Henry IV of France
Henry IV known by the epithet Good King Henry or Henry the Great, was King of Navarre from 1572 and King of France from 1589 to 1610. He was the first monarch of France from the House of Bourbon, a cadet branch of the Capetian dynasty, he was assassinated in 1610 by François Ravaillac, a fanatical Catholic, was succeeded by his son Louis XIII. The son of Antoine de Bourbon, Duke of Vendôme and Jeanne d'Albret, the Queen of Navarre, Henry was baptised as a Catholic but raised in the Protestant faith by his mother, he inherited the throne of Navarre in 1572 on his mother's death. As a Huguenot, Henry was involved in the French Wars of Religion escaping assassination in the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre, he led Protestant forces against the royal army. Henry IV and his predecessor Henry III of France are both direct descendants of the Saint-King Louis IX. Henry III belonged to the House of Valois, descended from Philip III of France, elder son of Saint Louis; as Head of the House of Bourbon, Henry was "first prince of the blood."
Upon the death of his brother-in-law and distant cousin Henry III in 1589, Henry was called to the French succession by the Salic law. He kept the Protestant faith and had to fight against the Catholic League, which denied that he could wear France's crown as a Protestant. To obtain mastery over his kingdom, after four years of stalemate, he found it prudent to abjure the Calvinist faith; as a pragmatic politician, he displayed an unusual religious tolerance for the era. Notably, he promulgated the Edict of Nantes, which guaranteed religious liberties to Protestants, thereby ending the Wars of Religion. Considered a usurper by some Catholics and a traitor by some Protestants, Henry became target of at least 12 assassination attempts. An unpopular king among his contemporaries, Henry gained more status after his death, he was admired for his conversion to Catholicism. The "Good King Henry" was remembered for his geniality and his great concern about the welfare of his subjects. An active ruler, he worked to regularise state finance, promote agriculture, eliminate corruption and encourage education.
During his reign, the French colonization of the Americas began with the foundation of the colony of Acadia and its capital Port-Royal. He was celebrated in Voltaire's Henriade. Henry de Bourbon was born in Pau, the capital of the joint Kingdom of Navarre with the sovereign principality of Béarn, his parents were Queen Joan III of Navarre and her consort, Antoine de Bourbon, Duke of Vendôme, King of Navarre. Although baptised as a Roman Catholic, Henry was raised as a Protestant by his mother, who had declared Calvinism the religion of Navarre; as a teenager, Henry joined the Huguenot forces in the French Wars of Religion. On 9 June 1572, upon his mother's death, the 19-year-old became King of Navarre. At Queen Joan's death, it was arranged for Henry to marry Margaret of Valois, daughter of Henry II and Catherine de' Medici; the wedding took place in Paris on 18 August 1572 on the parvis of Notre Dame Cathedral. On 24 August, the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre began in Paris. Several thousand Protestants who had come to Paris for Henry's wedding were killed, as well as thousands more throughout the country in the days that followed.
Henry narrowly escaped death thanks to the help of his wife and his promise to convert to Catholicism. He was forced to live at the court of France, but he escaped in early 1576. On 5 February of that year, he formally abjured Catholicism at Tours and rejoined the Protestant forces in the military conflict, he named Catherine de Bourbon, regent of Béarn. Catherine held the regency for nearly thirty years. Henry became heir presumptive to the French throne in 1584 upon the death of Francis, Duke of Anjou and heir to the Catholic Henry III, who had succeeded Charles IX in 1574; because Henry of Navarre was the next senior agnatic descendant of King Louis IX, King Henry III had no choice but to recognise him as the legitimate successor. Salic law barred the king's sisters and all others who could claim descent through only the female line from inheriting. Since Henry of Navarre was a Huguenot, the issue was not considered settled in many quarters of the country, France was plunged into a phase of the Wars of Religion known as the War of the Three Henries.
