High School Musical 2
High School Musical 2 is a 2007 American musical television film written by Peter Barsocchini and directed by Kenny Ortega. It is the second installment in the High School Musical trilogy. High School Musical 2 follows Troy Bolton, Gabriella Montez, the rest of the East High Wildcats as they go onto summer vacation. Troy, job hunting to fund his upcoming expedition to college, manages to gain employment for him and his friends at a country club owned by Sharpay Evans. Unbeknownst to Troy and the team, Sharpay seeks to sabotage their friendship, as well as the romance between Troy and Gabriella, begin a relationship with him instead. High School Musical 2 retained Utah as a central filming location with a return to East High School, while Entrada at Snow Canyon Country Club was adopted as the Evans' country club. Additional scenes were filmed in Los Angeles. Upon the film's release on August 17, 2007, it broke a plethora of viewership records as it became the most commercially successful Disney Channel Original Movie produced.
In the U. S. High School Musical 2 generated 17 million viewers in its premiere broadcast, smashing the record of its predecessor by over ten million, while the figure remains the highest the network has produced, it ranked as the highest-rated basic cable telecast at the time. The film's soundtrack enjoyed widespread success. Additionally, its lead single "What Time Is It?" reached number six on the Billboard Hot 100. The film and soundtrack received mixed reviews from critics, whereas fan reception was more positive. A sequel, High School Musical 3: Senior Year, was released theatrically in 2008; the school year ends with everyone at East High School looking forward to summer vacation. Troy Bolton is still dating Gabriella Montez. Troy decides to look for a summer job to gain money for college. Sharpay and Ryan Evans plan to spend part of the summer at their family's country club, Lava Springs, but Sharpay's summer plans include pursuing Troy, whom she has arranged to be hired at the club. However, Troy convinces the club's manager, Mr. Fulton, into hiring Gabriella and their close group of friends as well.
Sharpay is enraged upon learning that Gabriella is working as one of the lifeguards, but is unable to get her fired. So she orders Fulton to give them difficult tasks. Fulton attempts to intimidate the group, but Troy rebuilds their confidence and convinces them that they can persevere. Troy continues to worry about funding for college. Sharpay senses his need and arranges for Troy to be promoted, hoping that this will convince him to sing with her at the talent show. Meanwhile, Kelsi writes a ballad for Gabriella. Troy agrees to sing with his friends in the show, not knowing that Sharpay is vying for his attention. (In the extended version and Ryan trap Troy as he prepares for a date with Gabriella, perform their potential show-stopper. Ryan realizes he does not mean much to Sharpay anymore, as she is ready to blow her brother aside for the opportunity to perform with Troy; this leads to tension between the twin siblings and Ryan angrily informs Sharpay that he will no longer obey her orders. Taylor and Gabriella invite Ryan to the baseball game, where he persuades the Wildcats to take part in the talent show.
Troy and Gabriella's relationship is strained. Owing to a "promise" from Troy, he and Sharpay practice their song for the Midsummer Night's Talent Show; when Sharpay discovers that Ryan and the Wildcats are putting together their own performance in the show, she orders Mr. Fulton to ban all junior staff members from performing. Gabriella angrily quits her job at Lava Springs. Troy tries to persuade Gabriella to change her mind. Gabriella expresses her loss of trust with Troy and leaves Lava Springs, gives him the necklace back, it seems that they broke up. Troy returns to work the next day to find. Kelsi silently shows Troy the notice from Mr. Fulton, he begins to reconcile with his other friends. Troy confronts Sharpay, informing her that he will not sing with her; the Wildcats and Chad forgive Troy for his absence and convince him to sing in the talent show, which he does only under the condition that they are all allowed to perform as well. At Sharpay's supposed instruction, Ryan gives Troy a new song to learn moments before the show.
