Iowa is a state in the Midwestern United States, bordered by the Mississippi River to the east and the Missouri River and Big Sioux River to the west. It is bordered by six states. In colonial times, Iowa was a part of Spanish Louisiana. After the Louisiana Purchase, people laid the foundation for an agriculture-based economy in the heart of the Corn Belt. In the latter half of the 20th century, Iowa's agricultural economy made the transition to a diversified economy of advanced manufacturing, financial services, information technology and green energy production. Iowa is the 26th most extensive in land area and the 30th most populous of the 50 U. S states, its capital and largest city by population is Des Moines. Iowa has been listed as one of the safest states in, its nickname is the Hawkeye State. Iowa derives its name from the Ioway people, one of the many Native American tribes that occupied the state at the time of European exploration. Iowa is bordered by the Mississippi River on the east.
The southern border is the Des Moines River and a not-quite-straight line along 40 degrees 35 minutes north, as decided by the U. S. Supreme Court in Missouri v. Iowa after a standoff between Missouri and Iowa known as the Honey War. Iowa is the only state whose east and west borders are formed by rivers. Iowa has 99 counties; the state capital, Des Moines, is in Polk County. Iowa's bedrock geology increases in age from west to east. In northwest Iowa, Cretaceous bedrock can be 74 million years old. Iowa is not flat. Iowa can be divided into eight landforms based on glaciation, soils and river drainage. Loess hills lie along the western border of the state. Northeast Iowa along the Upper Mississippi River is part of the Driftless Area, consisting of steep hills and valleys which appear mountainous. Several natural lakes exist, most notably Spirit Lake, West Okoboji Lake, East Okoboji Lake in northwest Iowa. To the east lies Clear Lake. Man-made lakes include Lake Odessa, Saylorville Lake, Lake Red Rock, Coralville Lake, Lake MacBride, Rathbun Lake.
The state's northwest area has many remnants such as Barringer Slough. Iowa's natural vegetation is tallgrass prairie and savanna in upland areas, with dense forest and wetlands in flood plains and protected river valleys, pothole wetlands in northern prairie areas. Most of Iowa is used for agriculture; the Southern part of Iowa is categorised as the Central forest-grasslands transition ecoregion. The Northern, drier part of Iowa is categorised as the Central tall grasslands and is thus considered to be part of the Great Plains. There is a dearth of natural areas in Iowa; as of 2005 Iowa ranked 49th of U. S. states in public land holdings. Threatened or endangered animals in Iowa include the interior least tern, piping plover, Indiana bat, pallid sturgeon, the Iowa Pleistocene land snail, Higgins' eye pearly mussel, the Topeka shiner. Endangered or threatened plants include western prairie fringed orchid, eastern prairie fringed orchid, Mead's milkweed, prairie bush clover, northern wild monkshood.
There is little proof to suggest that the explosion in the number of high-density livestock facilities in Iowa has led to increased rural water contamination and a decline in air quality. In fact, covered manure storage in modern barns prevent that manure from washing away into surface water, as it does in open lots as snow melts and thunderstorms occur. Other factors negatively affecting Iowa's environment include the extensive use of older coal-fired power plants and pesticide runoff from crop production, diminishment of the Jordan Aquifer. Iowa has a humid continental climate throughout the state with extremes of both cold; the average annual temperature at Des Moines is 50 °F. Winters are harsh and snowfall is common. Spring ushers in the beginning of the severe weather season. Iowa averages about 50 days of thunderstorm activity per year; the 30 year annual average Tornadoes in Iowa is 47. In 2008, twelve people were killed by tornadoes in Iowa, making it the deadliest year since 1968 and the second most tornadoes in a year with 105, matching the total from 2001.