Henry III and Henry of Navarre were two of these Henries. The third was Henry I, Duke of Guise, who pushed for complete suppression of the Huguenots and had much support among Catholic loyalists. Political disagreements among the parties set off a series of campaigns and counter-campaigns that culminated in the Battle of Coutras. In December 1588, Henry III had Henry I of Guise murdered, along with his brother, Cardinal de Guise. Henry III thought that the removal of the brothers would restore his authority. However, the populace rose against him. In several cities, the title of the king was no longer recognized, his power was limited to Blois and the surrounding districts. In the general chaos, Henry III relied on King Henry of his Huguenots; the two kings were united by a common interest—to win France from the Catholic League. Henry III acknowledged the King of Navarre as a true subject and Frenchman, not a fanatic Huguenot aiming for the destruction of
Earl of Albemarle
Earl of Albemarle is a title created several times from Norman times onwards. The word Albemarle is derived from the Latinised form of the French county of Aumale in Normandy, other forms being Aubemarle and Aumerle, it is described in the patent of nobility granted in 1697 by William III to Arnold Joost van Keppel as "a town and territory in the Dukedom of Normandy."During the period in which England and France contended for the rule of Normandy, the kings of England not infrequently created peers as Counts and Dukes of Aumale. The last, to Richard de Beauchamp, 13th Earl of Warwick, was in 1422. In that year, Charles II bestowed the title of Duke of Albemarle on General George Monck; the title became extinct on the death of Christopher, 2nd Duke of Albemarle. The family seat is Hurst Barns Farm, near East Chiltington, East Sussex See Counts and Dukes of Aumale In 1697, King William III created his Dutch favourite Arnold Joost van Keppel Earl of Albemarle in the Peerage of England, he was made Baron Ashford, of Ashford in the County of Kent, Viscount Bury, in the County of Lancaster, at the same time.
The motive for choosing this title was that, apart from its traditions, it avoided the difficulty created by the fact that the Keppels had as yet no territorial possessions in the British Islands. Lord Albemarle was succeeded by the second Earl, he was a general in the army and served as titular Governor of Virginia and as Ambassador to France. Albemarle County in Virginia is named in his honour though he never set foot in North America, he married Lady Anne Lennox, daughter of Charles Lennox, 1st Duke of Richmond, illegitimate son of King Charles II. His eldest son, the third Earl, was a successful military commander, best known as the commander-in-chief of the invasion and occupation of Havana and west Cuba in 1762, he was succeeded by the fourth Earl. He served as Master of the Horse, his second but eldest surviving son, the fifth Earl, was a soldier and fought at the Battle of Waterloo at an early age. He represented Arundel in the House of Commons, he was childless and was succeeded by his younger brother, the sixth Earl who lived on his estate at Drumsna in County Leitrim, for much of his life.
He fought at Waterloo in early life and was promoted to general. Albemarle sat as Member of Parliament for East Norfolk and Lymington, his only son, the seventh Earl, was a politician. At first a Liberal, he held minor office under Lord Palmerston and Lord Russell from 1859 to 1866. In 1876, he was summoned to the House of Lords through a writ of acceleration in his father's junior title of Baron Ashford, he had joined the Conservative Party and served under Benjamin Disraeli and Lord Salisbury as Under-Secretary of State for War. He was succeeded by the eighth Earl, he was a colonel in the army and briefly represented Birkenhead in Parliament. As of 2017 the titles are held by his great-grandson, the tenth Earl, who succeeded his grandfather in 1979. Lord Albemarle is in remainder to the ancient barony of de Clifford as the great-great-great-great-grandson the Hon. Elizabeth Southwell, daughter of Edward Southwell, 20th Baron de Clifford and wife of the fourth Earl of Albemarle. Several other members of the Keppel family have gained distinction.
