North Shore Mountains
The North Shore Mountains are a mountain range overlooking Vancouver in British Columbia, Canada. Their southernmost peaks are visible from most areas in Vancouver and form a distinctive backdrop for the city; the steep southern slopes of the North Shore Mountains limit the extent to which the mainland municipalities of Greater Vancouver's North Shore can grow. In many places on the North Shore, residential neighbourhoods abruptly end and rugged forested slopes begin; these forested slopes are crisscrossed by a large network of trails including the Baden-Powell Trail, the Howe Sound Crest Trail, the Binkert/Lions Trail and a wide variety of mountain biking trails. The North Shore Mountains are a small subrange of the Pacific Ranges, the southernmost grouping of the vast Coast Mountains, they are bounded on the south by Burrard Inlet, on the west and north-west by Howe Sound, on the north and north-east by the Garibaldi Ranges. To the east the bounds are defined by Indian Arm; the ridge running north from Mount Seymour has its own name, the Fannin Range, while the bulk of the range and most of the Howe Sound-flanking portion of it is known as the Britannia Range.
Although not high, these mountains are rugged and should not be underestimated. Severe weather conditions in the North Shore Mountains contrast with mild conditions in nearby Vancouver; this is true in winter, but in summer, large precipices are hidden close to popular hiking trails and it is easy to get lost, despite being in sight of the city. Those who venture into the North Shore Mountains for whatever reason should be well prepared at any time of year. Three deep valleys divide the North Shore Mountains; these are, in order from west to east: Capilano River valley The Lynn Headwaters Lynn Valley Seymour River valleyThe Capilano and Seymour rivers emanate from the massive GVRD watershed area. The watershed extends deep into the North Shore Mountains region, but is off-limits to all unauthorized human activities; the Lynn Headwaters, a deep cirque valley drained by Lynn Creek, is no longer part of the GVRD watershed and is now a popular Regional Park. There are two Provincial Parks in the area, Cypress Provincial Park and Mount Seymour Provincial Park.
Both feature reliable road access, downhill ski areas, extensive trail networks. Nearby Grouse Mountain features a downhill ski area and tourist attractions which are accessible by the Skyride, an aerial tramway. A popular hiking trail, the Grouse Grind, climbs up the steep flanks of Grouse Mountain from the tramway parking lot. Before the Grouse Mountain Skyride was built, a chairlift operated from Skyline Drive at the head of North Vancouver's Lonsdale Avenue, the ski area itself could be accessed via Mountain Highway, which now has a gate at its upper end in the Lynn Valley neighbourhood. In the Seymour valley, a paved access road called the Seymour Trailway winds for many kilometres into the mountains, it is used for recreation, for TV and film productions such as Stargate SG-1. There are dozens of individual mountains in the North Shore Mountains; the list below is incomplete. Sky Pilot Mountain Mount Hanover Deeks Peak Black Mountain – A forested summit overlooking Horseshoe Bay. Ski runs on the northern slopes are managed by Cypress Mountain Resort.
Hollyburn Mountain – A popular hiking destination. Known as Hollyburn Ridge and the location of an old alpine recreation community dating back to the early years of the 20th Century, it is the site of the only groomed cross-country ski trails in the Lower Mainland. Mount Strachan – Ski runs on the southern slopes are managed by Cypress Mountain Resort. Mount Fromme – A large forested summit dome seen but visited; this mountain is noted for the mountain biking trails on its south slopes. Grouse Mountain – Site of a popular ski area, the popular hiking trail Grouse Grind. Dam Mountain – Located directly west of Grouse Mountain with the hike from the Grouse lodge referred to as the "Snowshoe Grind". Goat Mountain – Another popular alpine hiking destination conveniently located near the top of the Grouse Mountain aerial tramway. Crown Mountain – An exposed granite pyramid ringed by sheer cliffs. Lynn Peak – A small forested mountain a popular hiking destination due to ease of access; the Needles – An isolated series of ridge-top summits north of Lynn Peak.
