Meshech Weare was an American farmer and revolutionary statesman from Seabrook and Hampton Falls, New Hampshire. He served as the first President of New Hampshire from 1776 to 1785. Meshech was born to Deacon Nathaniel Weare and his second wife, Mary Waite, in what was the Third Parish, New Hampshire; the site of the home is now in Seabrook. Weare was baptized in modern-day Hampton Falls, New Hampshire, on June 21, 1713, he was the youngest of 14 children. Some of his siblings included Elizabeth, Mehitable and Nathan. Weare graduated from Harvard College in 1735, he planned to work in the Congregational ministry, but those plans were changed after his marriage to Elizabeth Shaw in 1738. He planned on improving the land he and his wife bought after their marriage, but this plan was cut short by his wife's death, he remarried to Mehitable Wainwright in 1746. During this time he began to study law, starting with the books passed down to him from his father and grandfather, who were former lay Judges in the provincial court.
The house in which Weare lived was built in 1737 by Samuel Shaw, is now listed on the National Register of Historic Places. It was to be visited by George Washington, Marquis de Lafayette, James Monroe; the back half of the house burnt many years after Weare's death. It still stands in Hampton Falls, next to the park named after Weare and across from the town school, Lincoln Akerman School. Weare's political career began in 1739. For the next 35 years, he served in various political positions, including selectman and representative of Hampton Falls in the Assembly, he was thrice speaker of the House of Representatives, its clerk for eight years. In 1754, he was one of New Hampshire's delegates to the Albany Congress. In September 1772, Weare served as one of the four judges in the trial of the participants in the Pine Tree Riot, an early act of rebellion against British authority in the Colonies. Although the defendants were found guilty, the light fines assessed by the court were seen as encouraging other such acts, including the Boston Tea Party.
On January 5, 1776, New Hampshire became the first American state to adopt a formal constitution. Weare was a leader in the drafting of this document, which served as the basic instrument of government for the ensuing eight years or until the adoption of a second and more permanent constitution in 1784. Under this constitution, there was no established executive, the legislature was supreme. In practice, executive power was delegated to a Committee of Safety consisting of eight or ten legislative leaders; this committee had full power to act on behalf of the government while the legislature was not in session. After a brief interval, Weare was elected chairman of the Committee of Safety and served in this capacity throughout the Revolution. In addition to being New Hampshire's first "President", Weare was chief justice of the state's highest court the "Superior Court of Judicature" from 1776 to 1782, he served as presiding officer of the Council part of the upper house of the legislature. He managed to hold that position throughout the American Revolution.
He was elected a Foreign Honorary Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1782. The Committee of Safety, over which Weare presided, was a most interesting governmental institution, it operated both at the state and at the local level, was a law unto itself while the legislature was not in session. Its duties included supervision and coordination of military affairs within the state, raising of recruits and supplies, regulation of the state militia, custody of prisoners of war, supervision of the entrance and clearance of vessels from Portsmouth Harbor, regulation of privateers and captured prizes, surveillance of the Loyalists, regulation of trade and currency, supervision of price controls; the New Hampshire town of Weare was renamed in 1764 to honor his service as the town's first clerk. In Hampton Falls, a park, built in the early 2000s directly next to his house, is named for him. Weare's grave is located in a small cemetery an eighth of a mile down the road. Brown, Warren.
History of Hampton Falls N. H. Vol. II. 1918. Meschach Weare at SeacoastNH.com Meshech Weare at Find a Grave
World War I
World War I known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously described as "the war to end all wars", it led to the mobilisation of more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, making it one of the largest wars in history, it is one of the deadliest conflicts in history, with an estimated nine million combatants and seven million civilian deaths as a direct result of the war, while resulting genocides and the 1918 influenza pandemic caused another 50 to 100 million deaths worldwide. On 28 June 1914, Gavrilo Princip, a Bosnian Serb Yugoslav nationalist, assassinated the Austro-Hungarian heir Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo, leading to the July Crisis. In response, on 23 July Austria-Hungary issued an ultimatum to Serbia. Serbia's reply failed to satisfy the Austrians, the two moved to a war footing. A network of interlocking alliances enlarged the crisis from a bilateral issue in the Balkans to one involving most of Europe.
