Hertfordshire is one of the home counties in the south east of England. It is bordered by Bedfordshire and Cambridgeshire to the north, Essex to the east, Greater London to the south, Buckinghamshire to the west. For government statistical purposes, it is placed in the East of England region. In 2013, the county had a population of 1,140,700 in an area of 634 square miles; the four towns that have between 50,000 and 100,000 residents are Hemel Hempstead, Watford and St Albans. Hertford, once the main market town for the medieval agricultural county, derives its name from a hart and a ford, used as the components of the county's coat of arms and flag. Elevations are high for the region in the west; these reach over 800 feet in the western projection around Tring, in the Chilterns. The county's borders are the watersheds of the Colne and Lea. Hertfordshire's undeveloped land is agricultural and much is protected by green belt; the county's landmarks span many centuries, ranging from the Six Hills in the new town of Stevenage built by local inhabitants during the Roman period, to Leavesden Film Studios.
The volume of intact medieval and Tudor buildings surpasses London, in places in well-preserved conservation areas in St Albans which includes some remains of Verulamium, the town where in the 3rd century an early recorded British martyrdom took place. Saint Alban, a Romano-British soldier, took the place of a Christian priest and was beheaded on Holywell Hill, his martyr's cross of a yellow saltire on a blue field is reflected in the flag and coat of arms of Hertfordshire. Hertfordshire is well-served with railways, providing good access to London; the largest sector of the economy of the county is in services. Hertfordshire was the area assigned to a fortress constructed at Hertford under the rule of Edward the Elder in 913. Hertford is derived from meaning deer crossing; the name Hertfordshire is first recorded in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle in 1011. Deer feature in many county emblems. There is evidence of humans living in Hertfordshire from the Mesolithic period, it was first farmed during the Neolithic period and permanent habitation appeared at the beginning of the Bronze Age.
This was followed by tribes settling in the area during the Iron Age. Following the Roman conquest of Britain in AD 43, the aboriginal Catuvellauni submitted and adapted to the Roman life. Saint Alban, a Romano-British soldier, took the place of a Christian priest and was beheaded on Holywell Hill, his martyr's cross of a yellow saltire on a blue field is reflected in the flag and coat of arms of Hertfordshire as the yellow field to the stag or Hart representing the county. He is the Patron Saint of Hertfordshire. With the departure of the Roman Legions in the early 5th century, the now unprotected territory was invaded and colonised by the Anglo-Saxons. By the 6th century the majority of the modern county was part of the East Saxon kingdom; this short lived kingdom collapsed in the 9th century, ceding the territory of Hertfordshire to the control of the West Anglians of Mercia. The region became an English shire in the 10th century, on the merger of the West Saxon and Mercian kingdoms. A century William of Normandy received the surrender of the surviving senior English Lords and Clergy at Berkhamsted, resulting in a new Anglicised title of William the Conqueror before embarking on an uncontested entry into London and his coronation at Westminster.
Hertfordshire was used for some of the new Norman castles at Bishop's Stortford, at King's Langley, a staging post between London and the royal residence of Berkhamsted. The Domesday Book recorded the county as having nine hundreds. Tring and Danais became one—Dacorum—from Danis Corum or Danish rule harking back to a Viking not Saxon past; the other seven were Braughing, Cashio, Hertford and Odsey. The first shooting-down of a zeppelin over Great Britain during WW1 happened in Cuffley; as London grew, Hertfordshire became conveniently close to the English capital. However, the greatest boost to Hertfordshire came during the Industrial Revolution, after which the population rose dramatically. In 1903, Letchworth became the world's first garden city and Stevenage became the first town to redevelop under the New Towns Act 1946. From the 1920s until the late 1980s, the town of Borehamwood was home to one of the major British film studio complexes, including the MGM-British Studios. Many well-known films were made here including the first three Star Wars movies.