Iowa summers are known for heat and humidity, with daytime temperatures sometimes near 90 °F and exceeding 100 °F. Average winters in the state have been known to drop well below freezing dropping below −18 °F. Iowa's all-time hottest temperature of 118 °F was recorded at Keokuk on July 20, 1934. Iowa has a smooth gradient of var
Brasstown Bald is the highest point in the U. S. state of Georgia. Located in northeast Georgia, the mountain is known to the native Cherokee people as Enotah, it is the highest ground for 15.86 miles. The name in English is derived from a mistaken translation of the term for the nearby Cherokee village of Brasstown, located along the upper Brasstown Creek feeding the Hiawassee River. Across the North Carolina state line north of the mountain, are other places named in that error of English settlers: Brasstown, a community in the Brasstown township of Clay County, North Carolina. Brasstown Bald is in both Towns and Union counties, the peak being divided by the county line; the mountain is part of the Blue Ridge Mountains, within the borders of the Blue Ridge Ranger District of the Chattahoochee National Forest. The mountain consists of soapstone and dunite. On a clear day, it is possible to see the tall buildings of Atlanta from the summit; the U. S. Forest Service has webcams atop the observation tower, a RAWS weather station further down the mountain.
The public can drive to the top via Georgia State Route 180 Spur. According to the two Georgia historical markers, the area surrounding Brasstown Bald was settled by the Cherokee people. English-speaking settlers derived the word "Brasstown" from a translation error of the Cherokee word for its village place. Settlers confused the word Itse'yĭ, which the Cherokee used for their village, with Ûňtsaiyĭ, referred to the settlement as Brasstown; the Cherokee gave the locative name, Itse'yĭ, to several distinct areas in their territory, including an area nearby in what is considered present-day North Carolina. According to Cherokee legend about Itse'yĭ, a great flood swept over the land. All the people died except a few Cherokee families; the canoe ran aground at the summit of a forested mountain. As there was no wild game for the people to hunt and no place for them to plant crops, the Great Spirit killed all the trees on the top of the mountain so that the surviving people could plant crops, they lived from their crops until the water subsided.
Other transliterated spellings of the Cherokee name for the mountain include Echia, Echoee and Enotah. The term "Bald" is common terminology in the southern Appalachians describing mountaintops that have 360-degree unobstructed views. Former Georgia Supreme Court Judge Thomas S. Candler is memorialized with a stone monument at Brasstown Bald, it was erected in 1971 three months before he died in recognition of his efforts to support getting more visitors to the mountain and establishing a visitors center there for them. From the northeast, starting at the intersection of Owl Creek Road and the concurrent Georgia 17 and Georgia 75 near Mountain Scene, the climb is 13.5 kilometers long, gaining 828 meters. From the southeast, starting at the intersection of Georgia 180 and Georgia 17/75 near Sooky Gap, the climb is 13.1 kilometers long, gaining 790 meters, an average of 6.0% grade. From the west, starting at the intersection of Georgia 180 and Georgia 348 near Choestoe, the climb is 14.9 kilometers, gaining 856 meters, an average of 5.7% grade.
From the intersection of Route 180 and Route 180 Spur at Jacks Gap the climb is 4.9 kilometers at an average gradient of 11.2%. An additional route to the summit is the Wagon Train Trail, starting at Young Harris College; the trail is traditionally hiked by graduating students and their families on the evening before graduation. In the 2005 through 2008 editions of the Tour de Georgia, a long-distance bicycle race, Brasstown Bald was the site of an hors categorie "King of the Mountains stage" finish. NOAA Weather Radio station KXI22 transmits from atop the mountain, simulcasting with KXI75 from Blue Ridge, Georgia; the programming originates from NWSFO Peachtree City. Georgia Public Broadcasting had or has construction permits from the Federal Communications Commission for two low-power broadcast translator stations at the summit; the digital TV station on channel 12 is the direct replacement for analog TV station W04BJ in nearby Young Harris, covers for W50AB in nearby Hiawassee. New station WBTB FM 90.3 will transmit at just 97 watts, equivalent to several hundred watts because of the height above average terrain of over 700 meters, or more than 2,300 feet.
