England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
The Tōkaidō road, which means "eastern sea route," was the most important of the Five Routes of the Edo period in Japan, connecting Kyoto to Edo. Unlike the inland and less travelled Nakasendō, the Tōkaidō travelled along the sea coast of eastern Honshū, hence the route's name; the standard method of travel was by foot, as wheeled carts were nonexistent and heavy cargo was sent by boat. Members of the higher class, travelled by kago. Women had to be accompanied by men. Other restrictions were put in place for travellers, while severe penalties existed for various travel regulations, most seem not to have been enforced. Along the Tōkaidō, there were government-sanctioned post stations for travellers in; these stations consisted of porter stations and horse stables, as well as lodging and other places a traveller may visit. The original Tōkaidō was made up of 53 stations between the termination points of Kyoto; the 53 stations were taken from the 53 Buddhist saints that Buddhist acolyte Sudhana visited to receive teachings in his quest for enlightenment.
The route passed through several provinces, each administered by a daimyō, the borders of whose regions were delineated. Numerous checkpoints had been set up by the government where travellers had to present travelling permits to pass or be turned back. There were no bridges over the larger, fast flowing rivers, forcing travelers to be ferried across by boat or be carried by watermen porters. Additionally, at one point in Nagoya the road was barred by several rivers and voyagers had to take a boat across the sea for 17 miles to reach Kuwana station; these water crossings were a potential source of delay: In ideal weather the entire Tōkaidō journey on foot could be made in about a week, but if conditions were bad a trip might take up to a month to complete. Travel along the Tōkaidō, was a popular topic in art and literature at the time. A great many guidebooks of famous places were published and distributed at this time, a culture of virtual tourism through books and pictures thrived. Jippensha Ikku's Tōkaidōchū Hizakurige, translated as "The Shank's Mare", is one of the more famous novels about a journey along the Tōkaidō.
The artist Hiroshige depicted each of the 53 Stations of the Tōkaidō in his work The Fifty-three Stations of the Tōkaidō, the haiku poet Matsuo Bashō travelled along the road. The Tōkaidō gojūsan tsui, created in 1845, is one of the most well-known and fascinating examples of woodblock prints inspired by the road. Japan's three leading print designers of the nineteenth century - Kuniyoshi and Kunisada - paired each Tōkaidō rest station with an intriguing, cryptic design. Due to the harsh and punitive Tenpō-era reforms which attempted to impose a defined morality, prints of celebrity actors and entertainers were outlawed during this time. Crafted to outwit the artistic restrictions imposed by the reforms, the woodcuts in the Parallel Series became popular visual puzzles that were reproduced; because of the ingenious approach to the Tōkaidō theme, the Tōkaidō gojūsan tsui has been praised as one of the most innovative and important works from the late Edo period. Its three designers followed their individual interests and strengths, yet shared a common composition - dominant figures against distant landscapes.
They used a variety of motifs, including stories from kabuki theater, famous tales, legends and local specialties. In the early 1980s, inspired by Hiroshige, American artist Bill Zacha travelled the Tokaido stations, he created a series of 55 serigraphs, each depicting one stop along the Tokaido way, printed 100 copies of each design. These were collected in the 1985 book Tokaido Journey, along with Bill's recollections of travelling the road and the people he encountered; the British painter Nigel Caple travelled along the Tōkaidō Road between 1998 and 2000, making drawings of the 53 stations along the Tōkaidō. His inspiration was the Hoeido Edition of woodblock prints entitled The Fifty-three Stations of the Tōkaidō by Utagawa Hiroshige; these drawings by Nigel Caple formed the basis for a series of paintings and culminated in a touring exhibition and lectures during 2001 and 2002. Locations included The British Museum; the exhibition was part of the UK’s Japan Festival 2001. The video game Tōkaidō Gojūsan-tsugi, released by Sunsoft for the Famicom in July 1986 and ported to other Nintendo platforms, features a firework maker protagonist who must travel the Tōkaidō to visit his fiancee, while thwarting attacks from a rival businessman.