Coliseum Mountain – A remote alpine area consisting of a series of gentle granite exposures. Mount Burwell – A remote granite dome located at the limit of legal backcountry access. Cathedral Mountain – Among the tallest and most prominent of the North Shore Mountains, but off-limits due to its location within the Greater Vancouver watershed. Mount Seymour – Good trails and convenient access by road make Seymour a local classic hiking area. Downhill ski area in winter. Mount Elsay – A remote backcountry peak located beyond Seymour. Mount Bishop – A climbed peak in the remote northern region of Mt. Seymour Provincial Park; the Lions – Probably the most famous peaks in the North Shore Mountains. These mountains, a pair of twin granite domes, are visually distinctive and can be seen from much of the Greater Vancouver area. Mount Harvey – An isolated alpine peak located near the Lions. Brunswick Mountain – The highest of the North Shore Mountains, located north of Mount Harvey. Capilano Mountain – east of the headwaters of the Capilano River Britannia Range Fannin Range Geography
Hungary is a country in Central Europe. Spanning 93,030 square kilometres in the Carpathian Basin, it borders Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, Slovenia to the west. With about 10 million inhabitants, Hungary is a medium-sized member state of the European Union; the official language is Hungarian, the most spoken Uralic language in the world, among the few non-Indo-European languages to be spoken in Europe. Hungary's capital and largest city is Budapest; the territory of modern Hungary was for centuries inhabited by a succession of peoples, including Celts, Germanic tribes, West Slavs and the Avars. The foundations of the Hungarian state were established in the late ninth century CE by the Hungarian grand prince Árpád following the conquest of the Carpathian Basin, his great-grandson Stephen I ascended the throne in 1000, converting his realm to a Christian kingdom. By the 12th century, Hungary became a regional power, reaching its cultural and political height in the 15th century.
Following the Battle of Mohács in 1526, Hungary was occupied by the Ottoman Empire. It came under Habsburg rule at the turn of the 18th century, joined Austria to form the Austro–Hungarian Empire, a major European power; the Austro-Hungarian Empire collapsed after World War I, the subsequent Treaty of Trianon established Hungary's current borders, resulting in the loss of 71% of its territory, 58% of its population, 32% of ethnic Hungarians. Following the tumultuous interwar period, Hungary joined the Axis Powers in World War II, suffering significant damage and casualties. Hungary became a satellite state of the Soviet Union, which contributed to the establishment of a socialist republic spanning four decades; the country gained widespread international attention as a result of its 1956 revolution and the seminal opening of its previously-restricted border with Austria in 1989, which accelerated the collapse of the Eastern Bloc. On 23 October 1989, Hungary became a democratic parliamentary republic.
Hungary is an OECD high-income economy and has the world's 58th largest economy by PPP. It ranks 45th on the Human Development Index, owing in large part to its social security system, universal health care, tuition-free secondary education. Hungary's rich cultural history includes significant contributions to the arts, literature, sports and technology, it is the 13th most popular tourist destination in Europe, attracting 15.8 million international tourists in 2017, owing to attractions such as the largest thermal water cave system in the world, second largest thermal lake, the largest lake in Central Europe and the largest natural grasslands in Europe. Hungary's cultural and academic prominence classify it as a middle power in global affairs. Hungary joined the European Union in 2004 and has been part of the Schengen Area since 2007, it is a member of numerous international organizations, including the United Nations, NATO, WTO, World Bank, the AIIB, the Council of Europe, the Visegrád Group.
The "H" in the name of Hungary is most due to early founded historical associations with the Huns, who had settled Hungary prior to the Avars. The rest of the word comes from the Latinized form of Byzantine Greek Oungroi. According to an explanation,the Greek name was borrowed from Old Bulgarian ągrinŭ, in turn borrowed from Oghur-Turkic Onogur. Onogur was the collective name for the tribes who joined the Bulgar tribal confederacy that ruled the eastern parts of Hungary after the Avars; the Hungarian endonym is Magyarország, composed of ország. The word magyar is taken from the name of one of the seven major semi-nomadic Hungarian tribes, magyeri; the first element magy is from Proto-Ugric *mäńć-'man, person' found in the name of the Mansi people. The second element eri,'man, lineage', survives in Hungarian férj'husband', is cognate with Mari erge'son', Finnish archaic yrkä'young man'; the Roman Empire conquered the territory west of the Danube between 35 and 9 BC. From 9 BC to the end of the 4th century, Pannonia was part of the Roman Empire, located within part of Hungary's territory.