By July 1914, the great powers of Europe were divided into two coalitions: the Triple Entente—consisting of France and Britain—and the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy. Russia felt it necessary to back Serbia and, after Austria-Hungary shelled the Serbian capital of Belgrade on the 28th, partial mobilisation was approved. General Russian mobilisation was announced on the evening of 30 July; when Russia failed to comply, Germany declared war on 1 August in support of Austria-Hungary, with Austria-Hungary following suit on 6th. German strategy for a war on two fronts against France and Russia was to concentrate the bulk of its army in the West to defeat France within four weeks shift forces to the East before Russia could mobilise. On 2 August, Germany demanded free passage through Belgium, an essential element in achieving a quick victory over France; when this was refused, German forces invaded Belgium on 3 August and declared war on France the same day. On 12 August and France declared war on Austria-Hungary.
In November 1914, the Ottoman Empire entered the war on the side of the Alliance, opening fronts in the Caucasus and the Sinai Peninsula. The war was fought in and drew upon each power's colonial empire as well, spreading the conflict to Africa and across the globe; the Entente and its allies would become known as the Allied Powers, while the grouping of Austria-Hungary and their allies would become known as the Central Powers. The German advance into France was halted at the Battle of the Marne and by the end of 1914, the Western Front settled into a battle of attrition, marked by a long series of trench lines that changed little until 1917. In 1915, Italy opened a front in the Alps. Bulgaria joined the Central Powers in 1915 and Greece joined the Allies in 1917, expanding the war in the Balkans; the United States remained neutral, although by doing nothing to prevent the Allies from procuring American supplies whilst the Allied blockade prevented the Germans from doing the same the U. S. became an important supplier of war material to the Allies.
After the sinking of American merchant ships by German submarines, the revelation that the Germans were trying to incite Mexico to make war on the United States, the U. S. declared war on Germany on 6 April 1917. Trained American forces would not begin arriving at the front in large numbers until mid-1918, but the American Expeditionary Force would reach some two million troops. Though Serbia was defeated in 1915, Romania joined the Allied Powers in 1916 only to be defeated in 1917, none of the great powers were knocked out of the war until 1918; the 1917 February Revolution in Russia replaced the Tsarist autocracy with the Provisional Government, but continuing discontent at the cost of the war led to the October Revolution, the creation of the Soviet Socialist Republic, the signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk by the new government in March 1918, ending Russia's involvement in the war. This allowed the transfer of large numbers of German troops from the East to the Western Front, resulting in the German March 1918 Offensive.
This offensive was successful, but the Allies rallied and drove the Germans back in their Hundred Days Offensive. Bulgaria was the first Central Power to sign an armistice—the Armistice of Salonica on 29 September 1918. On 30 October, the Ottoman Empire capitulated. On 4 November, the Austro-Hungarian empire agreed to the Armistice of Villa Giusti after being decisively defeated by Italy in the Battle of Vittorio Veneto. With its allies defeated, revolution at home, the military no longer willing to fight, Kaiser Wilhelm abdicated on 9 November and Germany signed an armistice on 11 November 1918. World War I was a significant turning point in the political, cultural and social climate of the world; the war and its immediate aftermath sparked numerous uprisings. The Big Four (Britain, the United States, It
William Badger was an American manufacturer and mill owner from Gilmanton, New Hampshire. He was elected Governor for two terms. Badger was born in New Hampshire. Educated at common school and at Gilmanton Academy, Badger worked after his school years to build a cotton cloth factory, a saw mill and a grist mill for his town. In 1804 Badger was made a trustee of Gilmanton Academy. Badger served as an aide to Governor John Langdon. In 1810 he was elected to the first of three consecutive terms as a member of the New Hampshire House of Representatives. Badger served as Associate Justice, Court of Common Pleas, as High Sheriff of Strafford County, New Hampshire, he was a Presidential Elector in the national elections of 1824, 1836 and 1844. In 1834 Badger won the gubernatorial election, he won the next term as well; as Governor, Badger called for eliminating a new idea for New Hampshire. He had to deal with the breakaway Indian Stream Republic. Badger encouraged the legislature to support President Andrew Jackson's successful efforts to do away with The Second Bank of the United States.
