outliving her son by four years. His first published work, under the pseudonym Baudelaire Dufaÿs, was his art review "Salon of 1845", which attracted immediate attention for its boldness. Many of his critical opinions were novel in their time, including his championing of Delacroix, some of his views seem remarkably in tune with the future theories of the Impressionist painters. In 1846, Baudelaire wrote his second Salon review, gaining additional credibility as an advocate and critic of Romanticism, his continued support of Delacroix as the foremost Romantic artist gained widespread notice. The following year Baudelaire's novella La Fanfarlo was published. Baudelaire was a slow and attentive worker; however he was sidetracked by indolence, emotional distress and illness, it was not until 1857 that he published his first and most famous volume of poems, Les Fleurs du mal. Some of these poems had appeared in the Revue des deux mondes (Review of Two
Christopher Wordsworth was an English bishop in the Anglican Church and man of letters. Wordsworth was born in London, the youngest son of Christopher Wordsworth, Master of Trinity, the youngest brother of the poet William Wordsworth. Thus, Wordsworth was a nephew of the celebrated poet. Wordsworth was the younger brother of the classical scholar John Wordsworth and Charles Wordsworth, Bishop of Saint Andrews and Dunblane, he was educated at Trinity, Cambridge. Like his brother Charles, he was distinguished as an athlete as well as for scholarship, he won the Chancellor's Gold Medal for poetry in 1827 and 1828. He became senior classic, was elected a fellow and tutor of Trinity in 1830, he went for a tour in Greece in 1832-1833, published various works on its topography and archaeology, the most famous of, "Wordsworth's" Greece. In 1836 he became Public Orator at Cambridge, in the same year was appointed Headmaster of Harrow, a post he resigned in 1844. In 1844 Sir Robert Peel appointed him as a Canon of Westminster.
He was Vicar of Stanford in the Vale and Archdeacon of Westminster. In 1869 Benjamin Disraeli appointed him Bishop of Lincoln which he retained until his death in 1885, his election to the See of Lincoln was confirmed at St Mary-le-Bow on 22 February 1869 and he was ordained and consecrated a bishop at Westminster Abbey on 24 February by Archibald Campbell Tait, Archbishop of Canterbury. He was a man of fine character, with a high ideal of ecclesiastical duty, he spent his money generously on church objects; as a scholar he is best known for his edition of the Greek New Testament, the Old Testament, with commentaries. D. 451, Memoirs of his uncle, William Wordsworth, to whom he was literary executor. His Inscriptiones Pompeianae was an important contribution to epigraphy, he wrote several hymns of which the best known is the Easter hymn'Alleluia, hearts to heaven and voices raise'. With William Cooke, a Canon of Chester, Wordsworth edited for the Henry Bradshaw Society the early 15th century Ordinale Sarum of Clement Maydeston, but the work did not appear in print until 1901, several years after the death of both editors.
Athens and Attica, 1836 Ancient Writings Copied from the Walls of Pompeii, 1837 Greece, Pictorial and Historical, 1839 Theophilus Anglicanus, 1843 On the Canon of the Scriptures, 1848 Lectures on the Apocalypse, 1849 Memoirs of William Wordsworth, 1851 Commentary on the Whole Bible, 1856–70 The Holy Year. Wordsworth. An Index to the Introductions and Notes, by John Twycross, 2 volumes Ordinale Sarum, sive Directorium Sacerdotum, ed. with William Cooke Alleluia! Alleluia! Hearts to Heaven and Voices Raise Arm These Thy Soldiers, Mighty Lord Father of All, from Land and Sea Gracious Spirit, Holy Ghost Hallelujah! Christ Is Risen Hark! the Sound of Holy Voices Heav’nly Father, Send Thy Blessing Holy, Holy Lord Lord, Be Thy Word My Rule O Day of Rest and Gladness O Lord of Heaven and Earth and Sea O Lord, Our Strength in Weakness See, the Conqueror Mounts in Triumph Sing, O Sing, This Blessed Morn Songs of Thankfulness and Praise The Day Is Gently Sinking to a Close The Grave Itself a Garden Is Thine for ever!