The 2012 board game Tōkaidō, designed by Antoine Bauza, is set in the Edo period. Players can take on the roles of artists travelling the East Sea Road, among other things, panoramas of its views as they journey toward Edo. In 1619, the Ōsaka Kaidō was established as a spur of the Tōkaidō; this addition extended the route to Kōraibashi in Osaka. This spur was called the Kyōkaidō, or it was described as being a part of the 57 stations of the Tōkaidō. Today, the Tōkaidō corridor is the most travelled transportation corridor in Japan, connecting Greater Tokyo to Nagoya, to Osaka via Kyoto; the Tokyo-Nagoya-Kyoto-Osaka route is followed by the JR Tōkaidō Main Line and Tōkaidō Shinkansen, as well as the Tōmei and Meishin expressways. A few portions of the original road can still be found, in modern times a
Yokohama is the second largest city in Japan by population, the most populous municipality of Japan. It is the capital city of Kanagawa Prefecture, it lies on Tokyo Bay, south of Tokyo, in the Kantō region of the main island of Honshu. It is a major commercial hub of the Greater Tokyo Area. Yokohama's population of 3.7 million makes it Japan's largest city. Yokohama developed as Japan's prominent port city following the end of Japan's relative isolation in the mid-19th century, is today one of its major ports along with Kobe, Nagoya, Hakata and Chiba. Yokohama means "horizontal beach"; the current area surrounded by Maita Park, the Ōoka River and the Nakamura River had been a gulf divided by a sandbar from the open sea. This sandbar was the original Yokohama fishing village. Since the sandbar protruded perpendicularly from the land, or horizontally when viewed from the sea, it was called a "horizontal beach". Yokohama was a small fishing village up to the end of the feudal Edo period, when Japan held a policy of national seclusion, having little contact with foreigners.
A major turning point in Japanese history happened in 1853–54, when Commodore Matthew Perry arrived just south of Yokohama with a fleet of American warships, demanding that Japan open several ports for commerce, the Tokugawa shogunate agreed by signing the Treaty of Peace and Amity. It was agreed that one of the ports to be opened to foreign ships would be the bustling town of Kanagawa-juku on the Tōkaidō, a strategic highway that linked Edo to Kyoto and Osaka. However, the Tokugawa shogunate decided that Kanagawa-juku was too close to the Tōkaidō for comfort, port facilities were instead built across the inlet in the sleepy fishing village of Yokohama; the Port of Yokohama was opened on June 2, 1859. Yokohama became the base of foreign trade in Japan. Foreigners occupied the low-lying district of the city called Kannai, residential districts expanding as the settlement grew to incorporate much of the elevated Yamate district overlooking the city referred to by English speaking residents as The Bluff.
Kannai, the foreign trade and commercial district, was surrounded by a moat, foreign residents enjoying extraterritorial status both within and outside the compound. Interactions with the local population young samurai, outside the settlement caused problems. To protect British commercial and diplomatic interests in Yokohama a military garrison was established in 1862. With the growth in trade increasing numbers of Chinese came to settle in the city. Yokohama was the scene of many notable firsts for Japan including the growing acceptance of western fashion, photography by pioneers such as Felice Beato, Japan's first English language newspaper, the Japan Herald published in 1861 and in 1865 the first ice cream and beer to be produced in Japan. Recreational sports introduced to Japan by foreign residents in Yokohama included European style horse racing in 1862, cricket in 1863 and rugby union in 1866. A great fire destroyed much of the foreign settlement on November 26, 1866 and smallpox was a recurrent public health hazard, but the city continued to grow – attracting foreigners and Japanese alike.
After the Meiji Restoration of 1868, the port was developed for trading silk, the main trading partner being Great Britain. Western influence and technological transfer contributed to the establishment of Japan's first daily newspaper, first gas-powered street lamps and Japan's first railway constructed in the same year to connect Yokohama to Shinagawa and Shinbashi in Tokyo. In 1872 Jules Verne portrayed Yokohama, which he had never visited, in an episode of his read novel Around the World in Eighty Days, capturing the atmosphere of the fast-developing, internationally oriented Japanese city. In 1887, a British merchant, Samuel Cocking, built the city's first power plant. At first for his own use, this coal-burning plant became the basis for the Yokohama Cooperative Electric Light Company; the city was incorporated on April 1, 1889. By the time the extraterritoriality of foreigner areas was abolished in 1899, Yokohama was the most international city in Japan, with foreigner areas stretching from Kannai to the Bluff area and the large Yokohama Chinatown.