As Troy goes onstage, he asks Sharpay why she switched the song, Sharpay is shocked to find that her brother tricked her. Troy sings the song alone until Gabriella joins him onstage. In the end, Sharpay proudly presents her brother, with the award for the talent show. After the talent show, all the Wildcats go to the golf course to enjoy the fireworks. Everyone celebrates the end of the summer with a pool party which features a cameo appearance by Miley Cyrus. Troy Bolton is Gabriella's boyfriend, the most popular male student at East High School and the captain of the varsity basketball team. For this movie, Efron did all of his own singing, whereas, in the first High School Musical, his singing was blended with singer Drew Seeley's voice. Gabriella Montez is Troy's gi
Sheila Cecelia Escovedo, better known under the stage name Sheila E. is an American percussionist, singer and actress. She began her career in the mid 1970s as a singer for The George Duke Band. After leaving the group in 1983, Sheila began a successful solo career, starting with her critically acclaimed debut album, which included the career-defining song, "The Glamorous Life", she became a mainstream solo star in 1985 following the success of the singles, "The Belle of St. Mark", "Sister Fate", "A Love Bizarre" with the last becoming one of her signature songs, she is referred to as The Queen of Percussion. Born in Oakland, Sheila E. is the daughter of Juanita Gardere, a dairy factory worker, percussionist Pete Escovedo, with whom she performs. Her mother is Creole-French/African mix, her father is of Mexican and Puerto Rican origin. Sheila E's uncle is Alejandro Escovedo, Tito Puente was Escovedo's godfather, she is niece to Javier Escovedo, founder of seminal San Diego punk act The Zeros. Another uncle, Mario Escovedo, fronted long-running indie rockers The Dragons.
She is the niece of Coke Escovedo, in Santana and formed the band Azteca. Nicole Richie is Sheila E.'s biological niece, the daughter of Sheila's musician brother, Peter Michael Escovedo. Sheila made her recording debut with jazz bassist Alphonso Johnson on "Yesterday's Dream" in 1976. By her early 20s, she had played with George Duke, Lionel Richie, Marvin Gaye, Herbie Hancock, Diana Ross. In 1977, she joined The George Duke Band, she appeared on several of Duke's albums including: "Don't Let Go"", "Follow the Rainbow", "Master of the Game", "A Brazilian Love Affair". Along with appearing on Duke's "Don't Let Go" in 1978, Escovedo and her father released "Happy Together" that year on Fantasy Records, sharing billing as Pete and Sheila Escovedo. In 1983, she joined Marvin Gaye's final tour Midnight Love Tour as one of his percussionists. Prince met Sheila E. at a concert in 1978. After the show he met her and told her that he and his bassist Andre Cymone "were just fighting about which one of us would be the first to be your husband."
He vowed that one day she would join his band. The two would join forces during the Purple Rain recording sessions, she provided vocals on the B-side to "Let's Go Crazy", "Erotic City" in 1984. Though taken under Prince's wing, she proved to be a successful artist in her own right. In June 1984, she released her debut album The Glamorous Life; the album's title-track single "The Glamorous Life" peaked at number 7 the Hot 100 and topped the dance charts for two weeks in August 1984. The video for the song would bring three MTV Award nominations for Best Female Video, Best New Artist, Best Choreography, she received two Grammy Award nominations for Best New Artist and Best Pop Vocal Performance Female. Her second single "The Belle of St. Mark" charted at number 34 on Billboard Hot 100 and became NME's "Single of the Week", she toured as the opening act for Prince's Purple Rain Tour and the duo began a brief romantic relationship, while Prince was still seeing Susannah Melvoin, twin sister of The Revolution band member, Wendy Melvoin.
They would become engaged in the late'80s, during Prince's Lovesexy Tour. In 1985, she released Romance 1600; the lead single. The album's second single "A Love Bizarre" became her signature song, peaking at number 11 the Hot 100 and topped the dance charts; the non-album track "Holly Rock" made its way into the film Krush Groove. Sheila served as Prince's drummer and musical director in his band during the tours from 1987 to 1989. In July 1986, her self-titled album Sheila E. was released. The ballad single, she appeared in four films, Krush Groove with Run-D. M. C. LL Cool J and Blair Underwood in 1985, Prince's concert film, Sign "O" the Times in 1987 The Adventures of Ford Fairlane and Chasing Papi in 2003. After leaving the Prince organization in 1989, Sheila E. collaborated with writers like Demetrius Ross and released an album, Sex Cymbal in 1991. The album spawned singles: "Sex Cymbal", "Dropping Like Flies", "Cry Baby", she began her tour in Japan. Shortly after returning to America, she developed severe health issues.