Augustus Keppel, 1st Viscount Keppel, second son of the second Earl, was a prominent naval commander. The Hon. William Keppel, third son of the second Earl, was a lieutenant-general in the army; the Right Reverend the Hon. Frederick Keppel, fourth son of the second Earl, was Bishop of Exeter; the Hon. Sir Henry Keppel, fourth son of the fourth Earl, was an admiral in the Royal Navy; the Hon. Sir Derek Keppel, second son of the seventh Earl, was a soldier and prominent member of the Royal household; the Hon. George Keppel, third son of the seventh Earl, was the husband of Alice Edmondstone, one of the many mistresses of King Edward VII, the father of the writer and socialite Violet Trefusis and of the Hon. Mrs. Sonia Cubitt; the latter was the grandmother of Duchess of Cornwall. The heraldic blazon for the coat of arms of the Keppel family is: Gules, three escallops argent. Arnold Joost van Keppel, 1st Earl of Albemarle Willem Anne van Keppel, 2nd Earl of Albemarle George Keppel, 3rd Earl of Albemarle William Charles Keppel, 4th Earl of Albemarle Augustus Frederick Keppel, 5th Earl of Albemarle George Thomas Keppel, 6th Earl of Albemarle William Coutts Keppel, 7th Earl of Albemarle Arnold Allan Cecil Keppel, 8th Earl of Albemarle Walter Egerton George Lucian Keppel, 9th Earl of Albemarle Rufus Arnold Alexis Keppel, 10th Earl of Albemarle The heir apparent is the present holder's son, Augustus Sergei Darius Keppel, Viscount Bury.
Viscount Keppel Duke of Albemarle Baron de Clifford Attribution: This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Albemarle and Dukes of". Encyclopædia Britannica. 1. Cambridge University Press. Pp. 492–493. Cokayne, George E.. Gibbs, Vicary, ed; the complete peerage of England, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom, extinct, or dormant. I, Ab-Adam to Basing. London: St. Catherine Press. Pp. 91–96. Cokayne, George E.. Hammond, Peter W. ed. The comple
Louise de Kérouaille, Duchess of Portsmouth
Louise Renée de Penancoët de Kérouaille, Duchess of Portsmouth was a mistress of Charles II of England. Through her son by Charles II, Charles Lennox, 1st Duke of Richmond, she is ancestress of both wives of Prince Charles: Lady Diana Spencer and Camilla Shand. Louise was the daughter of Guillaume de Penancoët, Seigneur de Kérouaille and his wife Marie de Ploeuc de Timeur, paternal granddaughter of René de Penancoët, Seigneur de Kérouaille et Villeneuve, his wife Julienne Emery du Pont-l'Abbé, Dame du Chef du Bois, maternal granddaughter of Sébastien de Ploeuc, Marquis de Timeur, his wife Marie de Rieux; the name Kérouaille was derived from an heiress whom an ancestor François de Penhoët had married in 1330. The Kérouaille family were nobles in Brittany, their name was so spelt by themselves; the form "Quérouaille" was used in England. All are derivations of the original Breton name Kerouazle, the most common form in Brittany. Louise had a sister, Henriette Mauricette de Penancoët de Kérouaille, who married firstly in 1674 Philip Herbert, 7th Earl of Pembroke and secondly in 1685 Jean-Timoléon Gouffier, Marquis de Thais.
Her paternal aunt, Suzanne de Penancoët married Claude Le Veyer. Her maternal aunt Renée Mauricette de Ploeuc de Timeur married Donatien de Maillé, Marquis de Carman. Louise was early introduced to the household of Henrietta Anne Stuart, Duchess of Orléans, sister of Charles II of Great Britain, sister-in-law of Louis XIV of France. Louis de Rouvroy, duc de Saint-Simon, asserts that her family threw her in the way of Louis XIV in the hope that she would become a royal mistress. In 1670, she accompanied Henrietta on a visit to Charles II at Dover; the sudden death of Henrietta left her unprovided for, but Charles II appointed her as a lady-in-waiting to his own queen, Catherine of Braganza. Unlike her predecessor Barbara Palmer, who had insulted the Queen, Louise was careful to show her every respect, relations between the two women were never less than amicable, it was said that Louise had been selected by the French court to fascinate Charles II, but for this there seems to be no evidence. Yet when there appeared a prospect that Charles would show her favour, the intrigue was vigorously pushed by the French ambassador, Colbert de Croissy, aided by the secretary of state Henry Bennet, 1st Earl of Arlington, his wife.