Around AD 41–54, a 500-strong cavalry unit created the settlement of Aquincum and a Roman legion of 6,000 men was stationed here by AD 89. A civil city grew in the neighbourhood of the military settlement and in AD 106 Aquincum became the focal point of the commercial life of this area and the capital city of the province of Pannonia Inferior; this area now corresponds to the Óbuda district of Budapest, with the Roman ruins now forming part of the modern Aquincum museum. Came the Huns, a Central Asian tribe who built a powerful empire. After Hunnish rule, the Germanic Ostrogoths and Gepids, the Avar Khaganate, had a presence in the Carpathian Basin. In the 9th century, East Francia, the First Bulgarian Empire and Great Moravia ruled the territory of the Carpathian Basin; the freshly unified Hungarians led by Árpád, settled in the Carpathian Basin starting in 895. According to linguistic evidence, they originated from an ancient Uralic-speaking population that inhabited the forested area between the Volga River and the Ural Mountains.
As a federation of united tribes, Hungary was established in 895, some 50 years after the division of the Carolingian Empire at the Treaty of Verdun in 843, before the unification of the Anglo-Saxon king
Warren G. Harding
Warren Gamaliel Harding was the 29th president of the United States from 1921 until his death in 1923. A member of the Republican Party, he was one of the most popular U. S. presidents to that point. After his death a number of scandals, such as Teapot Dome, came to light, as did his extramarital affair with Nan Britton, he is rated as one of the worst presidents in historical rankings. Harding lived in rural Ohio all his life, except; as a young man, he built it into a successful newspaper. In 1899, he was elected to the Ohio State Senate, he was defeated for governor in 1910, but was elected to the United States Senate in 1914. He ran for the Republican nomination for president in 1920, he was considered a long shot until after the convention began; the leading candidates could not gain the needed majority, the convention deadlocked. Harding's support grew until he was nominated on the tenth ballot, he conducted a front porch campaign, remaining for the most part in Marion and allowing the people to come to him, running on a theme of a return to normalcy of the pre-World War I period.
He won in a landslide over Democrat James M. Cox and Socialist Party candidate Eugene Debs and became the first sitting senator to be elected president. Harding appointed a number of well-regarded figures to his cabinet, including Andrew Mellon at Treasury, Herbert Hoover at the Department of Commerce, Charles Evans Hughes at the State Department. A major foreign policy achievement came with the Washington Naval Conference of 1921–1922, in which the world's major naval powers agreed on a naval limitations program that lasted a decade, his cabinet members Albert Fall and Harry Daugherty were each tried for corruption in office. Harding died of a heart attack in San Francisco while on a western tour, succeeded by Vice President Calvin Coolidge. Harding was born on November 1865, in Blooming Grove, Ohio. Nicknamed "Winnie" as a small child, Harding was the eldest of eight children born to George Tryon Harding and Phoebe Elizabeth Harding. Phoebe was a state-licensed midwife. Tryon taught school near Mount Gilead, Ohio.
Through apprenticeship, study and a year of medical school, Tryon became a doctor and started a small practice. Some of Harding's mother's ancestors were Dutch, including the well-known Van Kirk family. Harding had ancestors from England and Scotland, it was rumored by a political opponent in Blooming Grove that one of Harding's great-grandmothers was African American. His great-great grandfather Amos Harding claimed that a thief, caught in the act by the family, started the rumor in an attempt at extortion or revenge. In 2015, genetic testing of Harding's descendants determined, with more than a 95% chance of accuracy, that he lacked sub-Saharan African forebears within four generations. In 1870, the Harding family, who were abolitionists, moved to Caledonia, where Tryon acquired The Argus, a local weekly newspaper. At The Argus, from the age of 11, learned the basics of the newspaper business. In late 1879, at the age of 14, Harding enrolled at his father's alma mater – Ohio Central College in Iberia – where he proved an adept student.
