Mayor of London
The Mayor of London is the executive of the Greater London Authority. The current Mayor is Sadiq Khan, who took up office on 9 May 2016; the position was held by Ken Livingstone from the creation of the role on 4 May 2000, until he was defeated in May 2008 by Boris Johnson, who served two terms before being succeeded by Khan. The role, created in 2000 after the London devolution referendum in 1998, was the first directly elected mayor in the United Kingdom; the Mayor is scrutinised by the London Assembly and, supported by their Mayoral cabinet, directs the entirety of Greater London, including the City of London. Each London Borough has a ceremonial Mayor or, in Hackney, Lewisham and Tower Hamlets, an elected Mayor; the Greater London Council, the elected government for Greater London, was abolished in 1986 by the Local Government Act 1985. Strategic functions were split off to various joint arrangements. Londoners voted in a referendum in 1998 to create a new governance structure for Greater London.
The directly elected Mayor of London was created by the Greater London Authority Act 1999 in 2000 as part of the reforms. The Mayor is elected by the supplementary vote method for a fixed term of four years, with elections taking place in May; as with most elected posts in the United Kingdom, there is a deposit, in this case of £10,000, returnable on the candidate's winning at least 5% of the first-choice votes cast. The most recent London mayoral election was held on 5 May 2016; the results were announced on 7 May at 00:30 a.m. after British television news channel Sky News had announced Sadiq Khan as the winner hours earlier. Sadiq Khan, a member of the Labour Party, is the first Muslim to be elected Mayor of London. Incumbent Mayor Boris Johnson did not run for reelection for a third term in office, as he had been elected the Member of Parliament for the Conservative Party in Uxbridge and South Ruislip in the 2015 general election. Timeline Most powers are derived from the Greater London Authority Act 1999, with additional functions coming from the Greater London Authority Act 2007, the Localism Act 2011 and Police Reform and Social Responsibility Act 2011.
The main functions are: Strategic planning, including housing, waste management, the environment and production of the London Plan Refuse or permit planning permission on strategic grounds Transport policy, delivered by functional body Transport for London Fire and emergency planning, delivered by functional body London Fire and Emergency Planning Authority Policing and crime policy, delivered by functional body Mayor's Office for Policing and Crime Economic development, delivered directly by the Greater London Authority through subsidiary company GLA Land and Property Power to create development corporations, such as the London Legacy Development CorporationThe remaining local government functions are performed by the London borough councils. There is some overlap, for example the borough councils are responsible for waste management, but the mayor is required to produce a waste management strategy. In 2010, the Mayor launched an initiative in partnership with the Multi-academy Trust AET to transform schools across London.
This led to the establishment of London Academies Enterprise Trust, intended to be a group of ten academies, but it only reached a group of four before the Mayor withdrew in 2013. Initiatives taken by Ken Livingstone as Mayor of London included the London congestion charge on private vehicles using city centre London on weekdays, the creation of the London Climate Change Agency, the London Energy Partnership and the founding of the international Large Cities Climate Leadership Group, now known as C40 Cities Climate Leadership Group; the congestion charge led to many new buses being introduced across London. In August 2003, Livingstone oversaw the introduction of the Oyster card electronic ticketing system for Transport for London services, they have included the London Partnerships Register, a voluntary scheme without legal force for same sex couples to register their partnership, paved the way for the introduction by the United Kingdom Parliament of civil partnerships. Unlike civil partnerships, the London Partnerships Register was open to heterosexual couples who favour a public commitment other than marriage.
As Mayor of London, Ken Livingstone was a supporter of the London Olympics in 2012, is known to encourage sport in London. However, Livingstone, in a Mayoral election debate on the BBC's Question Time in April 2008 did state that the primary reason he supported the Olympic bid, was to secure funding for the redevelopment of the East End of London. In July 2007, he brought the Tour de France cycle race to London. In May 2008, Boris Johnson introduced a new transport safety initiative to put 440 high visibility police officers on bus hubs, the immediate vicinity. A ban on alcohol on underground, Docklands Light Railway, tram services and stations across the capital was announced. In May 2008, he announced the closure of The Londoner newspaper, saving £2.9 million. A percentage of this saving will be spent on planting 10,000 new street trees. In 2010, he extended the coverage of Oyster card electronic ticketing to all National Rail overground train services. In 2010, he opened a cycle hire scheme with 5,000 bicycles available for hire across London.