The studios used the name of Elstree. American director Stanley Kubrick not only used to shoot in those studios but lived in the area until his death. Big Brother UK and Who Wants To Be A Millionaire? have been filmed there. EastEnders is filmed at Elstree. Hertfordshire has seen development at Warner Bros. Studios, Leavesden. On 17 October 2000, the Hatfield rail crash killed four people with over 70 injured; the crash exposed the shortcomings of Railtrack, which saw speed restrictions and major track replacement. On 10 May 2002, the second of the Potters Bar rail accidents occurred killing seven people.
Alexander Thomson (pioneer)
Dr. Alexander Thomson was elected as the first mayor of Geelong and held the position on five occasions from 1850 to 1858. Thomson was the first settler in the area known as Belmont, a suburb of Geelong and called his homestead Kardinia, a property now listed on the Register of the National Estate. Thomson was the son of Alexander Thomson, a shipowner of Aberdeen, baptised 28 March 1798, he was educated at Dr Todd's school at Tichfield, Aberdeen University, at London, where he studied under Sir Everard Home and qualified for the medical profession. In March 1824 he married Barbara Dalrymple. In 1825 Thomson sailed to Tasmania as a surgeon on a convict ship, the first of several voyages made by him, he was in comfortable circumstances having been left a sum of £9500 by his mother. In 1831 he decided to settle in Tasmania, bringing with him his wife and daughter, obtained a grant of 4000 acres of land. In 1832 Thomson bought two small steamers and established a service between Hobart and Kangaroo Point.
He, sold both vessels during the next two years. He became interested in the colonisation of Port Phillip District, but did not join the Port Phillip Association, though invited to do so, in November 1835 he sent across the first cattle to arrive in the new settlement, a draft of 50 Hereford cows. In March 1836 Thomson arrived with his daughter, he came over as medical officer and catechist for the Port Phillip Association, built a house near the corner of Flinders and Elizabeth streets, Melbourne. In May he acted as one of three arbitrators in connexion with disputes between Henry Batman and John Pascoe Fawkner, before his house was completed he was in the habit of holding a service on Sunday in his tent. Thomson was secretary to the first public meeting held on 1 June, he resigned this position in January 1837. Having selected land on the present site of Geelong, Thomson settled there, he did some exploring, acquired more land in several localities, in 1846 held about 150,000 acres. He was a director of the Port Phillip bank, a failure, the Port Phillip Steam Navigation Company, he was the first to make cash advances on wool.
He was foremost in every movement connected with Geelong from the removal of the bar at the mouth of the harbour to the founding of a mechanics' institute. He took much interest in church affairs and in the well-being of the aborigines. In these matters he gave not only time, he spent considerable sums of money; the town was incorporated in 1849 having 8000 inhabitants, and, as was fitting, Thomson was elected its first mayor. He field this position again in 1851, 1855, 1856 and 1857, he had been elected a member of the New South Wales Legislative Council as one of the representatives of the Electoral district of Port Phillip in 1843, but as it was difficult to attend the meetings at Sydney, soon resigned. He was active in the anti-transportation movement, in 1852 was elected a member of the Victorian Legislative Council for Geelong, brought in and passed a bill incorporating the "Geelong and Melbourne Railway Company". Thomson was one of the directors; the line was completed in 1857. In the meanwhile Thomson had resigned his seat in the council and visited England where he found he could get no information about the Australian colonies bills.
There had been a change of ministers and Lord John Russell, now in charge of the colonial office, had gone to Vienna. Thomson followed him there, obtained an interview, got a promise that there would be a separate constitution bill for the colony of Victoria. In May 1855 Lord John Russell sent him a copy of the bill. In 1857 Thomson was elected member for Geelong in the Victorian Legislative Assembly but resigned in April 1859. Thomson was elected member for Geelong East in October 1859, holding this seat until July 1861, his many activities had led to the neglect of his own financial affairs, towards the end of his life he accepted the position of medical officer to the Sunbury boys' home. He was buried in the old Geelong cemetery, his wife and a daughter survived him. The suburb of Thomson was named after Dr. Thomson as well as Thomson Street Belmont, the nucleus of the Belmont Heights Estate, until the first World War, part of his extensive rural property. A parish of the Uniting Church in Australia and the Alexander Thomson Cricket Club, competing in the Geelong Cricket Association, was named after him.