She was left semi-paralyzed from playing drums in heels for long periods of time over the course of many years. Unable to promote and tour, her album Sex Cymbal suffered low sales. In 1996, she played in Japanese pop singer Namie Amuro's live band; the show at Chiba Marine Stadium was made available on DVD. In 1998, she played percussion on the Phil Collins cover of "True Colors", she was the leader of the house band on the short-lived late night talk show, The Magic Hour, hosted by Earvin "Magic" Johnson Jr. in the late 1990s. Sheila E. has performed three stints as one of the member "All-Starrs" of Ringo Starr & His All-Starr Band, in 2001, 2003, 2006. Her drum "duets" with Starr are a moment of comic relief in the show, where they play the same parts but he falls behind and smiles as she takes off on an extended percussion solo. Says Sheila E.: "Ringo is one of the greatest rock n' roll drummers in the history of music. He enjoys the joke!" In 2002, Sheila E. appeared on the Beyoncé song "Work It Out".
In 2004, Sheila E. toured New Zealand as percussionist for the Abe Laboriel Band. The same year, she was featured on Tonex's Out the Box on the song "Todos Juntos", she played drums on Cyndi Lauper's hit album of standard
Mexico the United Mexican States, is a country in the southern portion of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States. Covering 2,000,000 square kilometres, the nation is the fifth largest country in the Americas by total area and the 13th largest independent state in the world. With an estimated population of over 120 million people, the country is the eleventh most populous state and the most populous Spanish-speaking state in the world, while being the second most populous nation in Latin America after Brazil. Mexico is a federation comprising 31 states and Mexico City, a special federal entity, the capital city and its most populous city. Other metropolises in the state include Guadalajara, Puebla, Tijuana and León. Pre-Columbian Mexico dates to about 8000 BC and is identified as one of five cradles of civilization and was home to many advanced Mesoamerican civilizations such as the Olmec, Teotihuacan, Zapotec and Aztec before first contact with Europeans. In 1521, the Spanish Empire conquered and colonized the territory from its politically powerful base in Mexico-Tenochtitlan, administered as the viceroyalty of New Spain.
Three centuries the territory became a nation state following its recognition in 1821 after the Mexican War of Independence. The post-independence period was tumultuous, characterized by economic inequality and many contrasting political changes; the Mexican–American War led to a territorial cession of the extant northern territories to the United States. The Pastry War, the Franco-Mexican War, a civil war, two empires, the Porfiriato occurred in the 19th century; the Porfiriato was ended by the start of the Mexican Revolution in 1910, which culminated with the promulgation of the 1917 Constitution and the emergence of the country's current political system as a federal, democratic republic. Mexico has the 11th largest by purchasing power parity; the Mexican economy is linked to those of its 1994 North American Free Trade Agreement partners the United States. In 1994, Mexico became the first Latin American member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, it is classified as an upper-middle income country by the World Bank and a newly industrialized country by several analysts.
The country is considered both a regional power and a middle power, is identified as an emerging global power. Due to its rich culture and history, Mexico ranks first in the Americas and seventh in the world for number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Mexico is an ecologically megadiverse country, ranking fourth in the world for its biodiversity. Mexico receives a huge number of tourists every year: in 2018, it was the sixth most-visited country in the world, with 39 million international arrivals. Mexico is a member of the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the G8+5, the G20, the Uniting for Consensus group of the UN, the Pacific Alliance trade bloc. Mēxihco is the Nahuatl term for the heartland of the Aztec Empire, namely the Valley of Mexico and surrounding territories, with its people being known as the Mexica, it is believed to be a toponym for the valley which became the primary ethnonym for the Aztec Triple Alliance as a result, although it could have been the other way around.