Badger tried to inject new life into the state militia by statute. Additional Information on William Badger from: Publications – A Guide to Likenesses of New Hampshire Officials and Governors on Public Display at the Legislative Office Building and the State House Concord, New Hampshire, to 1998 Compiled by Russell Bastedo, New Hampshire State Curator, 1998
Levi Woodbury was an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, a U. S. Senator, the 9th Governor of New Hampshire, cabinet member in three administrations. Born in Francestown, New Hampshire, he established a legal practice in Francestown in 1812. After serving in the New Hampshire Senate, he was appointed to the New Hampshire Supreme Court in 1817, he served as Governor of New Hampshire from 1823 to 1824 and represented New Hampshire in the Senate from 1825 to 1831, becoming affiliated with the Democratic Party of Andrew Jackson. He served as the United States Secretary of the Navy under President Jackson and as the United States Secretary of the Treasury under Jackson and President Martin Van Buren, he served another term representing New Hampshire in the Senate from 1841 to 1845, when he accepted President James K. Polk's appointment to the Supreme Court. Woodbury was the first Justice to have attended law school, he received significant support for the presidential nomination at the 1848 Democratic National Convention among New England delegates, but the nomination went to Lewis Cass of Michigan.
Woodbury served on the court until his death in 1851. Woodbury was born in the son of Mary and Peter Woodbury, he began his education at Atkinson Academy. He graduated from Dartmouth College, Phi Beta Kappa, in 1809 attended Tapping Reeve Law School in Litchfield and read law to be admitted to the New Hampshire Bar in 1812, he became the first Supreme Court justice to attend law school. He was in private practice in Francestown from 1812 to 1816, he joined the Freemasons. His education contributed to his early start in law, which led to his political positions, he began practicing law in his hometown. During his time in Francestown, he wrote the Hillsborough Resolves to defend the Madison administration for their decisions in the War of 1812, which marked the beginning of his political involvement. Following the publication of his defense, he gained the recognition he needed to receive an appointment to the state senate in 1816. In quick succession, he was appointed to the state supreme court a year and in 1823, he was elected as the Governor of New Hampshire.
During the time of his gubernatorial election, there was factionalism within the party. The caucus chose Samuel Dinsmoor as the candidate for governor, but an "irregular" public convention elected Woodbury as the other candidate. Woodbury defeated Dinsmoor by a wide margin, he did not make a lot of progress. He became a U. S. Senator from New Hampshire, during which time he served as the Chairman of the Senate Commerce Committee. Throughout Woodbury's political career, he was characterized as being independent and moderate, which some scholars interpret as indecisiveness and hesitancy. Woodbury was a clerk of the New Hampshire State Senate from 1816 to 1817, a Justice of New Hampshire Superior Court of Judicature from 1817 to 1823, he was Governor of New Hampshire from 1823 to 1824 and was Speaker of the New Hampshire House of Representatives, 1825. Woodbury served as a United States Senator from New Hampshire from 1825 to 1831. Elected to serve in New Hampshire State Senate in 1831, Woodbury did not take office due to his appointment as United States Secretary of the Navy under President Andrew Jackson, from 1831 to 1834.
At the beginning of this term, he was instrumental in the appointment of fellow New Hampshireman Edmund Roberts as special agent and envoy to the Far East. Woodbury served as Secretary of the Treasury under Jackson and Martin Van Buren from 1834 to 1841, served again as Senator from New Hampshire from 1841 to 1845, he was a Justice of the U. S. Supreme Court, 1845 to 1851; as a U. S. Senator, Woodbury was a dependable Jackson Democrat, President Jackson appointed him Secretary of the Navy and Secretary of the Treasury. Woodbury worked to end the Second Bank of the United States. In retrospect, the financial Panic of 1837 and the collapse of speculative land prices were legacies of Woodbury's tenure. After the Panic, Woodbury realised that the U. S. Treasury needed a more secure administration of its own funds than commercial banks supplied, he backed the act for an "Independent Treasury System" passed by Congress in 1840, it was repealed under the new administration the following year, but the foundation was laid for an independent U.
S. Treasury established in 1846, under President James K. Polk. Woodbury served as chairman of the U. S. Senate Committee on Finance during a Special Session of the 29th Congress, his ten-day chairmanship is the shortest on record. In the 1844 presidential election and the Jackson Democrats supported the Democrats' nomination of Polk. In that year, Woodbury delivered a Phi Beta Kappa Address at his alma mater, Dartmouth College, titled "Progress." The address discussed Thomas Cole's series of The Course of Empire. Woodbury believed that, unlike Cole's depiction of a cycle of rise and decline, in the United States there would only be a rise. On September 20, 1845, Polk gave Woodbury a recess appointment to the seat on the U. S. Supreme Court vacated by Joseph Story. Formally nominated on December 23, 1845, Woodbury was confirmed by the United States Senate on January 3, 1846, received his commission the same day, he was promoted as a candidate for president at the 1848 Democratic National Convention, his support was centered in New England.