Lyndsay Gardiner,'Thomson, Alexander', Australian Dictionary of Biography, Volume 2, MUP, 1967, pp 522–523. Additional resources listed by the Australian Dictionary of Biography: Garryowen, The Chronicles of Early Melbourne, vols 1–2 T. F. Bride, Letters from Victorian Pioneers H. G. Turner, A History of the Colony of Victoria, vols 1–2 R. H. Croll and R. R. Wettenhall, Dr. Alexander Thomson: A Pioneer of Melbourne and Founder of Geelong A. D. Gilchrist, John Dunmore Lang, vols 1–2 P. L. Brown, Clyde Company Papers, vols 2–5. Alexander Thomson Cricket Club
Whitby is a seaside town and civil parish in the Scarborough borough of North Yorkshire, England. Situated on the east coast of Yorkshire at the mouth of the River Esk, Whitby has a maritime and tourist heritage, its East Cliff is home to the ruins of Whitby Abbey, where Cædmon, the earliest recognised English poet, lived. The fishing port emerged during the Middle Ages, supporting important herring and whaling fleets, was where Captain Cook learned seamanship. Tourism started in Whitby during the Georgian period and developed with the arrival of the railway in 1839, its attraction as a tourist destination is enhanced by the proximity of the high ground of the North York Moors national park and the heritage coastline and by association with the horror novel Dracula. Jet and alum were mined locally, Whitby Jet, mined by the Romans and Victorians, became fashionable during the 19th century; the earliest record of a permanent settlement is in 656, when as Streanæshealh it was the place where Oswy, the Christian king of Northumbria, founded the first abbey, under the abbess Hilda.
The Synod of Whitby was held there in 664. In 867, the monastery was destroyed by Viking raiders. Another monastery was founded in 1078, it was in this period. In the following centuries Whitby functioned as a fishing settlement until, in the 18th century, it developed as a port and centre for shipbuilding and whaling, the trade in locally mined alum, the manufacture of Whitby jet jewellery; the abbey ruin at the top of the East Cliff is the town's most prominent landmark. Other significant features include the swing bridge, which crosses the River Esk and the harbour, sheltered by the grade II listed East and West piers; the town's maritime heritage is commemorated by statues of Captain Cook and William Scoresby, as well as the whalebone arch that sits at the top of the West Cliff. The town has a strong literary tradition and has featured in literary works and cinema, most famously in Bram Stoker's novel Dracula. While Whitby's cultural and historical heritage contribute to the local economy, the town does suffer from the economic constraints of its remote location, ongoing changes in the fishing industry underdeveloped transport infrastructure, limitations on available land and property.
As a result and some forms of fishing remain the mainstay of its economy. It is the closest port to a proposed wind farm development in the North Sea, 47 miles from York and 22 miles from Middlesbrough. There are transport links to the rest of North Yorkshire and North East England through national rail links to Middlesbrough and road links to Teesside, via both the A171 and A174, Scarborough by the former; as at 2011, the town had a population of 13,213. Whitby was called Streanæshalc, Streoneshalch and Streunes-Alae in Lindissi in records of the 7th and 8th centuries. Prestebi, meaning the "habitation of priests" in Old Norse, is an 11th century name, its name was recorded as Hwitebi and Witebi, meaning the "white settlement" in Old Norse, in the 12th century, Whitebi in the 13th century and Qwiteby in the 14th century. A monastery was founded at Streanæshealh in AD 657 by King Oswiu or Oswy of Northumbria, as an act of thanksgiving, after defeating Penda, the pagan king of Mercia. At its foundation, the abbey was an Anglo-Saxon ` double monastery' for women.