In the colonial era, back when Mexico was called New Spain this territory became the Intendency of Mexico and after New Spain achieved independence from the Spanish Empire it came to be known as the State of Mexico with the new country being named after its capital: the City of Mexico, which itself was founded in 1524 on top of the ancient Mexica capital of Mexico-Tenochtitlan. Traditionally, the name Tenochtitlan was thought to come from Nahuatl tetl and nōchtli and is thought to mean "Among the prickly pears rocks". However, one attestation in the late 16th-century manuscript known as "the Bancroft dialogues" suggests the second vowel was short, so that the true etymology remains uncertain; the suffix -co is the Nahuatl locative, making the word a place name. Beyond that, the etymology is uncertain, it has been suggested that it is derived from Mextli or Mēxihtli, a secret name for the god of war and patron of the Mexica, Huitzilopochtli, in which case Mēxihco means "place where Huitzilopochtli lives".
Another hypothesis suggests that Mēxihco derives from a portmanteau of the Nahuatl words for "moon" and navel. This meaning might refer to Tenochtitlan's position in the middle of Lake Texcoco; the system of interconnected lakes, of which Texcoco formed the center, had the form of a rabbit, which the Mesoamericans pareidolically associated with the moon rabbit. Still another hypothesis suggests that the word is derived from Mēctli, the name of the goddess of maguey; the name of the city-state was transliterated to Spanish as México with the phonetic value of the letter x in Medieval Spanish, which represented the voiceless postalveolar fricative. This sound, as well as the voiced postalveolar fricative, represented by a j, evolved into a voiceless velar fricative during the 16th century; this led to the use of the variant Méjico in many publications in Spanish, most notably in Spain, whereas in Mexico and most other Spanish–speaking countries, México was the preferred spelling. In recent years, the Real Academia Española, which regulates the Spanish l
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Michael Jackson memorial service
A public memorial service for Michael Jackson was held on July 7, 2009 at the Staples Center in Los Angeles, twelve days after his death. The event was preceded by a private family service at Forest Lawn Memorial Park's Hall of Liberty in Hollywood Hills, followed by a gathering in Beverly Hills for Jackson's family and close friends. Jackson's closed, solid-bronze casket, plated with 14-karat gold and lined with blue velvet, not expected to be at the memorial service, arrived just before 10:00 a.m. local time, when it was placed in front of the stage. The memorial began a few minutes after 10:30 a.m. with a eulogy from Pastor Lucious Smith. The stage was filled with floral arrangements, with photographs and film of Jackson and the Jackson 5 projected onto screens at the back. Music and video montages traced his life from the beginning of his career to the end. Jackson's brothers, sitting in the front row, each wore a single white sequined glove in tribute to their brother. Mariah Carey, Stevie Wonder, Lionel Richie, Jennifer Hudson, Jermaine Jackson, Shaheen Jafargholi sang Jackson's songs, John Mayer played guitar.
Berry Gordy, Brooke Shields, Smokey Robinson gave eulogies, while Queen Latifah read "We Had Him", a poem written for the occasion by Maya Angelou. The Reverend Al Sharpton received a standing ovation when he told Jackson's children, "Wasn't nothing strange about your daddy, it was strange what your daddy had to deal with."Toward the end, the family gathered on stage to offer the final eulogies. Jackson's then-11-year-old daughter, while unable to give her speech without crying, told the crowd, "I just want to say since I was born, Daddy has been the best father you could imagine, I just want to say I love him... so much." Additionally, an emotional Marlon Jackson said, "Maybe now, they will leave you alone." The memorial service was organized by Jackson's concert promoter, AEG Live, AEG Ehrlich Ventures, LLC, who gave away 17,500 free tickets to fans worldwide through an online lottery that attracted over 1.2 million applicants in 24 hours, over a half-billion hits to the webpage. An estimated 750,000 up to a million fans were expected to congregate outside Staples Center but due to Los Angeles's $530 million budget crisis and police officials urged fans to stay home.
Street and highway exit around the Staples Center were sealed off, 3,000 officers, the largest security effort planned since the 1984 Olympics, were on duty at a cost of $1.4 million to the city. The motorcade for Jackson's casket was headed by two police motorcycle outriders, the LA freeways were closed for the journey of 11 miles from Forest Lawn to the Staples Center; the service was broadcast live around the world. The United States viewership was high taking into consideration that the service was unusually held on a workday and a host of people reported watching the service during work; the service began with Smokey Robinson reading messages of condolences from Diana Ross and former South African President Nelson Mandela. A gospel choir sang Andrae Crouch's "Soon and Very Soon" as Jackson's casket entered, followed by statements from Pastor Lucious Smith. Mariah Carey and Trey Lorenz sang "I'll Be There", a number one single for both the Jackson 5 and Carey and Lorenz; this was followed by a statement from Queen Latifah, who read "We Had Him", a poem written by Maya Angelou for the occasion.