Louise, who concealed great cleverness and a strong will under an appearance of languor and a rather childlike beauty, yielded only when she had established a strong hold on Charles' affections and character. Her son Charles was created Duke of Richmond in 1675; the support Louise received from the French envoy was given on the understanding that she should serve the interests of her native sovereign. The bargain was loyally carried out by Louise. However, she was much disliked by the people in England. Louis gave her a pair of earrings worth the astonishing sum of eighteen thousand pounds, his most expensive gift to England that year and more lavish than anything he had given Charles' queen. However, the hatred avowed for her in England was due as much to her own activity in the interest of France as to her notorious promiscuity. Nell Gwynne, another of Charles' mistresses, called her "Squintabella", when mistaken for her, replied, "Pray good people be civil, I am the Protestant whore."The titles of Baroness Petersfield, Countess of Fareham and Duchess of Portsmouth were granted to her for life on 19 August 1673.
Her pensions and money allowances of various kinds were enormous. In 1681 alone she received £136,000; the French court gave her frequent presents, in December 1673 conferred upon her the fief Duchess of Aubigny in the Peerage of France at the request of Charles II. At about this time Louise was instrumental in bringing to Charles II's attention a young Frenchman who proposed a solution to the longitude problem. While the Frenchman's proposal was ineffective, it led Charles to establish the Royal Observatory and appoint John Flamsteed as Astronomer Royal. Louise's thorough understanding of Charles' character enabled her to retain her hold on him to the end, she contrived to escape uninjured during the crisis of the "Popish Plot" in 1678: she found an unexpected ally in Queen Catherine, grateful for the kindness and consideration which Louise had always shown her. She was strong enough to maintain her position during a long illness in 1677 and in spite of a visit to France in 1682. One of Charles' nicknames for her was ` Fubbs', meaning chubby.
This female form was much in vogue at the time, in 1682 the royal yacht HMY Fubbs – in reference to Louise's nickname – was built. In February 1685, she assisted in measures to see that Charles II was received into the Catholic Church on his deathbed; that Charles was attached to her is shown by his dying instruction to his brother to "do well by Portsmouth", making her one of three women in his life, along with the Queen and Nell Gwynne, who were in his thoughts at the end. Soon after the death of Charles II, Louise fell from favour, she retired to France, except for one short visit to England during the reign of James II and her attendance at the Coronation of George I, she remained. Her attendance at George I's coronation was remarked upon by the Countess of Dorchester when they met the Countess of Orkney. Between them, they had been in tur
Cambridge University Press
Cambridge University Press is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge. Granted letters patent by King Henry VIII in 1534, it is the world's oldest publishing house and the second-largest university press in the world, it holds letters patent as the Queen's Printer. The press mission is "to further the University's mission by disseminating knowledge in the pursuit of education and research at the highest international levels of excellence". Cambridge University Press is a department of the University of Cambridge and is both an academic and educational publisher. With a global sales presence, publishing hubs, offices in more than 40 countries, it publishes over 50,000 titles by authors from over 100 countries, its publishing includes academic journals, reference works and English language teaching and learning publications. Cambridge University Press is a charitable enterprise that transfers part of its annual surplus back to the university. Cambridge University Press is both the oldest publishing house in the world and the oldest university press.