He remained on the Cou
New Hampshire Senate
The New Hampshire Senate has been meeting since 1784. It is the upper house of the New Hampshire General Court, it consists of 24 members representing Senate districts based on population. As of December 5, 2018, there are 10 Republicans. New Hampshire House of Representatives New Hampshire Senate official website Project Vote Smart - State Senate of New Hampshire voter information
Browns Valley, Minnesota
Browns Valley is a city in Traverse County, United States, adjacent to the South Dakota border. The population was 589 at the 2010 census. Browns Valley lies along the Little Minnesota River between the northern end of Big Stone Lake and the southern end of Lake Traverse, separated from the Little Minnesota River by a low and narrow continental divide that skirts the northern edge of town; the city, both lakes, the river lie in the Traverse Gap, the bed of ancient, south-flowing Glacial River Warren, the outlet to Glacial Lake Agassiz which, when drained, became the valley of the north-flowing Red River of the North. Browns Valley was first settled in 1867 by Joseph R. Brown, named for him; the settlement was platted in 1878. A post office was established in the community in 1867 under the name Lake Traverse; the post office was renamed Browns Valley in 1872. Two properties in the city are listed on the National Register of Historic Places: the 1864 Fort Wadsworth Agency and Scout Headquarters Building within Sam Brown Memorial State Wayside and the 1916 Browns Valley Carnegie Library.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 0.79 square miles, all of it land. Browns Valley is rested in an old glacier path; the Browns Valley weather station records some of Minnesota's highest summer temperatures. Browns Valley Lies in the center of Traverse Gap, a valley and ancient riverbed; this valley is home to a continental divide. The divide is the southernmost point of the Northern Divide between the watersheds of the Arctic and the Atlantic Oceans; the area is home to Browns Valley Man, the oldest human remains found in Minnesota. The remains were found in carbon dated to about 9,000 years ago. Minnesota Highways 27 and 28 are two of the main routes in the community; as of the census of 2010, there were 589 people, 247 households, 141 families residing in the city. The population density was 745.6 inhabitants per square mile. There were 288 housing units at an average density of 364.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 75.2% White, 21.4% Native American, 0.5% Asian, 0.5% from other races, 2.4% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.7% of the population. There were 247 households of which 23.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 38.5% were married couples living together, 13.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.7% had a male householder with no wife present, 42.9% were non-families. 40.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 24.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.23 and the average family size was 2.97. The median age in the city was 48.3 years. 22.2% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 46.0% male and 54.0% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 690 people, 285 households, 171 families residing in the city; the population density was 878.5 people per square mile. There were 317 housing units at an average density of 403.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 82.61% White, 15.80% Native American, 0.43% Asian, 0.14% Pacific Islander, 0.14% from other races, 0.87% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.74% of the population. There were 285 households out of which 26.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.3% were married couples living together, 9.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 40.0% were non-families. 36.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 21.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.29 and the average family size was 3.02. In the city, the population was spread out with 24.5% under the age of 18, 7.4% from 18 to 24, 17.8% from 25 to 44, 19.3% from 45 to 64, 31.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 45 years. For every 100 females, there were 86.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 82.2 males. The median income for a household in the city was $26,563, the median income for a family was $30,208. Males had a median income of $25,500 versus $20,139 for females; the per capita income for the city was $15,062. About 10.3% of families and 14.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 16.5% of those under age 18 and 11.0% of those age 65 or over.