He and a friend put out a small newspaper, the Iberia Spectator, during their final year at Ohio Central, intended to appeal to both college and town. During his final year, the Harding family moved to Marion, about 6 miles from Caledonia, when he graduated in 1882, he joined them there. In Harding's youth, the majority of the population still lived in small towns, he would spend much of his life in Marion, a small city in rural Ohio, would become associated with it. When Harding rose to high office, he made clear his love of Marion and its way of life, telling of the many young Marionites who had left and enjoyed success elsewhere, while suggesting that the man, once the "pride of the school", who had remained behind and become a janitor, was "the happiest one of the lot". Upon graduating, Harding had stints as a teacher and as an insurance man, made a brief attempt at studying law, he raised $300 in partnership with others to purchase a failing newspaper, The Marion Star, weakest of the growing city's three papers, its only daily.
The 18-year-old Harding used the railroad pass that came with the paper to attend the 1884 Republican National Convention, where he hobnobbed with better-known journalists and supported the presidential nominee, former Secretary of State James G. Blaine. Harding returned from Chicago to find. During the election campaign, Harding worked for the Marion Democratic Mirror and was annoyed at having to praise the Democratic presidential nominee, New York Governor Grover Cleveland, who won the election. Afterward, with the financial aid of his father, the budding newspaperman redeemed the paper. Through the years of the 1880s, Harding built the Star; the city of Marion tended to vote Republican. Accordingly, Harding adopted a tempered editorial stance, declaring the daily Star nonpartisan and circulating a weekly edition, moderate Republican; this policy put the town's Republican weekly out of business. According to his biographer, Andrew Sinclair: The success of Harding with the Star was in the model of Horatio Alger.
He started with nothing, t
Stanley Park is a 405-hectare public park that borders the downtown of Vancouver in British Columbia, Canada and is entirely surrounded by waters of Vancouver Harbour and English Bay. The park was one of the first areas to be explored in the city; the land was used by Indigenous peoples for thousands of years before British Columbia was colonized by the British during the 1858 Fraser Canyon Gold Rush. For many years after colonization, the future park with its abundant resources would be home to Non-Indigenous settlers; the land was turned into Vancouver's first park when the city incorporated in 1886. It was named after Lord Stanley, 16th Earl of Derby, a British politician, appointed Governor General. Unlike other large urban parks, Stanley Park is not the creation of a landscape architect, but rather the evolution of a forest and urban space over many years. Most of the manmade structures present in the park were built between 1911 and 1937 under the influence of superintendent W. S. Rawlings.
Additional attractions, such as a polar bear exhibit and miniature train, were added in the post-war period. Much of the park remains as densely forested as it was in the late 1800s, with about a half million trees, some of which stand as tall as 76 metres and are hundreds of years old. Thousands of trees were lost after three major windstorms that took place in the past 100 years, the last in 2006. Significant effort was put into constructing the near-century-old Vancouver Seawall, which can draw thousands of people to the park in the summer; the park features forest trails, lakes, children's play areas, the Vancouver Aquarium, among many other attractions. On June 18, 2014, Stanley Park was named "top park in the entire world" by TripAdvisor, based on reviews submitted. Archaeological evidence suggests a human presence in the park dating back more than 3,000 years; the area is the traditional territory of different coastal indigenous peoples. From the Burrard Inlet and Howe Sound regions, Squamish Nation had a large village in the park.
From the lower Fraser River area, Musqueam Nation used its natural resources. Where Lumberman's Arch is now, there once was a large village called Whoi Whoi, or Xwayxway meaning place of masks. One longhouse, built from cedar poles and slabs, was measured at 200 feet long by 60 feet wide; these houses were occupied by large extended families living in different quadrants of the house. The larger houses were used for ceremonial potlatchs where a host would invite guests to witness and participate in ceremonies and the giving away of property. Another settlement was further west along the same shore; this place was called meaning high bank. The site of Chaythoos is noted on a brass plaque placed on the lowlands east of Prospect Point commemorating the park's centennial. Both sites were occupied in 1888, when some residents were forcefully removed to allow a road to be constructed around the park, their midden was used for construction material; the popular landmark Siwash Rock, located near present-day Third Beach, was once called Slahkayulsh meaning he is standing up.