Although initiated by his predecessor, Ken Livingstone, the scheme acquired the nickname of
Religious conversion is the adoption of a set of beliefs identified with one particular religious denomination to the exclusion of others. Thus "religious conversion" would describe the abandoning of adherence to one denomination and affiliating with another; this might be from one to another denomination within the same religion, for example, from Baptist to Catholic Christianity or from Shi’a to Sunni Islam. In some cases, religious conversion "marks a transformation of religious identity and is symbolized by special rituals". People convert to a different religion for various reasons, including active conversion by free choice due to a change in beliefs, secondary conversion, deathbed conversion, conversion for convenience, marital conversion, forced conversion. Conversion or reaffiliation for convenience is an insincere act, sometimes for trivial reasons such as a parent converting to enable a child to be admitted to a good school associated with a religion, or a person adopting a religion more in keeping with the social class they aspire to.
When people marry, one spouse may convert to the religion of the other. Forced conversion is adoption of a different religion under duress; the convert may secretly retain the previous beliefs and continue, with the practices of the original religion, while outwardly maintaining the forms of the new religion. Over generations a family forced against their will to convert may wholeheartedly adopt the new religion. Proselytism is the act of attempting to convert by persuasion another individual from a different religion or belief system.. Apostate is a term used by members of a religion or denomination to refer to someone who has left that religion or denomination. In sharing their faith with others, Bahá'ís are cautioned to "obtain a hearing" – meaning to make sure the person they are proposing to teach is open to hearing what they have to say. "Bahá'í pioneers", rather than attempting to supplant the cultural underpinnings of the people in their adopted communities, are encouraged to integrate into the society and apply Bahá'í principles in living and working with their neighbors.
Bahá'ís recognize the divine origins of all revealed religion, believe that these religions occurred sequentially as part of a divine plan, with each new revelation superseding and fulfilling that of its predecessors. Bahá'ís regard their own faith as the most recent, believe its teachings – which are centered around the principle of the oneness of humanity – are most suited to meeting the needs of a global community. In most countries conversion is a simple matter of filling out a card stating a declaration of belief; this includes acknowledgement of Bahá'u'llah – the Founder of the Faith – as the Messenger of God for this age and acceptance of his teachings, intention to be obedient to the institutions and laws he established. Conversion to the Bahá'í Faith carries with it an explicit belief in the common foundation of all revealed religion, a commitment to the unity of mankind, active service to the community at large in areas that will foster unity and concord. Since the Bahá'í Faith has no clergy, converts are encouraged to be active in all aspects of community life.
A recent convert may be elected to serve on a local Spiritual Assembly – the guiding Bahá'í institution at the community level. Within Christianity conversion refers variously to three different phenomena: a person becoming Christian, not Christian. Conversion to Christianity is the religious conversion of a non-Christian person to some form of Christianity; some Christian sects require full conversion for new members regardless of any history in other Christian sects, or from certain other sects. The exact requirements vary between different denominations. Baptism is traditionally seen as a sacrament of admission to Christianity. Christian baptism has some parallels with Jewish immersion by mikvah. In the New Testament, Jesus commanded his disciples in the Great Commission to "go and make disciples of all nations". Evangelization—sharing the Gospel message or "Good News" in deed and word, is an expectation of Christians; this table summarizes three Protestant beliefs. Much of the theology of Latter Day Saint baptism was established during the early Latter Day Saint movement founded by Joseph Smith.
