The term is derived from Ancient Greek ζῷον, zōion, i. e. animal and λόγος, logos, i. e. knowledge, study. The history of zoology traces the study of the kingdom from ancient to modern times. This ancient work was developed in the Middle Ages by Muslim physicians. During the Renaissance and early period, zoological thought was revolutionized in Europe by a renewed interest in empiricism. Microscopy revealed the unknown world of microorganisms, laying the groundwork for cell theory. The growing importance of natural theology, partly a response to the rise of mechanical philosophy, over the 18th and 19th centuries, zoology became an increasingly professional scientific discipline. Naturalists began to reject essentialism and consider the importance of extinction, cell theory provided a new perspective on the fundamental basis of life. These developments, as well as the results from embryology and paleontology, were synthesized in Charles Darwins theory of evolution by natural selection. In 1859, Darwin placed the theory of evolution on a new footing, by his discovery of a process by which organic evolution can occur.
Darwin gave new direction to morphology and physiology, by uniting them in a biological theory. The end of the 19th century saw the fall of spontaneous generation, cell biology studies the structural and physiological properties of cells, including their behavior and environment. This is done on both the microscopic and molecular levels, for single-celled organisms such as bacteria as well as the cells in multicellular organisms such as humans. Understanding the structure and function of cells is fundamental to all of the biological sciences, the similarities and differences between cell types are particularly relevant to molecular biology. Anatomy considers the forms of macroscopic structures such as organs and organ systems and it focuses on how organs and organ systems work together in the bodies of humans and animals, in addition to how they work independently. Anatomy and cell biology are two studies that are related, and can be categorized under structural studies. Physiology studies the mechanical and biochemical processes of living organisms by attempting to understand how all of the function as a whole.
The theme of structure to function is central to biology, for example, what is learned about the physiology of yeast cells can apply to human cells. The field of animal physiology extends the tools and methods of physiology to non-human species
Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences
The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences or Kungliga Vetenskapsakademien is one of the Royal Academies of Sweden. Every year the Academy awards the Nobel Prizes in Physics and Chemistry, the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel, the Crafoord Prize, the Academy has elected about 1.700 Swedish and 1.200 foreign members since it was founded in 1739. Hansson, appointed from 1 July 2015 The transactions of the Academy were published as its main series between 1739 and 1974, in parallel, other major series have appeared and gone, Öfversigt af Kungl. These lasted into the 1860s, when they were replaced by the single Bihang series, further restructuring of their topics occurred in 1949 and 1974. The purpose of the academy was to focus on practically useful knowledge, the academy was intended to be different from the Royal Society of Sciences in Uppsala, which had been founded in 1719 and published in Latin. The location close to the activities in Swedens capital was intentional.
The academy was modeled after the Royal Society of London and Academie Royale des Sciences in Paris, members of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences Official website Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences video site
Academy of Natural Sciences of Drexel University
The Academy of Natural Sciences of Drexel University, formerly the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, is the oldest natural science research institution and museum in the New World. It was founded in 1812, by many of the naturalists of the young American republic with an expressed mission of the encouragement. The Academy has a tradition of public exhibits and educational programs for both schools and the general public. During the first decades of the United States, Philadelphia was the cultural capital, two of the citys institutions, the Library Company and the American Philosophical Society, were centers of enlightened thought and scientific inquiry. The academy was meant to foster a gathering of fellow naturalists and they frequently looked to their European counterparts for inspiration and expertise and longed to be regarded as equals. On 25 April 1817 they were incorporated into the society under the title of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia by the legislature of Pennsylvania, by 1 January 1818, eight members were published.