Both stations will have Young Harris as the city of license. Brasstown Valley Resort Brasstown Wilderness List of U. S. states by elevation List of mountains in Georgia Media related to Brasstown Bald at Wikimedia Commons
Woodall Mountain is the highest natural point in the state of Mississippi at 807 feet. It is located just off Mississippi Highway 25, south of Iuka in Tishomingo County in the northeast part of the state. Located in the northeast part of the state, Woodall Mountain is the highest natural point in the state of Mississippi at 807 feet, it was called Yow Hill. The summit is marked with a National Geodetic Survey triangulation station disk and three radio towers. A sign cautions visitors to prepare for a steep and rocky inclined road a mile in length to the summit. Atop the hill there is a bench, a high point register, a gravel circle allowing parking for several vehicles. A wooden observation tower was constructed in the 20th century atop the hill in the middle of the gravel circle; the tower deteriorated over time, with some steps rotting. Yow Hill was the scene of fighting during the American Civil War. On September 19, 1862, the Battle of Iuka took place there. Union General William Rosecrans occupied the mountain and used it to launch artillery barrages on the town of Iuka under the control of General Sterling Price.
The battle was a victory for the Union. The hill was renamed after Zephaniah Woodall, sheriff of Tishomingo County, who bought it and surrounding land in 1884. Describing this hill as Woodall Mountain is lampooned by locals; some nearby stores sell souvenir T-shirts with the phrase "Ski Woodall". The Tupelo-based bluegrass band The Woodall Mountain Boys took their name from the mountain. Outline of Mississippi Index of Mississippi-related articles List of U. S. states by elevation "Woodall Mountain". SummitPost.org
Wisconsin is a U. S. state located in the Midwest and Great Lakes regions. It is bordered by Minnesota to the west, Iowa to the southwest, Illinois to the south, Lake Michigan to the east, Michigan to the northeast, Lake Superior to the north. Wisconsin is the 20th most populous; the state capital is Madison, its largest city is Milwaukee, located on the western shore of Lake Michigan. The state is divided into 72 counties. Wisconsin's geography is diverse, having been impacted by glaciers during the Ice Age with the exception of the Driftless Area; the Northern Highland and Western Upland along with a part of the Central Plain occupies the western part of the state, with lowlands stretching to the shore of Lake Michigan. Wisconsin is second to Michigan in the length of its Great Lakes coastline. During the 19th and early 20th centuries, a large number of European settlers entered the state, many of whom emigrated from Germany and Scandinavia. Like neighboring Minnesota, the state remains a center of German American and Scandinavian American culture.
Wisconsin is known as "America's Dairyland" because it is one of the nation's leading dairy producers famous for its cheese. Manufacturing, information technology, cranberries and tourism are major contributors to the state's economy; the word Wisconsin originates from the name given to the Wisconsin River by one of the Algonquian-speaking Native American groups living in the region at the time of European contact. French explorer Jacques Marquette was the first European to reach the Wisconsin River, arriving in 1673 and calling the river Meskousing in his journal. Subsequent French writers changed the spelling from Meskousing to Ouisconsin, over time this became the name for both the Wisconsin River and the surrounding lands. English speakers anglicized the spelling from Ouisconsin to Wisconsin when they began to arrive in large numbers during the early 19th century; the legislature of Wisconsin Territory made the current spelling official in 1845. The Algonquin word for Wisconsin and its original meaning have both grown obscure.
Interpretations vary. One leading theory holds that the name originated from the Miami word Meskonsing, meaning "it lies red", a reference to the setting of the Wisconsin River as it flows through the reddish sandstone of the Wisconsin Dells. Other theories include claims that the name originated from one of a variety of Ojibwa words meaning "red stone place", "where the waters gather", or "great rock". Wisconsin has been home to a wide variety of cultures over the past 14,000 years; the first people arrived around 10,000 BCE during the Wisconsin Glaciation. These early inhabitants, called Paleo-Indians, hunted now-extinct ice age animals such as the Boaz mastodon, a prehistoric mastodon skeleton unearthed along with spear points in southwest Wisconsin. After the ice age ended around 8000 BCE, people in the subsequent Archaic period lived by hunting and gathering food from wild plants. Agricultural societies emerged over the Woodland period between 1000 BCE to 1000 CE. Toward the end of this period, Wisconsin was the heartland of the "Effigy Mound culture", which built thousands of animal-shaped mounds across the landscape.