According to this theology, baptism must be by immersion, for the remission of sins, occurs after one has shown faith and repentance. Mormon baptism does not purport to remit any sins other than personal ones, as adherents do not believe in original sin. Latter Day Saints baptisms occur only after an "age of accountability", defined as the age of eight years; the theology thus rejects infant baptism. In addition, Latter Day Saint theology requires that baptism may only be performed with one, called and ordained by God with priesthood authority; because the churches of the Latter Day Saint movement operate under a lay priesthood, children raised in a Mormon family are baptized by a father or close male friend or family member who has achieved the office of priest, conferred upon worthy male members at least 16 years old in the LDS Church. Baptism is seen as symbolic both of Jesus' death and resurrection and is symbolic of the baptized individual putting off of the natural or sinful man and becoming spiritually reborn as a disciple of Jesus.
Membership into a Latter Day Saint church is granted only by baptism whether or
Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti was President of Iraq from 16 July 1979 until 9 April 2003. A leading member of the revolutionary Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party, the Baghdad-based Ba'ath Party and its regional organization the Iraqi Ba'ath Party—which espoused Ba'athism, a mix of Arab nationalism and socialism—Saddam played a key role in the 1968 coup that brought the party to power in Iraq; as vice president under the ailing General Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr, at a time when many groups were considered capable of overthrowing the government, Saddam created security forces through which he controlled conflicts between the government and the armed forces. In the early 1970s, Saddam nationalized oil and foreign banks leaving the system insolvent due to the Iran–Iraq War, the Gulf War, UN sanctions. Through the 1970s, Saddam cemented his authority over the apparatus of government as oil money helped Iraq's economy to grow at a rapid pace. Positions of power in the country were filled with Sunni Arabs, a minority that made up only a fifth of the population.
Saddam formally rose to power in 1979, although he had been the de facto head of Iraq for several years. He suppressed several movements Shi'a and Kurdish movements which sought to overthrow the government or gain independence and maintained power during the Iran–Iraq War and the Gulf War. Whereas some in the Arab world lauded Saddam for opposing the United States and attacking Israel, he was condemned for the brutality of his dictatorship; the total number of Iraqis killed by the security services of Saddam's government in various purges and genocides is conservatively estimated to be 250,000, or liberally estimated at 1.5 million. Saddam's invasions of Iran and Kuwait resulted in hundreds of thousands of deaths, he acquired the title "Butcher of Baghdad". In 2003, a coalition led by the United States invaded Iraq to depose Saddam, in which U. S. President George W. Bush and British Prime Minister Tony Blair falsely accused him of possessing weapons of mass destruction and having ties to al-Qaeda.
Saddam's Ba'ath party was disbanded and elections were held. Following his capture on 13 December 2003, the trial of Saddam took place under the Iraqi Interim Government. On 5 November 2006, Saddam was convicted by an Iraqi court of crimes against humanity related to the 1982 killing of 148 Iraqi Shi'a, sentenced to death by hanging, he was executed on 30 December 2006. Before he was born, cancer killed both Saddam's brother; these deaths so depressed Saddam's mother that she attempted to abort her pregnancy and commit suicide. When her son was born, Sabha "would have nothing to do with him", Saddam was taken in by an uncle, his mother remarried, Saddam gained three half-brothers through this marriage. His stepfather, Ibrahim al-Hassan, treated Saddam harshly after his return. At about age 10, Saddam fled the family and returned to live in Baghdad with his uncle Kharaillah Talfah. Talfah, the father of Saddam's future wife, was a devout Sunni Muslim and a veteran of the 1941 Anglo-Iraqi War between Iraqi nationalists and the United Kingdom, which remained a major colonial power in the region.
In his life relatives from his native Tikrit became some of his closest advisors and supporters. Under the guidance of his uncle he attended a nationalistic high school in Baghdad. After secondary school Saddam studied at an Iraqi law school for three years, dropping out in 1957 at the age of 20 to join the revolutionary pan-Arab Ba'ath Party, of which his uncle was a supporter. During this time, Saddam supported himself as a secondary school teacher. Revolutionary sentiment was characteristic throughout the Middle East. In Iraq progressives and socialists assailed traditional political elites. Moreover, the pan-Arab nationalism of Gamal Abdel Nasser in Egypt profoundly influenced young Ba'athists like Saddam; the rise of Nasser foreshadowed a wave of revolutions throughout the Middle East in the 1950s and 1960s, with the collapse of the monarchies of Iraq and Libya. Nasser inspired nationalists throughout the Middle East by fighting the British and the French during the Suez Crisis of 1956, modernizing Egypt, uniting the Arab world politically.