Within a decade of its founding, the Academy became the center of natural sciences in the United States. Academy members were enlisted to participate in national surveys of the western territories. Corresponding members included such luminaries as Charles Darwin, Asa Gray, for much of its history, new members had to be nominated by two current members and elected by the remaining members. These requirements were dropped in 1924, notable 20th-century scientists include James Böhlke, James Bond, Henry Weed Fowler, Ruth Patrick, Henry Pilsbry, and Witmer Stone. In 2011, the Academy became affiliated with nearby Drexel University, collections are the hallmark of museums and those at The Academy of Natural Sciences are among the more important of their kind. The size and scope of its collections have grown substantially since the early years, there are over 17 million biological specimens, and hundreds of thousands of volumes, illustrations and archival items in its library. Sometimes the Academy is enlisted to house and care for collections originally gathered by other institutions, for example, a number of the natural history collections at the American Philosophical Society were relocated to the Academy by the end of the 19th century.
But these collections are not maintained just to collect dust and they provide a library of biodiversity. In recent decades, research has shifted in emphasis to the science of systematics, either way, the collections are invaluable. They provide the type specimens, the material that helps establish a species identity. They provide raw materials with which scientists can investigate the nature of species, their relationships with other species, their evolutionary history. New questions and new technology illustrate the importance of these collections, titian Peale may not have been interested in the conservation biology of the butterflies he collected while Henry Pilsbry probably did not consider comparing the DNA of his snails
Wilson's storm petrel
Wilsons storm petrel, known as Wilsons petrel, is a small seabird of the austral storm petrel family Oceanitidae. The world population has been estimated to be more than 50 million pairs, the name commemorates the Scottish-American ornithologist Alexander Wilson. The genus name Oceanites refers to the mythical Oceanids, the three daughters of Tethys. The species name is from Latin oceanus, Wilsons storm petrel is a small bird, 16–18.5 cm in length with a 38–42 cm wingspan. It is slightly larger than the European storm petrel and is dark brown in all plumages, except for the white rump. The feet jut beyond the square ended tail in flight, the European storm petrel has a very distinct whitish lining to the underwing and a nearly all dark upperwing. Wilsons storm petrel has a pale band along the upper wing coverts. The webbing between the toes is yellow with spots in pre-breeding age individuals. Originally described in the genus Procellaria it has placed under the genus Oceanites. Two or three subspecies are recognized and one population maorianus from New Zealand may be extinct, the nominate population breeds from Cape Horn to the Kerguelen Islands while exasperatus breeds along the Antarctic coast in the South Shetland and other islands.
Some authors called it the yellow-webbed storm-petrel and this species breeds on the Antarctic coastlines and nearby islands such as the South Shetland Islands during the summer of the southern hemisphere. It spends the rest of the year at sea, and moves into the oceans in the southern hemispheres winter. It is much more common in the north Atlantic than the Pacific and it is strictly pelagic outside the breeding season, and this, together with its remote breeding sites, makes Wilsons petrel a difficult bird to see from land. Only in severe storms might this species be pushed into headlands and their unique fluttering and hovering flight is achieved often with their wings held high. Even in calm weather, they can make use of the slight breeze produced by the waves, like the European storm petrel, it is highly gregarious, and will follow ships. A soft peeping noise is heard while the birds are feeding. They feed predominantly on planktonic invertebrates close to the surface, rarely plunging below the surface to capture prey and they may however sometimes take 3–8 cm long fish in the family Myctophidae.
At 40 g on average, it is the smallest warm-blooded animal that breeds in the Antarctic region and it nests in colonies close to the sea in rock crevices or small burrows in soft earth and lays a single white egg
Alexander Wilson (ornithologist)
Alexander Wilson was a Scottish-American poet, ornithologist and illustrator. Identified by George Ord as the Father of American Ornithology, Wilson is now regarded as the greatest American ornithologist before Audubon, several species of bird are named after Wilson, including the Wilsons storm-petrel, Wilsons plover, Wilsons phalarope, Wilsons snipe, and Wilsons warbler. The now obsolete warbler genus Wilsonia was named for him by Charles Lucien Bonaparte, the Wilson Journal of Ornithology and the Wilson Ornithological Society bear his name. Wilson was born in Paisley, Scotland, in 1779 he was apprenticed as a weaver. The writing of a poem of severe personal satire against a mill owner resulted in his arrest and he was sentenced to burn the work in public and imprisoned. After his release, he emigrated to America and his nephew left Scotland for America in May 1794. Here Wilson met the famous naturalist William Bartram, who encouraged Wilsons interest in ornithology, of the 268 species of birds illustrated there,26 had not previously been described.