In the oral history, a fisherman was transformed into this rock by three powerful brothers as punishment for his immorality. In 2010, the chief of the Squamish Nation proposed renaming Stanley Park as Xwayxway Park after the large village once located in the area; the first European explorations of the peninsula occurred with Spanish Captain José María Narváez and British Captain George Vancouver. In A Voyage of Discovery, Vancouver describes the area as “an island... with a smaller island Deadman's Island lying before it,” suggesting that it was surrounded by water, at least at high tide. Captain Vancouver wrote about meeting the people living there:Here we were met by about fifty in canoes, who conducted themselves with great decorum and civility, presenting us with several fish cooked and undressed of a sort resembling smelt; these good people, finding we were inclined to make some return for their hospitality, showed much understanding in preferring iron to copper. According to historians, the natives first saw Captain Vancouver's ship from Chaythoos, a location in the future park that in today's terms lay just east of the Lions Gate Bridge.
Speaking about this event in a conversation with archivist Major Matthews, Andy Paull, whose family lived in the area, confirms the account given by Captain Vancouver:As Vancouver came through the First Narrows, the in their canoes threw these feathers in great handfuls before him. They would of course rise in the air, drift along, fall to the surface of the water, where they would rest for quite a time, it must have been a pretty scene, duly impressed Captain Vancouver, for he speaks most of the reception he was accorded. No significant contact with inhabitants in the area was recorded for decades, until around the time of the Crimean War. British admirals arranged with Chief Joe Capilano that if there was an invasion, the British would defend the south shore of Burrard Inlet and the Squamish would defend the north; the British gave his men 60 muskets. Although the attack anticipated by the British never came, the guns were used by the Squamish to repel an attack by an indigenous raid from the Euclataws.
Stanley Park was not attacked, but this was when it started to be thought of as a strategic military position. The peninsula was a popular place for gathering traditional food and materials in the 1800s, but it started to see more activity after the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush in 1858
Coal Harbour is the name for a section of Burrard Inlet lying between Vancouver, Canada's downtown peninsula and the Brockton Peninsula of Stanley Park. It has now become the name of the neighbourhood adjacent to its southern shoreline. Coal Harbour is used to designate the new official neighbourhood of the City of Vancouver bounded by Burrard Street and Pender near the Financial District to West Georgia Street near the West End in the south to Stanley Park in the north; the neighbourhood consists of numerous high-rise residential apartment and condo towers with luxury townhome podiums catering to the upper-crust. The northwestern section near Stanley Park features picturesque parkland, private marinas, several rowing and boating clubs, high-end shoppes and restaurants, a community centre designed by architect Gregory Henriquez. To the east is Deadman's Island, the site of the naval station and museum HMCS Discovery, where the harbour itself opens up to the Burrard Inlet. Towards the Financial District in the southeast, the neighbourhood is dominated by high-rise office buildings and numerous apartment towers.
South lies Vancouver's Luxury Zone along Alberni Street. Coal Harbour is home to Vancouver Harbour Water Aerodrome, located a few blocks from Canada Place and the Vancouver Convention Centre. Within the harbour is a floating gas station for marine vessels; the six floating homes in Coal Harbour, along with the twelve across town in False Creek are the only legal floating homes within the city of Vancouver. The discovery of coal in the harbour in 1862 inspired the name. In the days when the area along West Pender Street was an upper-class residential district, Coal Harbour was known as Blueblood Alley because of the many large mansions along it. Notable inhabitants and developments in Coal Harbour's past include: Squamish settlements, notably on Deadman Island, Brockton Point and Lumberman's Arch. In 1862 minor exploration began of the visible coal seams on the flank of the bluff overlooking the harbour, first noted by Captain Vancouver; this bluff was where most of West Hastings Street is today.