Its first abbess, the royal princess Hild, was venerated as a saint. The abbey became a centre of learning and here Cædmon the cowherd was "miraculously" transformed into an inspired poet whose poetry is an example of Anglo-Saxon literature; the abbey became the leading royal nunnery of the kingdom of Deira, the burial-place of its royal family. The Synod of Whitby, in 664, established the Roman date of Easter in Northumbria at the expense of the Celtic one; the monastery was destroyed between 867 and 870 in a series of raids by Vikings from Denmark under their leaders Ingwar and Ubba. Its site remained desolate for more than 200 years until after the Norman Conquest of 1066. After the Conquest, the area was granted to William de Percy who, in 1078 donated land to found a Benedictine monastery dedicated to St Peter and St Hilda. William de Percy's gift included land for the monastery, the town and port of Whitby and St Mary's Church and dependent chapels at Fyling, Sneaton, Ugglebarnby and Aislaby, five mills including Ruswarp, Hackness with two mills and two churches.
In about 1128 Henry I granted the abbey burgage in Whitby and permission to hold a fair at the feast of St Hilda on 25 August. A second fair was held close to St Hilda's winter feast at Martinmas. Market rights descended with the liberty. Whitby Abbey surrendered in December 1539. In 1540 the town had between 20 and 30 houses and a population of about 200; the burgesses, who had little independence under the abbey, tried to obtain self-government after the dissolution of the monasteries. The king ordered Letters Patent to be drawn up granting their requests. In 1550 the Liberty of Whitby Strand, except for Hackness, was granted to the Earl of Warwick who in 1551 conveyed it to Sir John York and his wife Anne who sold the lease to the Cholmleys. In the reign of Elizabeth I, Whitby was a small fishing port. In 1635 the owners of the liberty governed the port and town where 24 burgesses had the privilege of buying and selling goods brought in by sea. Burgage tenure continued until 1837, when by an Act of Parliament, government of the town was entrusted to a board of Improvement Commissioners, elected by the ratepayers.
At the end of the 1
Parliament of New South Wales
The Parliament of New South Wales, located in Parliament House on Macquarie Street, Sydney, is the main legislative body in the Australian state of New South Wales. It is a bicameral parliament elected by the people of the state in general elections; the parliament shares law making powers with the Australian Federal Parliament. It is Australia's oldest legislature; the New South Wales Parliament follows the Westminster parliamentary traditions of dress, Green–Red chamber colours and protocol. The Parliament derives its authority from the Queen of Australia, Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II, represented by the Governor of New South Wales, who chairs the Executive Council of New South Wales, it consists of a lower house, the New South Wales Legislative Assembly, an upper house, the New South Wales Legislative Council. Each house is directly elected by the people of New South Wales at elections held every four years; the Parliament of New South Wales is Australia's oldest legislature. It had its beginnings.
A small, appointed Legislative Council began meeting in 1824 to advise the Governor on legislative matters. By 1843, this had been enlarged with two-thirds of its members elected by adult males who met certain property requirements. In 1856, under a new Constitution, the Parliament became bicameral with a elected Legislative Assembly and an appointed Legislative Council with a Government taking over most of the legislative powers of the Governor; the right to vote was extended to all adult males in 1858. In 1850 the Australian Colonies Government Act was passed by the Imperial Parliament; this expanded the New South Wales Legislative Council so that by 1851 there were 54 members – again, with two-thirds elected. In 1853, a select committee chaired by William Wentworth began drawing up a Constitution for responsible self-government; the Committee’s proposed Constitution was placed before the Legislative Council in August that year and, for the most part, accepted. The Constitution, with an upper house whose members were appointed for life, was sent to the Imperial Parliament and was passed into law on 16 July 1855.
The new Parliament of New South Wales was to be a bicameral legislature, similar to that of the United Kingdom. On 22 May 1856, the newly constituted New South Wales Parliament sat for the first time. With the new 54-member Legislative Assembly taking over the council chamber, a second meeting chamber for the 21 member upper house had to be added to the Parliament building in Macquarie Street. In 1859 Queensland was made a colony separate from New South Wales; the Legislative Assembly was reduced from 80 to 72 members by the loss of the Queensland seats. In 1901, New South Wales became a state of the Commonwealth of Australia and many government functions were transferred to the new Commonwealth government; the current Constitution of New South Wales was adopted in 1902: the Constitution Act 1902. Women gained the right to vote in Commonwealth elections in April 1902 and in New South Wales state elections in August 1902. In 1918, reforms permitted women to be Members of Parliament, although no woman was elected until 1925 when Millicent Preston-Stanley was elected to represent Eastern Suburbs.