In 1958, a year after Saddam had joined the Ba'ath party, army officers led by General Abd al-Karim Qasim overthrew Faisal II of Iraq in the 14 July Revolution. Of the 16 members of Qasim's cabinet, 12 were Ba'ath Party members. To strengthen his own position within the government, Qasim created an alliance with the Iraqi Communist Party, opposed to any notion of pan-Arabism; that year, the Ba'ath Party leadership was planning to assassinate Qasim. Saddam was a leading member of the operation. At the time, the Ba'ath Party was more of an ideological experiment than a strong anti-government fighting machine; the majority of its members were either educated professionals or students, Saddam fit the bill. The choice of Saddam was, according to historian Con Coughlin, "hardly surprising"; the idea of assassinating Qasim may have been Nasser's, there is speculation that some of those who participated in the operation received training in Damascus, part of the UAR. However, "no evidence has been produced to implicate Nasser directly in the plot."
The assassination attempt was conceived as revenge for communist massacres that killed h
2015 Labour Party (UK) leadership election
The 2015 Labour Party leadership election was won by Jeremy Corbyn with a landslide victory. The election was triggered by the resignation of Ed Miliband as Leader of the Labour Party on 8 May 2015, following the party's defeat at the 2015 general election. Harriet Harman, the Deputy Leader, became Acting Leader but announced that she would stand down after the leadership election. Four candidates were nominated to stand in the election: Andy Burnham, Yvette Cooper, Jeremy Corbyn, Liz Kendall; the voting process began on Friday 14 August 2015 and closed on Thursday 10 September 2015, the results were announced on Saturday 12 September 2015. Voting was by Labour Party members and registered and affiliated supporters, using the alternative vote system. Support for Corbyn, who entered the race as the dark horse candidate, the release of opinion polls which showed him leading the race, led to high-profile interventions by a number of prominent Labour figures including Gordon Brown, Tony Blair, Jack Straw, David Miliband, Alastair Campbell, among others, many of whom argued that Corbyn's election as leader would leave the party unelectable.
In the event, Corbyn was elected in a landslide in the first round, with 59.5% of the votes, winning in all three sections of the ballot. Less than a year the party headed into a second leadership election, where Corbyn again won in a landslide victory with an increased share of the vote. Corbyn subsequently led Labour into the 2017 general election, in which Labour gained 30 seats - though fell short of an overall victory; the leadership election, triggered by Ed Miliband's resignation, took place under the reformed rules adopted from the proposals of the February 2014 Collins Report, led by Ray Collins, Baron Collins of Highbury. The plan entailed a shorter election than the one that took place in 2010, with a new leader being in place before Labour's party conference in September 2015; the review changed the way. Under the former system, a three-way electoral college chose the leader, with one-third weight given to the votes of the Parliamentary Labour Party, one-third to individual Labour Party members, one third to the trade union and affiliated societies sections.
Following the Collins review, the electoral college was replaced by a pure "one member, one vote" system. Candidates are elected by members and registered and affiliated supporters, who all receive a maximum of one vote and all votes are weighted equally; this meant that, for example, members of Labour-affiliated trade unions needed to register as Labour supporters to vote. To stand, candidates now needed to be nominated by at least 15% of the Parliamentary Labour Party, i.e. 35 MPs, at that time. The vote, as in previous elections, was held under the alternative vote system; the deputy leadership election was held under the same rules. The election itself was overseen by Electoral Reform Services. In late August, the Labour Party reported that about 552,000 members and supporters were eligible to vote. A meeting of Labour's National Executive Committee took place on 13 May 2015 to set a timetable and procedure for the two elections. Tuesday 9 June 2015 – Nominations open Monday 15 June 2015 – Nominations for the Leader close Wednesday 17 June 2015 – Nominations for the Deputy Leader close Wednesday 17 June 2015 – Hustings period opens Friday 31 July 2015 – Supporting nominations close Wednesday 12 August 2015 – Last date to join as member, affiliated support or registered supporter and be able to vote Friday 14 August 2015 – Ballot papers are sent out Thursday 10 September 2015 – Ballot closes Saturday 12 September 2015 – Special Conference to announce the resultsThe deadline on 12 August 2015 to join as a member or supporter was extended by 3 hours due to heavy demand making the party website difficult to use.