Between 1000 and 1500 CE, the Mississippian and Oneota cultures built substantial settlements including the fortified village at Aztalan in southeast Wisconsin. The Oneota may be the ancestors of the modern Ioway and Ho-Chunk tribes who shared the Wisconsin region with the Menominee at the time of European contact. Other Native American groups living in Wisconsin when Europeans first settled included the Ojibwa, Fox and Pottawatomie, who migrated to Wisconsin from the east between 1500 and 1700; the first European to visit what became Wisconsin was the French explorer Jean Nicolet. He canoed west from Georgian Bay through the Great Lakes in 1634, it is traditionally assumed that he came ashore near Green Bay at Red Banks. Pierre Radisson and Médard des Groseilliers visited Green Bay again in 1654–1666 and Chequamegon Bay in 1659–1660, where they traded for fur with local Native Americans. In 1673, Jacques Marquette and Louis Jolliet became the first to record a journey on the Fox-Wisconsin Waterway all the way to the Mississippi River near Prairie du Chien.
Frenchmen like Nicholas Perrot continued to ply the fur trade across Wisconsin through the 17th and 18th centuries, but the French made no permanent settlements in Wisconsin before Great Britain won control of the region following the French and Indian War in 1763. So, French traders continued to work in the region after the war, some, beginning with Charles de Langlade in 1764, settled in Wisconsin permanently, rather than returning to British-controlled Canada; the British took over Wisconsin during the French and Indian War, taking control of Green Bay in 1761 and gaining control of all of Wisconsin in 1763. Like the French, the British were interested in little but the fur trade. One notable event in the fur trading industry in Wisconsin occurred in 1791, when two free African Americans set up a fur trading post among the Menominee at present day Marinette; the first permanent settlers French Canadians, some Anglo-New Englanders and a few African American freedmen, arrived in Wisconsin while it was under British control.
Charles Michel de Langlade is recognized as the first settler, establishing a trading post at Green Bay in 1745, moving there permanently in 1764. Settlement began at Prairie du Chien around 1781; the French residents at the trading post in what is now Green Bay, referred to the t
The Driftless Area is a region in southeastern Minnesota, southwestern Wisconsin, northeastern Iowa, the extreme northwestern corner of Illinois, of the American Midwest. The region escaped glaciation during the last ice age and is characterized by steep, forested ridges, deeply-carved river valleys, karst geology characterized by spring-fed waterfalls and cold-water trout streams. Ecologically, the flora and fauna of the Driftless Area are more related to those of the Great Lakes region and New England rather than those of the broader Midwest and central Plains regions. Colloquially, the term includes the incised Paleozoic Plateau of southeastern Minnesota and northeastern Iowa; the region includes elevations ranging from 603 to 1,719 feet at Blue Mound State Park and covers an area of 24,000 square miles. The rugged terrain is due both to the lack of glacial deposits, or drift, to the incision of the upper Mississippi River and its tributaries into bedrock. An alternative, less restrictive definition of the Driftless Area includes the sand Plains region located northeast of Wisconsin's portion of the incised Paleozoic Plateau in the southwestern part of the state.
This portion of the Driftless Area in the southwestern section of Wisconsin's Central Plain lacks evidence of glaciation, contains many isolated Hills, Mesas and Pinnacles that are outlying eroded Cambrian bedrock remnants of the plateau to the southwest. Retreating glaciers leave behind silt, sand and boulders called drift. Glacial drift includes unsorted material called till and layers deposited by meltwater streams called outwash. While drift from early glaciations has been found in some parts of the region, much of the incised Paleozoic Plateau of Wisconsin and northwestern Illinois holds no evidence for glaciation; the region has been subject to large floods from the melting Laurentide ice sheet and subsequent catastrophic discharges from its proglacial lakes, such as Glacial Lake Wisconsin, Glacial Lake Agassiz, Glacial Lake Grantsburg, Glacial Lake Duluth. The last phases of the Wisconsin Glaciation involved several major lobes of the Laurentide ice sheet: the Des Moines lobe, which flowed down toward Des Moines on the west.