Wilson died during the preparation of the volume, which was completed and published by George Ord. Wilson is buried in Gloria Dei Church cemetery in Philadelphia, George Ord, Wilsons friend and continuator of his work, is buried not far away in the same cemetery. In Paisley, a memorial and a statue commemorate Wilsons connection to that city, the memorial is inscribed Remember Alexander Wilson 1766-1813. American Ornithology, or, the Natural History of the Birds of the United States, list of pieces written by Mr. Alexander Wilson, now in Philadelphia. At head of title, Paisley repository, probable decade of imprint from NSTC. The American blue bird, p. 2-3, The Baltimore bird and Ringan, a tale as delivered in the Pantheon, Edinburgh by the author of Watty and Meg, to which is added The twa cats and the cheese, a tale. Oration, on the power and value of national liberty delivered to an assembly of citizens, at Milestown, Pennsylvania, on Wednesday. This material relates to Alexander B, there are notes and copies of letters and documents, including a copy of Wilsons will.
There is one poem by Wilson, The Last Wish, the Foresters, A Poem, Descriptive of a Pedestrian Journey to the Falls of Niagara in the Autumn of 1804. Newtown, S. Siegfried & J. Wilson, published in the magazine The Port Folio in 1809/1810. Alexander Wilson, The Scot Who Founded American Ornithology by Edward H. Burtt, Jr. and William E. Davis, Jr. Harvard UP, the Life and Letters of Alexander Wilson by Clark Hunter
Alexandrine de Bleschamp
Alexandrine de Bleschamp was a French noblewoman. She was already the widow of the banker Hippolyte Jouberthon, and thus known as Madame Jouberthon, when she became the wife of Lucien Bonaparte. She and her husband had nine children, Charles Lucien Bonaparte. Hans Naef, Whos Who in Ingress Portrait of the Family of Lucien Bonaparte, the Burlington Magazine, Vol.114, No. 836, pp. 787–791 Alexandrine as Terpsichore, by Canova
The British Museum is dedicated to human history and culture, and is located in the Bloomsbury area of London. The British Museum was established in 1753, largely based on the collections of the physician, the museum first opened to the public on 15 January 1759, in Montagu House, on the site of the current building. Although today principally a museum of art objects and antiquities. Its foundations lie in the will of the Irish-born British physician, on 7 June 1753, King George II gave his formal assent to the Act of Parliament which established the British Museum. They were joined in 1757 by the Old Royal Library, now the Royal manuscripts, together these four foundation collections included many of the most treasured books now in the British Library including the Lindisfarne Gospels and the sole surviving copy of Beowulf. The British Museum was the first of a new kind of museum – national, belonging to neither church nor king, freely open to the public, sloanes collection, while including a vast miscellany of objects, tended to reflect his scientific interests.
The addition of the Cotton and Harley manuscripts introduced a literary, the body of trustees decided on a converted 17th-century mansion, Montagu House, as a location for the museum, which it bought from the Montagu family for £20,000. The Trustees rejected Buckingham House, on the now occupied by Buckingham Palace, on the grounds of cost. With the acquisition of Montagu House the first exhibition galleries and reading room for scholars opened on 15 January 1759. During the few years after its foundation the British Museum received several gifts, including the Thomason Collection of Civil War Tracts. A list of donations to the Museum, dated 31 January 1784, in the early 19th century the foundations for the extensive collection of sculpture began to be laid and Greek and Egyptian artefacts dominated the antiquities displays. Gifts and purchases from Henry Salt, British consul general in Egypt, beginning with the Colossal bust of Ramesses II in 1818, many Greek sculptures followed, notably the first purpose-built exhibition space, the Charles Towneley collection, much of it Roman Sculpture, in 1805.