The coal was low-grade, but its occurrence in clays similar to porcelain-making clays of the English Midlands led to the staking of what is known as the Brickmaker's Claim by the Three Greenhorns. The Brickmaker's Claim is now the West End. No clay was mined nor porcelain made, but one of the Greenhorns was the developer of the clay mine and brickworks at Clayburn on Sumas Mountain near Abbotsford. A settlement of Kanakas near today's Bayshore Inn and the eastern end of Lost Lagoon was known as the Kanaka Rancherie, or the Cherry Orchard due to its many cherry trees; the area is now called Devonian Harbour Park, memorial cherry trees have been planted there in memory of AIDS victims. The Vancouver Boating Club, now Vancouver Rowing Club, from 1887 the Pacific Lumber Mill Company in the late 19th century The Royal Vancouver Yacht Club Denman Arena was built in 1911 to house the Vancouver Millionaires professional ice hockey club on the Kanakas Ranch site at Georgia and Denman; the Arena would host the only victory by a Vancouver team of the Stanley Cup in 1915.
The Denman Auditorium was built adjacent to the Arena in 1927 for smaller events. The Arena was destroyed by fire in 1936; the Auditorium remained in use until its demolition in 1959. Boeing Canada's Boat Factory beginning in the 1910s; the Vancouver Shipyards through the 1930s the CP Rail Station & Canadian Pacific Steamships passenger terminal/dock The Royal Canadian Air Force began work on a seaplane base and reconnaissance station at Coal Harbour in 1940. As part of the war effort, the RCAF turned over its direction finding and intercept facility to the Royal Canadian Navy. Due to an organizational change in 1942, the RCN ratings stationed at Coal Harbour and the ones from Ucluelet were withdrawn and moved to Gordon Head near Victoria. Harbour Ferries, a tour-boat and water-taxi service, continues to operate from docks in Coal Harbour Howard Hughes, who resided in the top two floors of the Bayshore Inn for 5 months and 28 days in the 1970s. Denman Arena, an indoor ice arena that stood from 1911 to 1936.
Trader Vic's, for many years held to be Vancouver's best night-out, was launched in a tiki-style hut next to the Bayshore. HMCS Discovery, a naval base on Deadman Island. In 1993 Vancouver City Council froze applications for development of the Marathon Realty lands between Canada Place and the Bayshore Hotel; the company was required to reach an agreement with The First Narrows Floating Co-op, representing floating home and live-aboard boat residents in pre existing marinas, for their inclusion in the redevelopment of the waterfront. Negotiations concluded with the guarantee of space for residents in Coal Harbour Marina on extended leases. Official Coal Harbour Website Coal Harbour Community Centre Several historical photos of Coal Harbour City of Vancouver Archives VancouverHistory.ca for historical references Coal Harbour Residents Association Map of Coal Harbour from Google Maps
Vienna is the federal capital and largest city of Austria, one of the nine states of Austria. Vienna is Austria's primate city, with a population of about 1.9 million, its cultural and political centre. It is the 7th-largest city by population within city limits in the European Union; until the beginning of the 20th century, it was the largest German-speaking city in the world, before the splitting of the Austro-Hungarian Empire in World War I, the city had 2 million inhabitants. Today, it has the second largest number of German speakers after Berlin. Vienna is host to many major international organizations, including the United Nations and OPEC; the city is located in the eastern part of Austria and is close to the borders of the Czech Republic and Hungary. These regions work together in a European Centrope border region. Along with nearby Bratislava, Vienna forms a metropolitan region with 3 million inhabitants. In 2001, the city centre was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site. In July 2017 it was moved to the list of World Heritage in Danger.