It originated from letters patent granted to the University of Cambridge by Henry VIII in 1534, has been producing books continuously since the first University Press book was printed. Cambridge is one of the two privileged presses. Authors published by Cambridge have included John Milton, William Harvey, Isaac Newton, Bertrand Russell, Stephen Hawking. University printing began in Cambridge when the first practising University Printer, Thomas Thomas, set up a printing house on the site of what became the Senate House lawn – a few yards from where the press's bookshop now stands. In those days, the Stationers' Company in London jealously guarded its monopoly of printing, which explains the delay between the date of the university's letters patent and the printing of the first book. In 1591, Thomas's successor, John Legate, printed the first Cambridge Bible, an octavo edition of the popular Geneva Bible; the London Stationers objected strenuously. The university's response was to point out the provision in its charter to print "all manner of books".
Thus began the press's tradition of publishing the Bible, a tradition that has endured for over four centuries, beginning with the Geneva Bible, continuing with the Authorized Version, the Revised Version, the New English Bible and the Revised English Bible. The restrictions and compromises forced upon Cambridge by the dispute with the London Stationers did not come to an end until the scholar Richard Bentley was given the power to set up a'new-style press' in 1696. In July 1697 the Duke of Somerset made a loan of £200 to the university "towards the printing house and presse" and James Halman, Registrary of the University, lent £100 for the same purpose, it was in Bentley's time, in 1698, that a body of senior scholars was appointed to be responsible to the university for the press's affairs. The Press Syndicate's publishing committee still meets and its role still includes the review and approval of the press's planned output. John Baskerville became University Printer in the mid-eighteenth century.
Baskerville's concern was the production of the finest possible books using his own type-design and printing techniques. Baskerville wrote, "The importance of the work demands all my attention. Caxton would have found nothing to surprise him if he had walked into the press's printing house in the eighteenth century: all the type was still being set by hand. A technological breakthrough was badly needed, it came when Lord Stanhope perfected the making of stereotype plates; this involved making a mould of the whole surface of a page of type and casting plates from that mould. The press was the first to use this technique, in 1805 produced the technically successful and much-reprinted Cambridge Stereotype Bible. By the 1850s the press was using steam-powered machine presses, employing two to three hundred people, occupying several buildings in the Silver Street and Mill Lane area, including the one that the press still occupies, the Pitt Building, built for the press and in honour of William Pitt the Younger.
Under the stewardship of C. J. Clay, University Printer from 1854 to 1882, the press increased the size and scale of its academic and educational publishing operation. An important factor in this increase was the inauguration of its list of schoolbooks. During Clay's administration, the press undertook a sizeable co-publishing venture with Oxford: the Revised Version of the Bible, begun in 1870 and completed in 1885, it was in this period as well that the Syndics of the press turned down what became the Oxford English Dictionary—a proposal for, brought to Cambridge by James Murray before he turned to Oxford. The appointment of R. T. Wright as Secretary of the Press Syndicate in 1892 marked the beginning of the press's development as a modern publishing business with a defined editorial policy and administrative structure, it was Wright who devised the plan for one of the most distinctive Cambridge contributions to publishing—the Cambridge Histories. The Cambridge Modern History was published
Duke of Lennox
The title Duke of Lennox has been created several times in the Peerage of Scotland, for Clan Stewart of Darnley. The Dukedom, named for the district of Lennox in Stirling, was first created in 1581, had been the Earldom of Lennox; the second Duke was made Duke of Richmond. The fourth Duke of Lennox was created Duke of Richmond; the Dukedom of Richmond and one month that of Lennox were created in 1675 for Charles Lennox, an illegitimate son of Charles II. The Duke of Richmond and Lennox was created Duke of Gordon in 1876. Thus, the Duke holds more than any other person in the realm; the heir apparent is Charles Gordon-Lennox, eldest son of the 11th Duke. Duke of Richmond and Lennox Duke of Richmond Duke of Gordon Duke of Aubigny Earl of Lennox Stewart of Darnley Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Lennox". Encyclopædia Britannica. 16. Cambridge University Press. Pp. 419–420. ThePeerage.com