Thine for ever! In 1838 Wordsworth married Susanna Hartley Frere and they had seven children; the elder son, was Bishop of Salisbury, founder of Bishop Wordsworth's School and author of Fragments of Early Latin. His daughter Dora married Edward Tucker Leeke and sub-dean of Lincoln Cathedral, his younger son Christopher was a noted liturgical scholar. His Life, by J. H. Overton and Elizabeth Wordsworth, was published in 1888. Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Wordsworth, Christopher". Encyclopædia Britannica. 28. Cambridge University Press; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: "Wordsworth, Christopher". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900. Christopher Wordsworth The Peerage: Rt. Rev. Christopher Wordsworth Overton, John Henry and Elizabeth Wordsworth. Christopher Wordsworth: Bishop of Lincoln, 1807-1885. London: Rivingtons, 1888. At Internet Archive
A pastoral lifestyle is that of shepherds herding livestock around open areas of land according to seasons and the changing availability of water and pasture. It lends its name to a genre of literature and music that depicts such life in an idealized manner for urban audiences. A pastoral is a work of this genre known as bucolic, from the Greek βουκολικόν, from βουκόλος, meaning a cowherd. Pastoral is a mode of literature in which the author employs various techniques to place the complex life into a simple one. Paul Alpers distinguishes pastoral as a mode rather than a genre, he bases this distinction on the recurring attitude of power. Thus, pastoral as a mode occurs in many types of literature as well as genres. Terry Gifford, a prominent literary theorist, defines pastoral in three ways in his critical book Pastoral; the first way emphasizes the historical literary perspective of the pastoral in which authors recognize and discuss life in the country and in particular the life of a shepherd.
This is summed up by Leo Marx with the phrase "No shepherd, no pastoral." The second type of the pastoral is literature that "describes the country with an implicit or explicit contrast to the urban." The third type of pastoral depicts the country life with derogative classifications. Hesiod's Works and Days presents a ` golden age'; this Golden Age shows that before the Alexandrian age, ancient Greeks had sentiments of an ideal pastoral life that they had lost. This is the first example of literature that has pastoral sentiments and may have begun the pastoral tradition. Ovid's Metamorphoses is much like the Works and Days with the description of ages but with more ages to discuss and less emphasis on the gods and their punishments. In this artificially constructed world, nature acts as the main punisher. Another example of this perfect relationship between man and nature is evident in the encounter of a shepherd and a goatherd who meet in the pastures in Theocritus' poem Idylls 1. Traditionally, pastoral refers to the lives of herdsmen in a romanticized, but representative way.
In literature, the adjective'pastoral' refers to rural subjects and aspects of life in the countryside among shepherds and other farm workers that are romanticized and depicted in a unrealistic manner. The pastoral life is characterized as being closer to the Golden age than the rest of human life; the setting is a Locus Amoenus, or a beautiful place in nature, sometimes connected with images of the Garden of Eden. An example of the use of the genre is the short poem by the 15th-century Scottish makar Robert Henryson Robene and Makyne which contains the conflicted emotions present in the genre. A more tranquil mood is set by Christopher Marlowe's well known lines from The Passionate Shepherd to His Love: Come live with me and be my Love, And we will all the pleasures prove That hills and valleys and field, And all the craggy mountains yield."There will we sit upon the rocks And see the shepherds feed their flocks, By shallow rivers, to whose falls Melodious birds sing madrigals."The Passionate Shepherd to His Love" exhibits the concept of Gifford's second definition of pastoral.
The speaker of the poem, the titled shepherd, draws on the idealization of urban material pleasures to win over his love rather than resorting to the simplified pleasures of pastoral ideology. This can be seen in the listed items: "lined slippers," "purest gold," "silver dishes," and "ivory table"; the speaker takes on a voyeuristic point of view with his love, they are not directly interacting with the other true shepherds and nature. Pastoral shepherds and maidens have Greek names like Corydon or Philomela, reflecting the origin of the pastoral genre. Pastoral poems are set in beautiful rural landscapes, the literary term for, "locus amoenus", such as Arcadia, a rural region of Greece, mythological home of the god Pan, portrayed as a sort of Eden by the poets; the tasks of their employment with sheep and other rustic chores is held in the fantasy to be wholly undemanding and is left in the background, leaving the shepherdesses and their swains in a state of perfect leisure. This makes them available for embodying perpetual erotic fantasies.
The shepherds spend their time chasing pretty girls — or, at least in the Greek and Roman versions, pretty lads as well. The eroticism of Virgil's second eclogue, Formosum pastor Corydon ardebat Alexin is homosexual. Pastoral literature continued after Hesiod with the poetry of the Hellenistic Greek Theocritus, several of whose Idylls are set in the countryside and involve dialogues between herdsmen. Theocritus may have drawn on authentic folk traditions of Sicilian shepherds, he wrote in the Doric dialect but the metre he chose was the dactylic hexameter associated with the most prestigious form of Greek poetry, epic. This blend of simplicity and sophistication would play a major part in pastoral verse. Theocritus was imitated by the Greek poets Moschus; the Roman poet Virgil adapted pastoral into Latin with his influential Eclogues. Virgil introduces two important uses of pastoral, the contrast between urban and rural lifestyles and political allegory most notably in Eclogues 1 and 4 respectively.
In doing so, Virgil presents a more idealized portrayal of the lives of sheph