The northern and eastern lobes were in part diverted around the area by the Watersmeet Dome, an ancient uplifted area of Cambrian rock underlain by basalt in northern Wisconsin and western upper Michigan. The southward movement of the continental glacier was hindered by the great depths of the Lake Superior basin and the adjacent highlands of the Bayfield Peninsula, Gogebic Range, Porcupine Mountains, Keweenaw Peninsula, the Huron Mountains along the north rim of the Superior Upland bordering Lake Superior; the Green Bay and Lake Michigan lobes were partially blocked by the bedrock of the Door Peninsula, which presently separates Green Bay from Lake Michigan. In earlier phases of the Wisconsinan, the Driftless Area was surrounded by ice, with eastern and western lobes joining together to the south of it; the latest concept explaining the origin of the Driftless Area is the pre-Illinoian continental glacial ice flowing over the Driftless Area and depositing on it pre-Illinoian till, more than 790,000 years old.
When the ice retreated and uncovered the area, intensive periglacial erosion removed it. Anticyclonic snow-bearing winds episodically dropped large amounts of snow, which gradually removed superficial sediment from slopes by solifluction and snowmelt overland flow, washing the deposits down to stream valleys that flowed into the Mississippi River. In the adjacent glaciated regions, the glacial retreat left behind drift, which buried all former topographical features. Surface water was forced to carve out new stream beds. Overall, the region is characterized by an eroded plateau with bedrock overlain by varying thicknesses of loess. Most characteristically, the river valleys are dissected; the bluffs lining this reach of the Mississippi River climb to nearly 600 feet. In Minnesota, Pre-Illinoian-age till was removed by natural means prior to the deposition of loess; the sedimentary rocks of the valley walls date to the Paleozoic Era and are covered with colluvium or loess. Bedrock, where not directly exposed, is near the surface and is composed of "primarily Ordovician dolomite and sandstone in Minnesota, with Cambrian sandstone and dolomite exposed along the valley walls of the Mississippi River."
In the east, the Baraboo Range, an ancient, profoundly eroded monadnock in south central Wisconsin, consists of Precambrian quartzite and rhyolite. The area has not undergone much tectonic action, as all the visible layers of sedimentary rock are horizontal. Karst topography is found throughout the Driftless area; this is characterized by caves and cave systems, disappearing streams, blind valleys, underground streams, sinkholes and cold streams. Disappearing streams occur where surface waters sinks down into the earth through fractured bedrock or a sinkhole, either joining an aquifer, or becoming an underground stream. Blind valleys are formed by disappearing lack an outlet to any other stream. Sinkholes are the result of the collapse of the roof of a cave, surface water can flow directly into them. Disappearing streams can re-emerge as large cold springs. Cold streams with cold springs; the Mississippi River passes through the Driftless Area between and including P
Galena is the largest city in and the county seat of Jo Daviess County, with a population of 3,429 at the 2010 census. A 581-acre section of the city is listed on the National Register of Historic Places as the Galena Historic District; the city is named for the mineral galena, mined by Native Americans in the area for over a thousand years. Owing to these deposits, Galena was the site of the first major mineral rush in the United States. By 1828, the population was estimated at 10,000; the city emerged as the largest steamboat hub on the Mississippi River north of Missouri. Galena was the home of eight other Civil War generals. Today, the city is a tourist destination known for its history and resorts; the city is named for the natural form of lead sulfide and the most important lead ore. Native Americans mined the ore for use in burial rituals; the Havana Hopewell first traded galena in the area during the Middle Woodland period. However, the use of galena in the Havana territory is uncertain. During the Mississippian period, galena saw use as body paint.