Lionel Richie, Jackson's friend and his co-writer on "We Are the World", performed the song "Jesus Is Love" by the Commodores. In the eulogy of Berry Gordy, founder of Motown Records, he stated, "In fact, the more I think and talk about Michael Jackson, I feel the King of Pop is not big enough for him. I think he is the greatest entertainer that lived." The statement was met with the longest standing ovation of the night. A video montage of Michael Jackson's life followed. Stevie Wonder spoke, played a small portion of "I Can't Help It", a song from Off the Wall that Wonder co-wrote performed a version of his songs "Never Dreamed You'd Leave in Summer" and "They Won't Go When I Go". Next Kobe Bryant spoke about Jackson's humanitarian work, Magic Johnson recalled his memories of Jackson. Accompanied by a dancing chorus, Jennifer Hudson performed "Will You Be There" a song Jackson wrote and performed for the 1993 film Free Willy, from his Dangerous album, along with the dancers who would have been on stage with Jackson for his O2 concerts.
John Mayer played guitar on a instrumental version of "Human Nature" from Jackson's Thriller. Brooke Shields spoke about the personal time she spent with Jackson, read excerpts from The Little Prince, said that his favorite song was Charlie Chaplin's "Smile", performed by Jermaine Jackson. Martin Luther King, Jr.'s children, Martin III and Bernice stated that Michael Jackson was the best that he could be. Sheila Jackson-Lee, representing the United States House of Representatives, emphasized that in the US, people are "innocent until proven guilty" spoke about his "American story" plus his meetings with foreign diplomats, that "Michael never stopped giving", she went on to claim him as an American legend and world humanitarian, closing her speech with a military salute as she said, "Michael Jackson, I salute you." Usher walked to the casket and sang Larry Grossman and Buzz Kohan's "Gone Too Soon", which Jackson recorded as a tribute for Ryan White after his death.
Russia the Russian Federation, is a transcontinental country in Eastern Europe and North Asia. At 17,125,200 square kilometres, Russia is by far or by a considerable margin the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, the ninth most populous, with about 146.77 million people as of 2019, including Crimea. About 77 % of the population live in the European part of the country. Russia's capital, Moscow, is one of the largest cities in the world and the second largest city in Europe. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Estonia, Latvia and Poland, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, China and North Korea, it shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U. S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. However, Russia recognises two more countries that border it, Abkhazia and South Ossetia, both of which are internationally recognized as parts of Georgia.
The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' disintegrated into a number of smaller states; the Grand Duchy of Moscow reunified the surrounding Russian principalities and achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had expanded through conquest and exploration to become the Russian Empire, the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state; the Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War.
The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Belarus, Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Lithuania, it is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. Russia's economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2018. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally; the country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction.
Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, the G20, the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the World Trade Organization, as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States, the Collective Security Treaty Organization and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union, along with Armenia, Belarus and Kyrgyzstan; the name Russia is derived from Rus', a medieval state populated by the East Slavs. However, this proper name became more prominent in the history, the country was called by its inhabitants "Русская Земля", which can be translated as "Russian Land" or "Land of Rus'". In order to distinguish this state from other states derived from it, it is denoted as Kievan Rus' by modern historiography.