Air Chief Marshal Sir Charles Burnett, an officer in Royal Air Force and Royal Australian Air Force during both World Wars Osborne Cowles, basketball coach Charles M. Dale, Governor of New Hampshire Arthur C. Townley, politician In March 2007, Browns Valley was flooded from the north and west by the Little Minnesota River. 100 people had to be evacuated from a significant percentage of the town's population. The damage was significant enough to warrant a visit from Governor Tim Pawlenty and Congressman Collin Peterson. Official site of the City of Browns Valley, MN 56219 "Browns Valley, MN Spring 2007". Flooding. JOR Engineering, Inc. 2007-03-14. Retrieved 2007-05-10. Aerial photographs of March 2007 flooding of Traverse Gap, showing flooding of Browns Valley
Llewelyn Sherman Adams was an American politician, best known as White House Chief of Staff for President Dwight D. Eisenhower, the culmination of an 18-year political career that included a stint as Governor of New Hampshire, he lost his White House position in a scandal. Born in East Dover, Adams was educated in public schools in Providence, Rhode Island, graduating from Hope High School, he received an undergraduate degree from Dartmouth College, having taken time off for a six-month World War I stint in the United States Marine Corps. While at Dartmouth, Adams was a member of the New Hampshire Alpha chapter of the Sigma Alpha Epsilon fraternity, he went into the lumber business, first in Healdville, Vermont to a combined lumber and paper business in Lincoln, New Hampshire. He was involved in banking. Adams entered state politics in New Hampshire as a Republican legislator, he served a term in the United States House of Representatives, making a failed effort to capture the 1946 Republican gubernatorial nomination in New Hampshire.
He lost to incumbent Charles M. Dale. Adams won the governorship two years in 1948; when Adams took office as governor, New Hampshire was suffering post-war recession. He called for thrift in both personal and state expenditures. Retirees were a significant part of New Hampshire's population. In 1950 he formed a Reorganization Committee to recommend changes in state operations, he called for the legislature to act on the recommendations. Adams's clipped New Hampshire twang and calls for frugality made him a virtual poster boy for Republican balanced budget values of the time, he served as chairman of the U. S. Conference of Governors. Adams took charge of the Eisenhower campaign in the New Hampshire primary, winning all the delegates to the national convention, he campaigned for Eisenhower across the country, was Eisenhower's floor leader at the convention in battling against Senator Robert A. Taft, impressed Eisenhower with his hard work, mastery of detail, skill in political maneuvering, he became the campaign manager for the 1952 presidential campaign, where he was always at Eisenhower's side.
He was the obvious choice for White House Chief of Staff—and was the first person in this position to hold the explicit title of "Chief of Staff," which Eisenhower had copied from military practice. Eisenhower adopted the military model, which emphasizes the importance of the Chief of Staff in handling all of the paperwork and preliminary decisions. With rare exceptions, anyone who spoke with Eisenhower had to have Adams' prior approval. Adams took his role as Chief of Staff seriously; this alienated traditional Republican Party leaders. Adams was one of the most powerful men in Washington during the six years he served as Chief of Staff; because of Eisenhower's formalized staff structure, it appeared to many that he had virtual control over White House staff operations and domestic policy. The extent of internal strife between strong-willed personalities was chronicled in his 1961 memoir First Hand Report. Among the heated conflicts within the Eisenhower administration were the best method to handle flamboyant personalities such as U.
S. Senator Joseph McCarthy, whom Adams and Eisenhower decided to torpedo when McCarthy started attacking the U. S. Army. Adams was a frequent broker of such controversies. Adams was willing to make the partisan comments that Eisenhower stood aloof from, thus making Adams the main target of the Democrats. Adams stood with the liberal wing of the Republican Party, in opposition to the conservative wing of Taft and Barry Goldwater. Eisenhower depended upon him for the evaluation of candidates for top-level appointments. Adams handled much of the patronage and appointments that Eisenhower found boring and was in charge of firing people when he deemed it necessary. Movie critic Michael Medved wrote a book on Presidential aides called The Shadow Presidents, that stated Adams was the most powerful chief of staff in history, he told of a joke. Two Democrats were talking and one said "Wouldn't it be terrible if Eisenhower died and Nixon became President?" The other replied "Wouldn't it be terrible if Sherman Adams died and Eisenhower became President!"
He had a reputation for negativity, endorsing many submissions with a simple "No". This caused him to become known as "The Abominable No Man." Adams was forced to resign in 1958, when a House subcommittee revealed Adams had accepted an expensive vicuña overcoat and oriental rug from Bernard Goldfine, a Boston textile manufacturer, being investigated for Federal Trade Commission violations. Goldfine, who had business with the federal government, was cited for contempt of Congress when he refused to answer questions regarding his relationship with Adams; the story was first reported to the public by muckraking journalist Jack Anderson. Vice President Richard Nixon stated that he was assigned the onerous responsibility of telling Adams that he had to resign, he regretted the necessity, as Adams' career in politics ended and he went off "to operate a ski lodge" without any judicial findings. In the Nixon Interviews, Nixon argued that he was unable to fire the White House staffers involved in the Watergate