That same year, a proportional representation system was introduced for the Legislative Assembly with multiple representatives from each electorate. Women were not able to be appointed to the Legislative Council until 1926; the first two women appointed to the Legislative Council were both ALP members proposed on 23 November 1931: Catherine Green, who took her seat the following day, Ellen Webster, who joined her two days later. In 1925, 1926 and 1929, Premier Jack Lang made attempts at abolishing the Legislative Council, following the example of the Queensland Legislative Council in 1922, but all were unsuccessful; the debate did, result in another round of reforms, in 1933, the law was changed so that a quarter of the Legislative Council was elected every three years by members of the Legislative Assembly and the Legislative Council, rather than being appointed by the Governor. In 1962 Indigenous Australians gained the right to vote in all state elections. In 1978, the Council became a directly elected body in a program of electoral reform introduced by the Wran Labor government.
The number of members was reduced to 45, although transitional arrangements meant that there were 43 members from 1978 to 1981, 44 from 1981 to 1984. Further reform in 1991 by the Greiner Liberal-National government saw the size of the Legislative Council cut to 42 members, with half being elected every 4 years. In 1991, the Legislative Assembly was reduced from 109 to 99 Members and to 93 members in 1999; the Parliament building was built on the orders of Governor Lachlan Macquarie to be Sydney's second major hospital because, when he arrived in Sydney, he recognised the need for a new hospital. In 1810, he awarded the contract to Alexander Riley and Dr. D'Arcy Wentworth; the contract gave the builders the right to import 45,000 gallons of rum, for which they paid a duty of 3 shillings a gallon. They were able to sell it for a huge profit and in turn the government refunded them the duty as a payment for their work, thereby gaining for their construction the title of the'Rum Hospital'. Consisting of three buildings, the central main building was demolished in 1879 to make way for the new Sydney Hospital, completed in 1885.
The first building, now known as the Sydney Mint, was given to the Royal Mint in 1851 to become the
Cockermouth is an ancient market town and civil parish in the Borough of Allerdale in Cumbria, England, so named because it is at the confluence of the River Cocker as it flows into the River Derwent. The mid-2010 census estimates state that Cockermouth has a population of 8,204, increasing to 8,761 at the 2011 Census. A part of Cumberland, Cockermouth is situated outside the English Lake District on its northwest fringe. Much of the architectural core of the town remains unchanged since the basic medieval layout was filled in the 18th and 19th centuries; the regenerated market place is now a central historical focus within the town and reflects events during its 800-year history. The town is prone to flooding and has experienced severe floods in 2005, 2009, 2015. Cockermouth, is "the mouth of the River Cocker", it has been noted on lists of unusual place names. Cockermouth owes its existence to the confluence of the rivers Cocker and Derwent, being the lowest point at which the resultant fast flowing river powered by the Lake District could be bridged.
Cockermouth is situated a few minutes travelling distance from lakes such as Buttermere, Crummock Water and Bassenthwaite. Cockermouth has a temperate climate, influenced by the Irish Sea and its low-lying elevation. Cockermouth receives below average rainfall compared with the UK average. Temperatures are round about average compared with other parts of the UK; the nearest weather station for which online records are available is Aspatria, about 7 miles north-northeast of the town centre. The hottest temperatures recorded in the area were 31.3 °C at Lorton on 19 July 2006 and 31.1 °C at Aspatria during August 1990, with the coldest being −13.9 °C during January 1982 at Aspatria and −13.8 °C at Lorton on 8 December 2010. West Cumbria gets little snow in comparison with the Lake District and Eastern Cumbria. Owing to its proximity to the Irish Sea and its low height above sea level; the Romans built a fort at Derventio Carvetiorum, now the adjoining village of Papcastle, to protect the river crossing on a major route for troops heading towards Hadrian's Wall.