In 1816 these masterpieces of art, were acquired by The British Museum by Act of Parliament. The collections were supplemented by the Bassae frieze from Phigaleia, Greece in 1815, the Ancient Near Eastern collection had its beginnings in 1825 with the purchase of Assyrian and Babylonian antiquities from the widow of Claudius James Rich. The neoclassical architect, Sir Robert Smirke, was asked to draw up plans for an extension to the Museum. For the reception of the Royal Library, and a Picture Gallery over it, and put forward plans for todays quadrangular building, much of which can be seen today. The dilapidated Old Montagu House was demolished and work on the Kings Library Gallery began in 1823, the extension, the East Wing, was completed by 1831. The Museum became a site as Sir Robert Smirkes grand neo-classical building gradually arose
Ornithology is a branch of zoology that concerns the study of birds. The word ornithology derives from the ancient Greek ὄρνις ornis and λόγος logos, several aspects of ornithology differ from related disciplines, due partly to the high visibility and the aesthetic appeal of birds. Most marked among these is the extent of studies undertaken by amateurs working within the parameters of strict scientific methodology, most modern biological theories apply across taxonomic groups and the number of professional scientists who identify themselves as ornithologists has therefore declined. A wide range of tools and techniques are used in ornithology, the origins of the word ornithology come from the Greek ornithologos and late 17th-century Latin ornithologia meaning bird science. Trends include the move from mere descriptions to the identification of patterns, Humans have had an observational relationship with birds since prehistory, with some stone age drawings being amongst the oldest indications of an interest in birds.
Birds were perhaps important as a source, and bones of as many as 80 species have been found in excavations of early Stone Age settlements. Waterbird and seabird remains have found in shell mounds on the island of Oronsay off the coast of Scotland. Cultures around the world have rich vocabularies related to birds, traditional bird names are often based on detailed knowledge of the behaviour, with many names being onomatopoeic, many still in use. Traditional knowledge may involve the use of birds in folk medicine, hunting of wild birds as well as their domestication would have required considerable knowledge of their habits. Poultry farming and falconry were practised from early times in many parts of the world, artificial incubation of poultry was practised in China around 246 BC and around at least 400 BC in Egypt. The Egyptians made use of birds in their scripts, many of which. Early written records provide information on the past distributions of species. For instance Xenophon records the abundance of the ostrich in Assyria, other old writings such as the Vedas demonstrate the careful observation of avian life histories and includes the earliest reference to the habit of brood parasitism by the Asian koel.
Like writing, the art of China, Japan and India demonstrate knowledge. Aristotle in 350 BC in his Historia Animalium noted the habit of migration, egg laying and life spans. Similar misconceptions existed regarding the breeding of barnacle geese, around 77 AD, Pliny the Elder described birds, among other creatures, in his Historia Naturalis. The origins of falconry have been traced to Mesopotamia and the earliest record comes from the reign of Sargon II, falconry made its entry to Europe only after AD400, brought in from the East after invasions by the Huns and Allans. Frederick II of Hohenstaufen learned about Arabian falconry during wars in the region and he had this work translated into Latin and conducted experiments on birds in his menagerie
France, officially the French Republic, is a country with territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The European, or metropolitan, area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, Overseas France include French Guiana on the South American continent and several island territories in the Atlantic and Indian oceans. France spans 643,801 square kilometres and had a population of almost 67 million people as of January 2017. It is a unitary republic with the capital in Paris. Other major urban centres include Marseille, Lille, Toulouse, during the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. The area was annexed in 51 BC by Rome, which held Gaul until 486, France emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages, with its victory in the Hundred Years War strengthening state-building and political centralisation. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a colonial empire was established.