The French via contact with the Sioux, first noted lead deposits in the Upper Mississippi Valley in 1658. A 1703 French map identified the northwestern Illinois area as mines de plumb. Northwestern Illinois was inhabited by Fox when the French arrived. In the 1690s, French trappers began mining the lead. However, conflicts with the Sioux prevented large-scale mining until Julien Dubuque's Mines opened across the river in 1788; the French called Galena La Pointe and early Americans adopted this name as "The Point". Early documentation records the name as "Fever River", an early name for the Galena River, though it does not appear that this name was used. George Davenport, a retired colonel in the United States Army shipped Galena's first boatload of lead ore down the Mississippi River in 1816. Three years Jesse W. Shull built a trading post; the Thomas H. January family, who arrived in 1821 from Maysville, are considered the first permanent American settlers; the next year, the US Department of War leased the lands out.
A large group of colonists led by Dr. Moses Meeker and James Harris arrived in 1823. Steamboat trade began in 1824; the first official lease of the mines on behalf of the US government was to James Johnson, brother of US Senator Richard Mentor Johnson, on September 30, 1822. Martin Thomas, appointed by the government in 1824 to oversee mine leases, was commissioned to survey the mines in 1826; the name "Galena" was purportedly given during a town meeting that year. Thomas platted the town and, starting in June 1827, settlers could lease plots from the government; the land remained in government possession until the leasing system was eased out in 1836–37. When Jo Daviess County was founded in 1827, Galena was named its county seat; this established the first courts in Galena. 21 million pounds of lead were mined in Galena from 1825 to 1828 and the population exploded in that time from 200 to 10,000. Local native tribes, now Winnebago, permitted settlers to mine in established areas in Galena. However, the growth of the city led settlers to encroach on native land claims, seeking new veins of lead.
Following a murder of a pioneer family near Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin, by the Winnebago, Galena closed its mines for safety and prepared for war. Citizens established forts at nearby Apple River; the ensuing Winnebago War was little more than a skirmish, but the lands near the city were annexed by the US in the resulting 1829 Treaty of Prairie du Chien. A meeting on February 1, 1830, established the first fire department. At a town meeting at the county courthouse on September 7, 1835, sixty-five residents approved a motion for incorporation as a town. Eight days five individuals were elected as the first trustees. Incorporation was approved by the county board of trustees on October 2, the first meeting of trustees occurred the next day; the 15th Illinois General Assembly codified the trustee election process. A steamboat was selected as the town seal on May 22, 1837. A state law resulted in the first elections for mayor and aldermen on May 24, 1841, replacing the board of trustees; the first census was held that year, finding 1,900 inhabitants.
By 1845 Galena was producing nearly 27,000 tons of lead ore and Jo Daviess County was producing 80 percent of the lead in the United States. Once one of the most important cities in the state, Galena was a hub on the Mississippi River between St. Louis and St. Paul. Due to erosion, the Galena River is now inaccessible to steamboats. Galena received national attention in the 1860s as home of General Ulysses S. Grant. Following a sharp decline in the demand for lead, Galena's population dropped from 14,000 in the mid-19th century, to 3,396 in the early 21st century. Galena's official flag was adopted in 1976 to symbolize mining, agriculture and the nine American Civil War generals who lived in the city; until the late 1980s, Galena remained a small rural farming community. In 1990, local industries included a Kraft Foods cheese plant, Lemfco Foundry, John Westwick's foundry, Microswitch, I
Mount Arvon, elevation 1,979 feet, located in L'Anse Township, Baraga County, is the highest natural point in the U. S. state of Michigan. Like nearby Arvon Township, Mount Arvon takes its name from the deposits of slate in the area which were reminiscent of those around Caernarfon in Wales. Mount Arvon is part of the Huron Mountains, it rises about eight miles south of Lake Superior. On the list of highest natural points in each U. S. state, Mount Arvon ranks 38th. Mount Arvon is a few miles from Mount Curwood, which for years had been designated as Michigan's highest spot until a resurvey in 1982 with modern technology determined that Mount Arvon is 1 foot taller than Mount Curwood. Mount Arvon is about 12 miles east of L'Anse, although it is about a 26-mile drive from the city as much of it lies on winding logging roads; the property is owned by the MeadWestvaco paper company but public access is allowed. Michigan portal Mountains portal List of U. S. states by elevation "Mt. Arvon". Baraga County Tourism.
Archived from the original on July 25, 2011