The main town developed under the Normans who, after occupying the former Roman fort, built Cockermouth Castle closer to the river crossing: little remains today of the castle thanks to the efforts of Robert the Bruce. The market town developed its distinctive medieval layout, of a broad main street of burgesses' houses, each with a burgage plot stretching to a "back lane": the Derwent bank on the north and Back Lane, on the south; the layout is preserved, leading the British Council for Archaeology to say in 1965 that it was worthy of special care in preservation and development. The town market pre-dates 1221. Market charters were granted in 1221 and 1227 by King Henry III, although this does not preclude the much earlier existence of a market in the town. In recent times, the trading farmers market now only occurs seasonally, replaced by weekend continental and craft markets. In the days when opening hours of public houses were restricted, the fact that the pubs in Cockermouth could open all day on market days made the town a popular destination for drinkers on Bank Holiday Mondays.
The Market Bell remains as a reminder of this period. While the 1761 and Castle pub have been renovated to reveal medieval stonework and 16th and 18th-century features. Much of the centre of the town is of medieval origin rebuilt in Georgian style with Victorian infill; the tree lined Kirkgate offers examples of unspoilt classical late 17th and 18th-century terraced housing, cobbled paving and curving lanes which run steeply down to the River Cocker. Most of the buildings are of traditional slate and stone construction with thick walls and green Skiddaw slate roofs. Many of the facades lining the streets are frontages for historic housing in alleyways and lanes to the rear. Examples of Georgian residences may be found near the Market Place, St. Helens Street, at the bottom of Castlegate Drive and Kirkgate. Cockermouth lays claim to be the first town in Britain to have piloted electric lighting. In 1881 six powerful electric lamps were set up to light the town, together with gas oil lamps in the back streets.
Service proved intermittent, there was afterwards a return to gas lighting. In 1964, Cockermouth was named one of 51'Gem Towns' in the UK, by the Council for British Archaeology; this recognised the importance of the historic buildings, the need to manage traffic management and the urban development. The centre of Cockermouth retains much of its historic character and the renovation of Market Place has been completed, now with an artistic and community focus; the Kirkgate Centre is the town's major cultural focus and offers regular historical displays by the Cockermouth Museum Group in addition to holding major cultural events including theatre, international music and world cinema. The tree-lined main street boasts a statue of Lord Mayo an MP for Cockermouth, who became British Viceroy of India and whose subsequent claim to fame was that he was assassinated; the renovated arts and cultural zone in the 13th century Market Place has undergone something of a "regeneration" following European Union funding, is now pedestrian-friendly adorned with stone paving and roadways, underground lighting and controversial seating in bright colours to reflect the area's facades.
Pavement art and stonework commemorate eclectic histori
Thomas Mitchell (explorer)
Lieutenant Colonel Sir Thomas Livingstone Mitchell and explorer of south-eastern Australia, was born at Grangemouth in Stirlingshire, Scotland. In 1827 he took up an appointment as Assistant Surveyor General of New South Wales; the following year he remained in this position until his death. Mitchell was knighted in 1839 for his contribution to the surveying of Australia. Born in Scotland on 15 June 1792, he was son of John Mitchell of Carron Works and was brought up from childhood by his uncle, Thomas Livingstone of Parkhall, Stirlingshire. On the death of his uncle, he joined the British army in Portugal as a volunteer, at the age of sixteen. On 24 June 1811, at the age of nineteen, he received his first commission as 2nd Lieutenant in the 1st Battalion 95th Rifles. Utilising his skills as a draughtsman of outstanding ability, he was employed in the Quartermaster-General's department under Sir George Murray, he was present at the storming of the fortresses of Ciudad Rodrigo and San Sebastian as well as the battles of Salamanca and the Pyrenees.