The name Rus itself comes from the early medieval Rus' people, Swedish merchants and warriors who relocated from across the Baltic Sea and founded a state centered on Novgorod that became Kievan Rus. An old Latin version of the name Rus' was Ruthenia applied to the western and southern regions of Rus' that were adjacent to Catholic Europe; the current name of the country, Россия, comes from the Byzantine Greek designation of the Rus', Ρωσσία Rossía—spelled Ρωσία in Modern Greek. The standard way to refer to citizens of Russia is rossiyane in Russian. There are two Russian words which are commonly
Old Navy is an American clothing and accessories retailing company owned by American multinational corporation Gap Inc. It has corporate operations in the Mission Bay neighborhood of San Francisco; the largest of the Old Navy stores are its flagship stores, located in New York City, Chicago, San Francisco, Mexico City. In the early 1990s, Dayton-Hudson Corporation the parent company of Target, Mervyn's, Dayton's, Hudson's, Marshall Field's by that time, looked to establish a new division, branded as a less expensive version of Gap called Everyday Hero. In March 1994, Gap Warehouse was renamed Old Navy Clothing Co. in order to establish a separate image from its parent company Gap Inc. It was named after a bar in Paris; the new stores were about 15,000 square feet, compared less than 10,000 square feet for Gap Warehouse stores. On March 11, 1994, the first Old Navy locations opened in the northern California towns of Colma, San Leandro and Pittsburg According to Kevin Lonergan, Gap's director of stores, Old Navy stores were intentionally designed like grocery stores, with flowing aisles, shopping carts, small impulse items near the checkout counters.
The cement floor, metal shelving, checkout counters built from polished pressed board and galvanized metal gave the stores an industrial warehouse feel, while the colorful arrangements and large number of employees working set it apart from other discount clothing stores. That year, 42 other Old Navy stores opened, most of the 45 Gap Warehouse stores were renamed Old Navy. Old Navy had campy television ads featuring Morgan Fairchild and its mascot, Magic the dog; the Old Navy division grew quickly. In 2001, Old Navy began its international expansion with the opening of 12 stores in Ontario, Canada; the brand experimented, opening a coffee shop inside one location in San Francisco in December 1995, opening an Old Navy Kids location in Littleton, Colorado, in April 1997. This in turn did not work out for the company, was terminated the following September. In 2005, Old Navy's then-president Dawn Robertson looked to address the competition she saw in Hollister Co. and American Eagle Outfitters by rebranding the division with a "high fashion feel".
In addition to a new logo, several locations were built or remodeled to reflect the "New Old Navy.". Unlike the traditional industrial warehouse style most Old Navy locations possess, the new stores were boutique in nature, featuring green building materials, rock gardens, large murals, posters, as well as many mirrored and silver accents. Advertisements began to be created in-house, substituted the original kitschy and humorous feel for a high fashion and feminine directive; these stores proved to be a disappointing investment and Robertson was asked to leave the company. In 2011, Old Navy began a second rebranding to emphasize a family-oriented environment, known as Project ONE, it targets Old Navy's target customer and features better lighting, vibrant colors, layouts that make shopping easier, quick-change stations, a more efficient cash wrap design. By July 12, 2011, one third of the company's North American locations had adopted the redesign. In 2012, after several years of Old Navy losing sales to rival retailer H&M, Gap Inc. hired H&M executive Stefan Larsson to run its Old Navy division.
Larsson instituted a number of changes, including hiring designers away from Coach, Nike and North Face to design exclusive Old Navy clothing. By 2015, Old Navy's yearly sales had reached $6 billion per year in the United States equaling those of Gap Inc.'s Gap and Banana Republic divisions combined. In September 2017, Old Navy joined Orlando Vineland Premium Outlet. Larsson left the company to join Ralph Lauren in 2015 and was replaced by current President and CEO, Sonia Syngal. On October 26, 2017, Old Navy opened a brand new flagship store in Times Square, alongside a brand new Gap flagship store which opened on the same day; the store is significant in that it caters to New York City crowds with extended store hours and a much larger store than the average Old Navy location. On February 28, 2019, Gap Inc. announced that Old Navy and Gap Inc. would split up into two separate companies, making Old Navy an independent company from Gap Inc. Old Navy is known for their signature denim wall of styles that never change.
The styles are super skinny, skinny and boot-cut, are available in four different washes. Most stores are separated into seven different divisions: women's, men's, toddler girl, toddler boy, baby. In 2013, Gap Inc. ranked 5th among specialty retailers in the list of World's Most Admired. Members of Business for Innovative Climate and Energy Policy Named to FORTUNE's Great Place to Work list in 2016, 2017 and 2018. Official website —United States Official website Official website Official website Official website Gap Inc. — parent company website