The early 20th century was marked by rapid growth of industry. Entrepreneurs built factories along reclaimed land to the north of the city toward Kawasaki, which grew to be the Keihin Industrial Area; the growth of Japanese industry brought affluence, many wealthy trading families constructed sprawling residences there, while the rapid influx of population from Japan and Korea led to the formation of Kojiki-Yato the largest slum in Japan. Much of Yokohama was destroyed on September 1923 by the Great Kantō earthquake; the Yokohama police reported casualties at 30,771 dead and 47,908 injured, out of a pre-earthquake population of 434,170. Fuelled by rumours of rebellion and sabotage, vigilante mobs thereupon murdered many Koreans in the Kojiki-yato slum. Many people believed. Martial law was in place until November 19. Rubble from the quake was used to reclaim land for parks, the most famous being the Yamashita Park on the waterfront which opened in 1930. Yokohama was rebuilt, only to be destroyed again by U.
S. air raids during World War II. An estimated seven or eight thousand people were killed in a single morning on
Find a Grave
Find A Grave is a website that allows the public to search and add to an online database of cemetery records. It is owned by Ancestry.com. It receives and uploads digital photographs of headstones from burial sites, taken by unpaid volunteers at cemeteries. Find A Grave posts the photo on its website; the site was created in 1995 by Salt Lake City resident Jim Tipton to support his hobby of visiting the burial sites of famous celebrities. He added an online forum. Find A Grave was launched as a commercial entity in 1998, first as a trade name and incorporated in 2000; the site expanded to include graves of non-celebrities, in order to allow online visitors to pay respect to their deceased relatives or friends. In 2013, Tipton sold Find A Grave to Ancestry.com, saying that the genealogy company had "been linking and driving traffic to the site for several years. Burial information is a wonderful source for people researching their family history." In a September 30, 2013, press release, Ancestry.com officials said they would "launch a new mobile app, improve customer support, introduce an enhanced edit system for submitting updates to memorials, foreign-language support, other site improvements."As of October 2017, Find A Grave contained over 165 million burial records and 75 million photos.
In March 2017, a beta website for a redesigned Find A Grave was launched at gravestage.com. Public feedback was mixed. Sometime between May 29 and July 10 of that year, the beta website was migrated to new.findagrave.com, a new front end for it was deployed at beta.findagrave.com. In November 2017, the new site became the old site was deprecated. On August 20, 2018, the original Find; the website contains listings of graves from around the world. American cemeteries are organized by state and county, many cemetery records contain Google Maps and photographs of the cemeteries and gravesites. Individual grave records may contain dates and places of birth and death, biographical information and plot information and contributor information. Interment listings are added by individuals, genealogical societies, other institutions such as the International Wargraves Photography Project. Contributors must register as members to submit listings, called memorials, on the site; the submitter may transfer management.
Only the current manager of a listing may edit it, although any member may use the site's features to send correction requests to the listing's manager. Managers may add links to other listings of deceased spouses and siblings for genealogical purposes. Any member may add photographs and notations to individual listings. Members may post requests for photos of a specific grave. Although it does not ask permission from immediate family members before uploading the photos, it will remove and take down photos or a URL for a deceased loved one at the request of an immediate family member. Find A Grave maintains lists of memorials of famous persons by their "claim to fame", such as Medal of Honor recipients, religious figures, educators. Find A Grave exercises editorial control over these listings. Canadian Headstones Interment.net United States National Cemetery System's nationwide gravesite locator Random Acts of Genealogical Kindness Tombstone tourist Official website
William Willis (physician)
William Willis FRCS, was a British physician who joined the British mission in Japan in 1861.. Willis was born in Maguiresbridge, County Fermanagh, Ireland in 1837. In 1855 he was enrolled at the faculty of medicine in the University of Glasgow, where he completed his pre-medical and pre-clinical studies, he transferred to the University of Edinburgh. After his graduation in May 1859 he became a member of the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh and received the degree of Doctor of Medicine of the University with a thesis on the "Theory of Ulceration", he worked at the Middlesex Hospital in London. In 1861 he was accepted for a medical post with the British legation in Japan, he reached Edo in May 1862 to begin his duties as medical officer and clerk under Sir Harry Smith Parkes. Between 1862 and 1867 he worked in Yokohama. Being there on the day of Charles Lennox Richardson's death at the hands of retainers of daimyō Shimazu Hisamitsu, Willis performed the autopsy. Among his students was Takaki Kanehiro, the first man to prove that beriberi was connected to malnutrition, the founder of Japan's first private medical college.