Subsequently, he would receive the Military General Service Medal with bars for each of these engagements. When the war was over Murray obtained permission from the Treasury for an officer to reside in Spain and Portugal for four years to complete the sketches of the battlefields, begun during the war for the Military Depot. Lieutenant Mitchell, was selected as a person well qualified in every respect to aid in the accomplishment of the undertaking; the first duty allotted to him was the completing of such sketches, begun during the war, as had remained unfinished, adding to these several other important surveys, for the execution of which it had been impossible to allot officers whilst operations were in progress in the field. But in the summer of 1819 the continuance of the disbursements made by Government for the undertaking became doubtful, so he was called home, he devoted himself to the second part of his task, that of making finished drawings from the materials compiled by himself, from other documents of ascertained authenticity.
But with the cessation of the Government allowances he had to stop this work. On 10 June 1818, during his posting in Spain and Portugal, he married Mary Blunt in Lisbon and gained promotion to a company in the 54th Regiment; the portrait of Mitchell shows him in the uniform of Major of the 1st Rifle Brigade of the 95th Regiment, complete with whistle used to direct the movement of his troops. With the reductions in the military establishment of the country which followed the withdrawing of the Army of Occupation from France, Captain Mitchell was placed on half-pay, it was not until a lapse of several years, whilst Mitchell was in London between 1838 and 1840, that the work was completed. The finished drawings were published, by the London geographer James Wyld, in 1841. Wyld's Atlas containing the principle battles and affairs of the Peninsular War, together with a Memoir annexed to it, consisted of a text of the movement orders prepared at the same time by Murray. Of unimpeachable accuracy, it is the prime source for the topography of the war.
In 1827, with the support of Sir George Murray, Mitchell became Assistant Surveyor General of New South Wales with the right to succeed John Oxley. Oxley died the following year, on 27 May 1828, Mitchell became Surveyor General. In this post he did much to improve the quality and accuracy of surveying – a vital task in a colony where huge tracts of land were being opened up and sold to new settlers. One of the first roads surveyed under his leadership was the Great North Road, built by convict labour between 1826 and 1836 linking Sydney to the Hunter Region; the Great South Road convict-built, linked Sydney and Goulburn. He kept a record of his'Progress in roads and Public Works in New South Wales to 1855', including sketches and plans of Sydney, Emu Plains, the Blue Mountains, Victoria Pass, roads to Bathurst, Wiseman's Ferry, indigenous Australians; as Surveyor General, Mitchell completed maps and plans of Sydney, including Darling Point, Point Piper, the city, Port Jackson. In 1834 he was commissioned to survey a map of the Nineteen Counties.
The map he produced was done with such accuracy that he was awarded a knighthood. In 1831 a runaway convict named George Clarke, who had lived with Aborigines in the area for several years, claimed that a large river called Kindur flowed north-west from the Liverpool ranges in New South Wales to the sea. Charles Sturt believed that the Murray-Darling system formed the main river system of New South Wales and Mitchell wanted to prove Sturt wrong. Mitchell formed an expedition consisting of himself, assistant surveyor George Boyle White and 15 convicts who were promised remission for good conduct. Mitchell took 20 bullocks, three heavy drays, three light carts and nine horses to carry supplies, set out on 24 November 1831 to investigate the claim. On reaching Wollombi in the Hunter Valley, the local assistant surveyor, Heneage Finch, expressed a desire to join the expedition, he had established his credentials by surveying a route from Sydney to Wollombi, so Mitchell approved his request, provided he obtained extra supplies and men, he followed along later.
The expedition continued northward, climbed the Liverpool Range on 5 December, made Quirindi on 8 December. Shortly afterwards Finch arrived but inexplicably had not brought provisions, so Mitchell sent him back to get them. By 11 December the expedition had reached Wallamoul Station near Tamworth, the northern extent of white settlement at the time. Mitchell co
St Anne's Cathedral, Belfast
St Anne's Cathedral known as Belfast Cathedral, is a cathedral of the Church of Ireland in Donegall Street, Northern Ireland. It is unusual in serving two separate dioceses. A cathedral is the place where a bishop has a seat but Belfast Cathedral is unusual in having the seats of two bishops – the Bishop of Connor and the Bishop of Down & Dromore, it is the focal point of Belfast. The first architect was Sir Thomas Drew, the foundation stone being laid on 6 September 1899 by the Countess of Shaftesbury; the old parish church of St Anne by Francis Hiorne of 1776 had continued in use, up until 31 December 1903, while the new cathedral was constructed around it. The Good Samaritan window, to be seen in the sanctuary, is the only feature of the old church to be retained in the cathedral. Only the nave of the cathedral was built, this was consecrated on 2 June 1904. In 1924 it was decided to build the west front of the cathedral as a memorial to the Ulstermen and women who had served and died in the Great War.