The 16th century was dominated by civil wars between Catholics and Protestants. France became Europes dominant cultural and military power under Louis XIV, in the 19th century Napoleon took power and established the First French Empire, whose subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War, the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains to this day. Algeria and nearly all the colonies became independent in the 1960s with minimal controversy and typically retained close economic. France has long been a centre of art, science. It hosts Europes fourth-largest number of cultural UNESCO World Heritage Sites and receives around 83 million foreign tourists annually, France is a developed country with the worlds sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest by purchasing power parity.
In terms of household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, France remains a great power in the world, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a member state of the European Union and the Eurozone. It is a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, originally applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name France comes from the Latin Francia, or country of the Franks
Lucien Bonaparte (cardinal)
Lucien Louis Joseph Napoleon Cardinal Bonaparte, 4th Prince of Canino and Musignano, was a French cardinal. He was born in Rome, the son of Charles Lucien Bonaparte and his paternal grandparents were Lucien Bonaparte and his second wife Alexandrine de Bleschamp. His maternal grandparents were Joseph Bonaparte and Julie Clary and his godfather was the future Napoleon III, first cousin to both his parents. Cardinal Bonaparte was ordained to the priesthood on 13 December 1856 by Pope Pius IX and he served at numerous posts both in France and in Italy. He was created Cardinal of Santa Pudenziana in 1868, in 1879, he was given the additional title of Cardinal Priest of S. Lorenzo in Lucina. Cardinal Bonaparte participated in the First Vatican Council and he was one of the voting cardinals that elected Gioacchino Vincenzo Raffaele Luigi Cardinal Pecci, as Pope Leo XIII. He died in 1895 and was buried in Rome, the Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church, Biographical Dictionary, Consistory of 13 March 1868
Bonapartes gull is a small gull found mainly in North America. When George Ord first described Bonapartes gull in 1815, he gave it the scientific name Sterna philadelphia, most taxonomists assigned it to the genus Larus, a longtime catch-all for most of the gull species. However, in 1858, George Newbold Lawrence moved the species to the genus Chroicocephalus, based on these studies, the American Ornithologists Union, which had previously assigned the species to the genus Larus, moved it into its current genus in 2008. It is monotypic across its range and its genus name, Chroicocephalus, is a combination of the Greek words chroikos, an adjective form of chroa meaning colour, and kephalē meaning head. This refers to the heads that gulls of this genus show during the breeding season. The specific epithet philadelphia is a Latinized adjective meaning from Philadelphia, Bonapartes gull is among the smallest of the gull species, only little gull and Saunderss gull are smaller. Adults range from 28 to 38 cm in length, with a wingspan of 76–84 cm, there is no difference in plumage or bare part colour between the sexes, though males tend to be heavier than females.
Bonapartes gull is smaller-bodied, smaller-headed, and smaller-billed than the other common hooded gulls of North America, the adult has grey upperparts and white underparts, its wingtips are black above and pale below. In breeding plumage, it has a slaty black hood, which it loses in non-breeding plumage and its short, thin bill is black, and its legs are orangish-red. In their first summer, the appearance of Bonapartes gull is similar to that in its first winter, fewer than 5% of Bonapartes gulls acquire a dark hood in their first summer, and on those that do, the hood is duller than on breeding adults. Bonapartes gull breeds in boreal forest across southern Alaska and much of interior western Canada, as far east as central Quebec and south to within 320 km of the United States/Canada border. It avoids dense stands of conifers, instead choosing more open areas, such as the edges of bogs, marshes, ponds. It typically nests within 60 m of open water and it winters along the coasts of North America, and in the Great Lakes.
It is a vagrant to western Europe and the Azores. They are migratory and most move east or west to coastal waters and they are graceful in flight, more like terns. Like most gulls, Bonapartes gull has a diet, with prey items changing over the course of the year. During the breeding season, it is largely insectivorous and it is known to quickly congregate in large numbers to take advantage of termite dispersal flights, circling over the emerging swarm and hovering briefly to take the insects in flight. It gathers in large numbers to feed on the eggs of spawning salmon, alighting on the water and, if necessary, at least one immature bird has been recorded as having fed on walnut meat