To be placed on the ballot, candidates for leader had to obtain the nominations of 35 MPs. An MP who nominates a candidate does not have to vote for, that candidate; some MPs have stated. The number of MPs next to the candidate's name below includes the candidate, who can count as one of the 35 MPs needed. Public nominations for candidates by MPs were as follows: Andy Burnham: Debbie Abrahams, Heidi Alexander, David Anderson, Hilary Benn, Luciana Berger, Clive Betts, Paul Blomfield, Kevin Brennan, Julie Cooper, David Crausby, Alex Cunningham, Wayne David, Peter Dowd, Michael Dugher, Bill Esterson, Paul Farrelly, Rob Flello, Yvonne Fovargue, Pat Glass, Mary Glindon, Lilian Greenwood, Margaret Greenwood, Nia Griffith, Andrew Gwynne, Harry Harpham, Carolyn Harris, Stephen Hepburn, Kate Hoey, Kate Hollern, Dan Jarvis, Gerald Jones, Graham Jones, Barbara Keeley, Ian Lavery, Emma Lewell-Buck, Ian Lucas, Holly Lynch, Justin Madders, Rachael Maskell, Chris Matheson, Kerry McCarthy, Andy McDonald, Conor McGinn, Liz McInnes, Alan Meale, Ian Mearns, Lisa Nandy, Albert Owen, Teresa Pearce, Lucy Powell, Yasmin Qureshi, Angela Rayner, Jamie Reed, Christina Rees, Rachel Reeves, Steve Rotheram, Jeff Smith, Owen Smith, Keir Starmer, Jo Stevens, Nick Thomas-Symonds, Anna Turley, Karl Turner, Derek Twigg, Valerie Vaz, Alan Whitehead, Iain Wright Yvette Cooper: Jon Ashworth, Ian Austin, Adrian Bailey, Roberta Blackman-Woods, Lyn Brown, Nick Brown, Chris Bryant, Karen Buck, Richard Burden, Liam Byrne, Ruth Cadbury, Ann Clwyd, Vernon Coaker, Judith Cummins, Jim Cunningham, Nic Dakin, Ge
Hastings is a town and borough in East Sussex on the south coast of England, 24 mi east of the county town of Lewes and 53 mi south east of London. It has an estimated population of 90,254. Hastings gives its name to the Battle of Hastings, which took place 8 mi to the north at Senlac Hill in 1066; the town became one of the medieval Cinque Ports, a popular seaside resort in the 19th century with the coming of the railway. Today, Hastings is a fishing port with a beach-based fishing fleet; the first mention of Hastings is found in the late 8th century in the form Hastingas. This is derived from the Old English tribal name Hæstingas, meaning `the constituency/followers of Hæsta'. Symeon of Durham records the victory of Offa in 771 over the Hestingorum gens, that is, "the people of the Hastings tribe.", Hastingleigh in Kent was named after that tribe. The place name Hæstingaceaster is found in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle entry for 1050, may be an alternative name for Hastings. However, the absence of any archaeological remains of or documentary evidence for a Roman fort at Hastings suggest that Hæstingaceaster may refer to a different settlement, most that based on the Roman remains at Pevensey.