The foundation stone for this was laid by Governor of Northern Ireland, the Duke of Abercorn on 2 June 1925 and the completed facade, to an amended design by the architect Sir Charles Archibald Nicholson, was dedicated in June 1927. In the meantime, the central crossing, in which the choir sits, was built between 1922 and 1924; the Baptistery, to plans drawn up by the late W H Lynn, who had assisted Sir Thomas Drew, was dedicated in 1928, the Chapel of the Holy Spirit, with its beautiful mosaics depicting Saint Patrick, was dedicated on 5 July 1932, the 1500th anniversary of the arrival of St Patrick in Ireland. Edward, Lord Carson, the leader of the Unionist cause at the time of the Home Rule Crisis, was buried in the south aisle of the cathedral in 1935. In 1941 the cathedral was destroyed by a German bomb, which caused extensive damage to surrounding properties. In 1955 work began at the east end of the cathedral; this work was dedicated in 1959, but it was not for another ten years that it was possible to begin work on the north and south transepts.
The Troubles and inflation led to major problems with the financing of this work. The south transept, containing the Chapel of Unity, with the organ loft above, was dedicated in 1974, the north transept, with the large Celtic cross designed by John MacGeagh on the exterior, housing the Chapel of the Royal Irish Rifles, was completed in 1981. In April 2007 a 40-metre stainless steel spire was installed on top of the cathedral. Named the "Spire of Hope", the structure is illuminated at night and is part of a wider redevelopment planned for the Cathedral Quarter; the base section of the spire protrudes through a glass platform in the cathedral's roof directly above the choir stalls, allowing visitors to view it from the nave. In 1976, the Dean of Belfast, Samuel B Crooks, started his annual Christmas'Sit Out', spending the week leading up to Christmas on the steps of the cathedral, accepting donations large and small from passers-by, which were distributed amongst many local charities. Dean Crooks soon became known as the "Black Santa".
The tradition has been continued by his successors. The week before Christmas each year, the Dean and members of the cathedral chapter sit outside the cathedral from 9 a.m. till 5.30 p.m. each day to raise money for charity and are still collectively known as the'Black Santa'. The tradition has raised several million pounds for charity. Services are held every day in the cathedral. Morning Prayer is said at 8.10 a.m.. Holy Communion is celebrated at 1:00pm on Wednesdays and Saints' Days and other Holy Days. On Sundays there are four services held in the cathedral, Holy Communion at 8.00 a.m. and 10:00 a.m. Choral Eucharist at 11:00 a.m. and Choral Evensong at 3:30 p.m. The cathedral's organ with 4 manuals, is the second largest pipe-organ in Northern Ireland, it was built by Harrison and Harrison in 1907 and rebuilt in 1969-1975. A specification of the organ can be found on the National Pipe Organ Register. William Ware 1776 - 1825 John Willis 1825 - 1847 James Thompson May 1847 - 1862 Henry A Wood 1863 - 1873 Isaac Waugh Nicholl 1874 - 1903 Charles J Brennan 1904 - 1964 Harry Grindle 1964 - 1976 Jonathan Gregory 1976 - 1984 Andrew Paul Padmore 1984 - 1988 David Drinkell 1988 - 2002.
Now organist of St John's Cathedral, St. John's, Newfoundland Brian Hunter 2002 - 2003 Philip Stopford 2003 - 2010 Ian Barber 2010 - 2017 Dr Ed Jones January - June 2018 David Stevens Dean of Belfast Chronological list of the Deans of St Anne's Belfast Cathedral, The Cathedral Church of St Anne - Official site