Apart from being regarded as the City of Music because of its musical legacy, Vienna is said to be "The City of Dreams" because it was home to the world's first psychoanalyst – Sigmund Freud. The city's roots lie in early Celtic and Roman settlements that transformed into a Medieval and Baroque city, the capital of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, it is well known for having played an essential role as a leading European music centre, from the great age of Viennese Classicism through the early part of the 20th century. The historic centre of Vienna is rich in architectural ensembles, including Baroque castles and gardens, the late-19th-century Ringstraße lined with grand buildings and parks. Vienna is known for its high quality of life. In a 2005 study of 127 world cities, the Economist Intelligence Unit ranked the city first for the world's most liveable cities. Between 2011 and 2015, Vienna was ranked second, behind Melbourne. In 2018, it replaced Melbourne as the number one spot. For ten consecutive years, the human-resource-consulting firm Mercer ranked Vienna first in its annual "Quality of Living" survey of hundreds of cities around the world.
Monocle's 2015 "Quality of Life Survey" ranked Vienna second on a list of the top 25 cities in the world "to make a base within."The UN-Habitat classified Vienna as the most prosperous city in the world in 2012/2013. The city was ranked 1st globally for its culture of innovation in 2007 and 2008, sixth globally in the 2014 Innovation Cities Index, which analyzed 162 indicators in covering three areas: culture and markets. Vienna hosts urban planning conferences and is used as a case study by urban planners. Between 2005 and 2010, Vienna was the world's number-one destination for international congresses and conventions, it attracts over 6.8 million tourists a year. The English name Vienna is borrowed from the homonymous Italian version of the city's name or the French Vienne; the etymology of the city's name is still subject to scholarly dispute. Some claim that the name comes from Vedunia, meaning "forest stream", which subsequently produced the Old High German Uuenia, the New High German Wien and its dialectal variant Wean.
Others believe that the name comes from the Roman settlement name of Celtic extraction Vindobona meaning "fair village, white settlement" from Celtic roots, vindo-, meaning "bright" or "fair" – as in the Irish fionn and the Welsh gwyn –, -bona "village, settlement". The Celtic word Vindos may reflect a widespread prehistorical cult of a Celtic God. A variant of this Celtic name could be preserved in the Czech and Polish names of the city and in that of the city's district Wieden; the name of the city in Hungarian, Serbo-Croatian and Ottoman Turkish has a different Slavonic origin, referred to an Avar fort in the area. Slovene-speakers call the city Dunaj, which in other Central European Slavic languages means the Danube River, on which the city stands. Evidence has been found of continuous habitation in the Vienna area since 500 BC, when Celts settled the site on the Danube River. In 15 BC the Romans fortified the frontier city they called Vindobona to guard the empire against Germanic tribes to the north.
Close ties with other Celtic peoples continued through the ages. The Irish monk Saint Colman is buried in Melk Abbey and Saint Fergil served as Bishop of Salzburg for forty years. Irish Benedictines founded twelfth-century monastic settlements. Evidence of these ties persists in the form of Vienna's great Schottenstift monastery, once home to many Irish monks. In 976 Leopold I of Babenberg became count of the Eastern March, a 60-mile district centering on the Danube on the eastern frontier of Bavaria; this initial district grew into the duchy of Austria. Each succeeding Babenberg ruler expanded the march east along the Danube encompassing Vienna and the lands east. In 1145 Duke Henry II Jasomirgott moved the Babenberg family residence from Klosterneuburg in Lower Austria to Vienna. From that time, Vienna remained the center of the Babenberg dynasty. In 1440 Vienna became the resident city of the Habsburg dynasty, it grew to become the de facto capital of the Holy Roman Empire in 1437 and a cultural centre for arts and science and fine cuisine.
Hungary occupied the city between 1485 and 1490. In the 16th and 1
For the underwater mud volcano, see Maquinna. Maquinna was the chief of the Nuu-chah-nulth people of Nootka Sound, during the heyday of the maritime fur trade in the 1780s and 1790s on the Pacific Northwest Coast; the name means "possessor of pebbles". His people are today known as the Mowachaht and reside today with their kin, the Muchalaht, at Gold River, British Columbia, Canada. Maquinna was a powerful chief whose summer coastal village, became the first important anchorage in the European jockeying for power and commerce as the era of the maritime fur trade began. Yuquot became known as Friendly Cove after the British explorer Captain James Cook visited in 1778. Cook did not record the name of the chief of Yuquot, who may not have been Maquinna in 1778 though writers have assumed it was. Imperial Spain had sent two voyages to the region before Cook's visit, including Juan Pérez, who in 1774 had anchored in or near the entrance of Nootka Sound. In response to Russian activity in Alaska and the increasing visits by British fur-traders, which claimed the coast from Mexico to Alaska, asserted its authority by launching further voyages to the Pacific Northwest, including scientific and surveying expeditions.