Evidence of prehistoric settlements have been found at the town site: flint arrowheads and Bronze Age artefacts have been found. This suggests; the settlement was based on the port when the Romans arrived in Britain for the first time in 55 BC. At this time, they began to exploit the iron, shipped it out by boat. Iron was worked locally at Beauport Park, to the north of the town, which employed up to one thousand men and is considered to have been the third largest mine in the Roman Empire. With the departure of the Romans, the town suffered setbacks; the Beauport site had been abandoned, natural and man-made attacks began. The Sussex coast has always suffered from occasional violent storms; the original Roman port could well now be under the sea. Bulverhythe was a harbour used by Danish invaders, which suggests that -hythe or hithe means a port or small haven. From the 6th century AD until 771, the people of the area around modern-day Hastings, identified the territory as that of the Haestingas tribe and a kingdom separate from the surrounding kingdoms of Suth Saxe and Kent.
It worked to retain its separate cultural identity until the 11th century. The kingdom was a sub-kingdom, the object of a disputed overlordship by the two powerful neighbouring kingdoms: when King Wihtred of Kent settled a dispute with King Ine of Sussex & Wessex in 694, it is probable that he seceded the overlordship of Haestingas to Ine as part of the treaty. In 771 King Offa of Mercia invaded Southern England, over the next decade seized control of Sussex and Kent. Symeon of Durham records a battle fought at an unidentified location near Hastings in 771, at which Offa defeated the Haestingas tribe ending its existence as a separate kingdom. By 790, Offa controlled Hastings enough to confirm grants of land in Hastings to the Abbey of St Denis, in Paris. But, the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle for 1011 relates that Vikings overran "all Kent, Sussex and Haestingas", indicating the town was still considered a separate'county' or province to its neighbours 240 years after Offa's conquest. During the reign of Athelstan, he established a royal mint in Hastings in AD 928.
The start of the Norman Conquest was the Battle of Hastings, fought on 14 October 1066, although the battle itself took place 8 mi to the north at Senlac Hill, William had landed on the coast between Hastings and Eastbourne at Pevensey. It is thought; that "New Burgh" is mentioned in the Domesday Book as such. William defeated and killed Harold Godwinson, the last Saxon King of England, destroyed his army, thus opening England to the Norman conquest. William caused a castle to be built at Hastings using the earthworks of the existing Saxon castle. Hastings was shown as a borough by the time of the Domesday Book; as a borough, Hastings had a corporation consisting of a "bailiff and commonalty". By a Charter of Elizabeth I in 1589, the bailiff was replaced by a mayor. Muslim scholar Muhammad al-Idrisi, writing c.1153, described Hastings as "a town of large extent and many inhabitants and handsome, having markets and rich merchants". By the end of the Saxon period, the port of Hastings had moved eastward near the present town centre in the Priory Stream valley, whose entrance was protected by the White Rock headland.
It was to be a short stay: Danish attacks and huge floods in 1011 and 1014 motivated the townspeople to relocate to the New Burgh. In the Middle Ages Hastings became one of the Cinque Ports. In the 13th century, much of the town and half of Hastings Castle was washed away in the South England flood of February 1287. During a naval campaign of 1339, again in 1377, the town was raided and burnt by the French, seems then
Ordination of women
The ordination of women to ministerial or priestly office is an common practice among some major religious groups of the present time, as it was of several pagan religions of antiquity and, some scholars argue, in early Christian practice. It remains a controversial issue in certain Christian denominations where "ordination" has for 2,000 years been limited only to men. In some cases women have been permitted to be ordained, but not to hold higher positions, such as that of bishop in the Church of England. Where laws prohibit sex discrimination in employment, exceptions are made for clergy. Sumerian and Akkadian EN were top-ranking priestesses distinguished by special ceremonial attire and holding equal status to high priests, they owned property, transacted business, initiated the hieros gamos ceremony with priests and kings. Enheduanna, an Akkadian princess, was the first known holder of the title "EN Priestess". Ishtaritu were temple prostitutes who specialized in the arts of dancing and singing and served in the temples of Ishtar.