During the unsettled years at the end of the Tokugawa bakufu and Meiji Restoration, Willis treated the British nationals wounded in the Namamugi Incident and the Bombardment of Kagoshima. Willis participated to the Boshin War as the head of medical operations for Satsuma Domain During the Battle of Toba–Fushimi, he set a military hospital in the temple of Shōkokuji in Kyoto, not far from the frontline, he continued to support the medical operations of the Satsuma side throughout the Boshin War. Willis was appointed professor and clinical chief of the Igakko. In 1870, Willis resigned to become head of the hospital and medical school in Kagoshima at the invitation of Saigō Takamori; the institution became the medical department of Kagoshima University. Willis married a Japanese woman in Kagoshima, Enatsu Yae, the daughter of a former retainer of Shimazu Nariakira, with whom he had a son, Albert. With the outbreak of the Satsuma Rebellion in 1877, Willis returned to Tokyo. Willis returned to England in 1881, became a Fellow of the Royal Surgical Medical Association.
In 1885, he was appointed by the recommendation of his good friend Ernest Satow as a doctor with the British Consulate General in Bangkok. In addition to public hospitals, he established a large-scale private hospital was in Bangkok, treated King Rama V and the king's brother, he returned to England in 1892. According to Satow, Willis was unusually tall at 190.5 cm, weighed 127 kg.. Japan–United Kingdom relations Hugh Cortazzi 1985, Dr. Willis in Japan, 1862–1877: British medical pioneer ISBN 0-485-11264-7 Denney, John. Respect and Consideration: Britain in Japan 1853–1868 and beyond. Radiance Press. ISBN 978-0-9568798-0-6 Hugh Cortazzi 1985, Dr. Willis 1837–1894. Medical Journal of Kagoshima University, Supplement 1, August 1995
Frederick Bruce (diplomat)
Sir Frederick William Adolphus Wright-Bruce, GCB was a British diplomat. Frederick Bruce was the youngest of the three sons of Thomas Bruce, 7th Earl of Elgin and his second wife Elizabeth, youngest daughter of James Townshend Oswald of Dunnikier, Fife, he was born at Bromhall, Fife, on 14 April 1814. It was during his brief practice as a barrister that he changed his surname after receiving a large inheritance from a client. On 9 February 1842 he was attached to Lord Ashburton's mission to Washington, returning to England with his lordship in September of that year. On 9 February 1844 he was appointed colonial secretary at Hong Kong, accompanied its second governor John Francis Davis on HMS Spiteful arriving there on 8 May of that year, he left Hong Kong to begin 16 months' leave, on the 23 June 1846, just four days was appointed lieutenant-governor of Newfoundland. His next change was to Sucre, with the appointment of consul-general in the republic of Bolivia on 23 July 1847, on 14 April 1848 he was accredited as chargé d'affaires.
He was named chargé d'affaires to the Oriental republic of Uruguay on 29 August 1851, on 3 August 1853 became agent and consul-general in Egypt in the place of the Hon. C. A. Murray. On his brother, Lord Elgin, being appointed ambassador extraordinary to China, he accompanied him as principal secretary in April 1857, he brought home the treaty with China signed at Tientsin on 26 June 1858 and was made a C. B. on 28 September. His diplomatic tact was appreciated by the home government, for he was appointed on 2 December 1858 envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary to the Xianfeng Emperor of China, on 1 March following chief superintendent of British trade in that country, his mission was prevented from proceeding to Peking by the opposition made by the Chinese. The mission therefore returned to Shanghai, where it remained until the ratification of the treaty of 26 June 1858 at Peking on 24 October 1860, he proceeded to Peking on 7 November 1860 but withdrew to Tientsin for the winter, while arrangements were made for putting a residence in order for his reception.
The mission was established at Peking on 26 March 1861, but it was not until 2 April that Bruce paid a visit to Prince Gong. During his time in Shanghai, his support for the Qing contributed to Britain's intervention in the Taiping Rebellion. On the removal of Lord Lyons from Washington to Constantinople, Bruce was selected to fill the important office of British representative at Washington on 1 March 1865, he was made a K. C. B. of the civil division on 12 December 1862 and received the grand cross of the order on 17 March 1865. He was appointed umpire by the commission named under the convention of 1864, concluded between the United States of America and the United States of Colombia, for the adjustment of claims of American citizens against the Colombian government, he died, unmarried, at Boston in the United States on 19 September 1867, when his remains were embalmed and, being conveyed to Scotland, were interred at Dunfermline Abbey on 8 October. Boase, G. C.. "Frederick Wright-Bruce". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography.
Oxford University Press. Doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/3730. Retrieved 27 June 2009. "The Hon. Sir F. Bruce, G. C. B." The Gentleman's Historical Review. IV: 677–678. July–December 1867. Retrieved 27 June 2009. Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: "Bruce, Frederick William Adolphus". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900