In 1788, John Meares explored Nootka Sound and the neighboring coasts and claimed to have bought some land from Maquinna, where he built a trading post. In 1789, Esteban José Martínez of the Spanish Navy claimed Nootka Sound for Spain, he built Fort San Miguel and a settlement called Santa Cruz de Nuca. Ensuing events led to Martínez's seizure of the British subject James Colnett and several British ships, which provoked an international episode known as the Nootka Crisis; the Spanish settlement and fort were abandoned at the end of 1789 and rebuilt one year in 1790, by Francisco de Eliza and Pere d'Alberní i Teixidor. Both were abandoned in 1795. Maquinna and his people reoccupied their coastal village. Maquinna played a key role in relations between the Spanish envoy, Juan Francisco de la Bodega y Quadra, his British counterpart, Captain George Vancouver, who negotiated the settlement of the Nootka affair and enjoyed Maquinna's hospitality at length; the title by which he is described, "Hyas Tyee", to find its way into the vocabulary of the Chinook Jargon, is the same as that used for king.
One story tells how he and his brother, performed a masquerade for Vancouver and Bodega y Quadra in which the noble brothers acted out a pantomime of European dress and manners, improvising mock-Spanish and mock-English dialogue, all set in the customary style of the great potlatch theatre-dance culture of the Northwest Coast. Maquinna had an army of 300–400 men. Relations were not always easy. Callicum expressed his anger at the Spanish seizure of British ships in 1789 and was shot dead by Esteban José Martínez or one of Martínez's sailors. Maquinna worshipped at the Yuquot Whalers Shrine, performing ritual purification to gain spiritual strength to hunt whales and attract drift whales to his beaches. Maquinna is notable for having kept European slaves on a number of occasions; the most detailed account is told in the writings of John R. Jewitt, one of two slaves kept for several years after the crew of the ship Boston was massacred by Maquinna and his men. A Narrative of the Adventures and Sufferings of John R. Jewitt, only survivor of the crew of the ship Boston, during a captivity of nearly three years among the savages of Nootka Sound: with an account of the manners, mode of living, religious opinions of the natives is one of the first published glimpses into the social and cultural life of the Pacific Northwest peoples.
Jewitt refers to Maquinna throughout as "king" and those beneath him as "chiefs". Maquinna required Jewitt to learn the Nuu-chah-nulth language, told him that the ship Boston was taken in response to several depredations committed by earlier American and Spanish visitors; the Narrative describes an earlier, less fortunate, group of European slaves who were sentenced to death by Maquinna after they attempted to escape to the lands of the Tla-o-qui-aht whose chief was Maquinna's rival, Wickaninnish. The one slave who had not tried to escape was sold to Chief Wickaninnish and died shortly after hearing of the taking of the Boston. Maquinna has been memorialized in various ways: Maquinna Marine Provincial Park which contains Hot Springs Cove. Maquinna Elementary School in Port Alberni. Chief Maquinna Elementary School in Vancouver Maquinna is an active submarine mud volcano located 16-18 kilometers west of Vancouver Island. Biography at the Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online, by Robin Fisher On-line original edition of The Adventures and Sufferings of John R. Jewitt Mowachaht-Muchalaht First Nation Webpage First Approaches to the North West Coast, Derek Pethick, University of Washington Press, July 1977 The Nootka Connection: The Northwest Coast, Derek Pethick, University of Washington Press 1980 British Columbia Chronicle, Vol I: Adventures by Sea and Land, G.
P. V. Akrigg