Puabi was a NIN, an Akkadian priestess of Ur in the 26th century BC. Nadītu served as priestesses in the temples of Inanna in the ancient city of Uruk, they were supposed to remain childless. In Sumerian epic texts such as Enmerkar and the Lord of Aratta, Nu-Gig were priestesses in temples dedicated to Inanna, or may be a reference to the goddess herself. Qadishtu, Hebrew Qedesha or Kedeshah, derived from the root Q-D-Š, are mentioned in the Hebrew Bible as sacred prostitutes associated with the goddess Asherah. In Ancient Egyptian religion, God's Wife of Amun was the highest ranking priestess. Divine Adoratrice of Amun was a title created for the chief priestess of Amun. During the first millennium BC, when the holder of this office exercised her largest measure of influence, her position was an important appointment facilitating the transfer of power from one pharaoh to the next, when his daughter was adopted to fill it by the incumbent office holder; the Divine Adoratrice ruled over the extensive temple duties and domains, controlling a significant part of the ancient Egyptian economy.
Ancient Egyptian priestesses: Gautseshen Henutmehyt Henuttawy Hui Iset Karomama Meritmut Maatkare Mutemhat Meritamen Neferhetepes is the earliest attested priestess of Hathor. Neferure Tabekenamun a priestess of Hathor as well as a priestess of Neith. In ancient Greek religion, some important observances, such as the Thesmophoria, were made by women. Priestesses played a major role in the Eleusinian Mysteries; the Gerarai were priestesses of Dionysus who presided over festivals and rituals associated with the god. A body of priestesses might maintain the cult at a particular holy site, such as the Peleiades at the oracle of Dodona; the Arrephoroi were young girls ages seven to twelve who worked as servants of Athena Polias on the Athenian Acropolis and were charged with conducting unique rituals. At several sites women priestesses served as oracles, the most famous of, the Oracle of Delphi; the priestess of the Temple of Apollo at Delphi was the Pythia, credited throughout the Greco-Roman world for her prophecies, which gave her a prominence unusual for a woman in male-dominated ancient Greece.
The Phrygian Sibyl presided over an oracle of Apollo in Anatolian Phrygia. The inspired speech of divining women, was interpreted by male priests; the Latin word sacerdos, "priest", is the same for both the grammatical genders. In Roman state religion, the priesthood of the Vestals was responsible for the continuance and security of Rome as embodied by the sacred fire that they could not allow to go out; the Vestals were a college of six sacerdotes devoted to Vesta, goddess of the hearth, both the focus of a private home and the state hearth, the center of communal religion. Freed of the usual social obligations to marry and rear children, the Vestals took a vow of chastity in order to devote themselves to the study and correct observance of state rituals that were off-limits to the male colleges of priests, they retained their religious authority until the Christian emperor Gratian confiscated their revenues and his successor Theodosius I closed the Temple of Vesta permanently. The Romans had at least two priesthoods that were each held jointly by a married couple, the rex and regina sacrorum, the flamen and flaminica Dialis.
The regina sacrorum and the flaminica Dialis each had her own distinct duties and presided over public sacrifices, the regina on the first day of every month, the flaminica every nundinal cycle. The public nature of these sacrifices, like the role of the Vestals, indicates that women's religious activities in ancient Rome were not restricted to the private or domestic sphere. So essential was the gender complement to these priesthoods that if the wife died, the husband had to give up his office; this is true of the flaminate, true of the rex and regina. The title sacerdos was specified in relation to a deity o
Conservative Party (UK)
The Conservative Party the Conservative and Unionist Party, is a centre-right political party in the United Kingdom. The governing party since 2010, it is the largest in the House of Commons, with 313 Members of Parliament, has 249 members of the House of Lords, 18 members of the European Parliament, 31 Members of the Scottish Parliament, 12 members of the Welsh Assembly, eight members of the London Assembly and 8,916 local councillors; the Conservative Party was founded in 1834 from the Tory Party—the Conservatives' colloquial name is "Tories"—and was one of two dominant political parties in the nineteenth century, along with the Liberal Party. Under Benjamin Disraeli it played a preeminent role in politics at the height of the British Empire. In 1912, the Liberal Unionist Party merged with the party to form the Conservative and Unionist Party. In the 1920s, the Labour Party surpassed the Liberals as the Conservatives' main rivals. Conservative Prime Ministers — notably Winston Churchill and Margaret Thatcher — led governments for 57 years of the twentieth century.
Positioned on the centre-right of British politics, the Conservative Party is ideologically conservative. Different factions have dominated the party at different times, including One Nation Conservatives and liberal conservatives, while its views and policies have changed throughout its history; the party has adopted liberal economic policies—favouring free market economics, limiting state regulation, pursuing privatisation—although in the past has supported protectionism. The party is British unionist, opposing both Irish reunification and Welsh and Scottish independence, supported the maintenance of the British Empire; the party includes those with differing views on the European Union, with Eurosceptic and pro-European wings. In foreign policy, it is for a strong national defence; the Conservatives are a member of the International Democrat Union and the Alliance of Conservatives and Reformists in Europe and sit with the European Conservatives and Reformists parliamentary group. The Scottish, Northern Irish and Gibraltan branches of the party are semi-autonomous.
Its support base consists of middle-class voters in rural areas of England, its domination of British politics throughout the twentieth century has led to it being referred to as one of the most successful political parties in the Western world. The Conservative Party was founded in the 1830s. However, some writers trace its origins to the reign of Charles II in the 1670s Exclusion Crisis. Other historians point to a faction, rooted in the 18th century Whig Party, that coalesced around William Pitt the Younger in the 1780s, they were known as "Independent Whigs", "Friends of Mr Pitt", or "Pittites" and never used terms such as "Tory" or "Conservative". Pitt died in 1806. From about 1812 on the name "Tory" was used for a new party that, according to historian Robert Blake, "are the ancestors of Conservatism". Blake adds that Pitt's successors after 1812 "were not in any sense standard-bearer's of true Toryism"; the term "Conservative" was suggested as a title for the party by a magazine article by J. Wilson Croker in the Quarterly Review in 1830.
The name caught on and was adopted under the aegis of Sir Robert Peel around 1834. Peel is acknowledged as the founder of the Conservative Party, which he created with the announcement of the Tamworth Manifesto; the term "Conservative Party" rather than Tory was the dominant usage by 1845. The widening of the electoral franchise in the nineteenth century forced the Conservative Party to popularise its approach under Edward Smith-Stanley, 14th Earl of Derby and Benjamin Disraeli, who carried through their own expansion of the franchise with the Reform Act of 1867. In 1886, the party formed an alliance with Spencer Compton Cavendish, Lord Hartington and Joseph Chamberlain's new Liberal Unionist Party and, under the statesmen Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, Lord Salisbury and Arthur Balfour, held power for all but three of the following twenty years before suffering a heavy defeat in 1906 when it split over the issue of free trade. Young Winston Churchill denounced Chamberlain's attack on free trade, helped organize the opposition inside the Unionist/Conservative Party.
Balfour, as party leader, followed Chamberlain's policy introduced protectionist legislation. The high tariff element called itself "Tariff Reformers" and in a major speech in Manchester on May 13, 1904, Churchill warned their takeover of the Unionist/Conservative party would permanently brand it as: A party of great vested interests, banded together in a formidable confederation. Two weeks Churchill crossed the floor and formally joined the Liberal Party. )He rejoined the Conservatives in 1925.) In December, Balfour lost control of his party, as the defections multiplied. He was replaced by Liberal Prime Minister Henry Campbell-Bannerman who called an election in January 1906, which produced a massive Liberal victory with a gain of 214 seats. Liberal Prime Minister H. H. Asquith enacted a great deal of reform legislation, but the Unionists worked hard at grassroots organizing. Two general elections were held in one in January and one in December; the two main parties were now dead equal in seats.
The Unionists had more popular votes but the Liberals kept control with a coalition with the Irish Parliamentary Party. In 1912, the Liberal Unionis