1950 Indianapolis 500
The 34th International 500-Mile Sweepstakes was held at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway on Tuesday, May 30, 1950. The event was part of the 1950 AAA National Championship Trail, it was race 3 of 7 in the 1950 World Championship of Drivers and paid points towards the World Championship. The event, did not attract any European entries for 1950. Giuseppe Farina planned to enter, but his car never arrived; the Indianapolis 500 would be included on the World Championship calendar through 1960. The race was scheduled for 200 laps, but was stopped after 138 laps due to rain. A rumor circulated in racing circles during and after this race that Johnnie Parsons's team discovered an irreparable crack in the engine block on race morning; the discovery precipitated Parsons to charge for the lap leader prizes. He set his sights on leading as many laps as possible before the engine was to fail. Furthermore, the race ending early due to rain saved Parsons's day allowing him to secure the victory before the engine let go.
However, the engine block crack was proved to be an urban myth, it was said to be a minor but acceptable level of porosity, which did not affect the performance. Parsons's win saw him score 9 points move to equal first in the first World Drivers' Championship alongside Giuseppe Farina and Juan Manuel Fangio, saw him become the first American to win a World Championship race. Despite the 500 being his only race in the 1950 World Championship, it would be enough to see him finish 6th in points. During the month, Clark Gable and Barbara Stanwyck were at the track to film scenes for the film To Please a Lady. Stanwyck was on hand in victory lane after the race for the traditional celebratory kiss to the winner. Time trials was scheduled for six days. Saturday May 13: Walt Faulkner won the pole position with a record run of 134.343 mph. Sunday May 14 Saturday May 20: The third day of time trials saw six cars complete runs. Bayliss Levrett was the fastest of the afternoon. Charles Van Acker was ruled physically disqualified, after a crash he suffered at the Speedway from 1949.
Sunday May 21 Saturday May 27: The day began with 11 spots open in the grid. Sunday May 28: Only one driver managed to bump his way into the field. Johnny McDowell bumped Cliff Griffith; the two Novi entries failed to qualify – Chet Miller had engine trouble in one of the cars, while the other snapped a supercharger shaft. Rain and two crashes cut the track time to less than three hours. Cy Marshall was among the few left in line when time trials closed at 6 p.m. Notes^1 – Includes 1 point for fastest lead lap = past winner = rookie Pole position: Walt Faulkner – 4:27.97 Fastest Lead Lap: Johnnie Parsons – 1:09.77 Shared drivers: Joie Chitwood and Tony Bettenhausen, after Bettenhausen retired. Points for 5th position were shared between the drivers. Henry Banks and Fred Agabashian Bayliss Levrett and Bill Cantrell First win for Firestone in the World Championship. World Drivers' Championship standingsNote: Only the top five positions are listed. Only the best 4 results counted towards the Championship.
The race was carried live on the precursor to the IMS Radio Network. The broadcast was sponsored by Perfect Circle Piston Bill Slater served as the anchor. Sid Collins moved into the booth for the first time to serve as analyst, conducted the victory lane interview at the conclusion of the race; the broadcast feature live coverage of the start, the finish, live updates throughout the race. Prior to the race, it was reported. WIBC personality Sid Collins was named as a replacement, Slater was able to arrive in time for race day. Collins, who had served as a turn reporter, was invited to be the co-anchor in the booth. For the first time, Collins interviewed the winner in victory lane at the conclusion of the race. Collins claims he burned his trousers on Parsons's hot exhaust pipe during the interview, which took place in the rain; because the race was shortened, Mutual had to interrupt Queen For A Day to cover the finish of the abbreviated event. This was cited by some as a reason why the Speedway would begin flag-to-flag coverage in 1953.
The race was carried live for the second year in a row on local television on WFBM-TV channel 6 of Indianapolis. Earl Townsend, Jr. was the announcer, along with Paul Roberts. After the race, Speedway management disallowed WFBM from broadcasting the race live again, feeling that gate attendance had been negatively affected. Indianapolis 500 History: Race & All-Time Stats – Official Site 1950 Indianapolis 500 Radio Broadcast, Mutual Van Camp's Pork & Beans Presents: Great Moments From the Indy 500 – Fleetwood Sounds, 1975 1950 Indianapolis 500 at RacingReference.info
Hyères, Provençal Occitan: Ieras in classical norm, or Iero in Mistralian norm) is a commune in the Var department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region in southeastern France. The old town lies 4 km from the sea clustered around the Castle of Saint Bernard, set on a hill. Between the old town and the sea lies the pine-covered hill of Costebelle, which overlooks the peninsula of Giens. Hyères is the oldest resort on the French Riviera; the Hellenic city of Olbia was refounded on the Phoenician settlement that dated to the fourth century BC. Greek and Roman antiquities have been found in the area; the first reference to the town dates from 964. A possession of the Viscount of Marseilles, it was transferred to Charles of Anjou. Louis IX King of France landed at Hyères in 1254. A commandry of the Knights Templar was based at the town in the 12th century, outside the town walls; the remaining remnant is the tower Saint-Blaise. After defecting from Soviet intelligence in 1937, Walter Krivitsky hid in Hyères.
As part of Operation Dragoon on 15 August 1944, the joint United States-Canada First Special Service Force came ashore off the coast of Hyères to take the islands of Port-Cros and Levant. The small German garrisons offered little resistance and the whole eastern part of Port-Cros was secured by 06:30. All fighting was over on Levant by the evening, but, on Port-Cros, the Germans withdrew into old thick-walled forts, it was only when naval guns were brought to bear that they realised that further resistance was useless. An intense naval barrage on 18 August 1944 heralded the next phase of the operation—the assault on the largest of the Hyères islands, Porquerolles. French forces—naval units and colonial formations, including Senegalese infantry—became involved on 22 August and subsequently occupied the island. A US-Canadian Special Forces landing at the eastern end of Porquerolles took large numbers of prisoners, the Germans preferring not to surrender to the Senegalese, its position facing the Mediterranean to the south makes it popular with tourists in the winter and makes it ideal for the cultivation of palm trees.
About 100,000 trees are exported from the area each year. As a result, the town is referred to as Hyères-les-Palmiers; the three islands of the Îles d'Hyères are just offshore. Porquerolles and Port-Cros form the Port-Cros National Park; the commune has a land area of 132.38 square kilometres. The city of Hyères has a hot-summer Mediterranean climate and it's one of the warmest cities in France. Winters are mild and summers are hot, with maximum temperatures surpassing 30 °C, it is one of the driest cities in France, with 57 rainy days per year and rainless summers. Lord Albemarle, the British ambassador, stayed in Hyères during the winter 1767-1768, Prince Augustus, sixth son of George III, stayed there in the winter of 1788 for health reasons; the English agronomist Arthur Young visited Hyères on the advice of Lady Craven on 10 September 1789. He mentioned the many British living there in his book Travels in France; the London-born and Eton-educated Anglo-Grison Charles de Salis died in Hyères in July 1781, aged 45, was buried in the Convent des Cordeliers.
In 1791, Charlotte Turner Smith published her novel Celestina, set in Hyères. During the period of the French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars, the British left the area, but they returned after 1815. Joseph Conrad, who lived for a while in Hyères, wrote his novel, The Rover, set in Hyères, during those years. William FitzRoy, 6th Duke of Grafton spent the winter and spring each year at Hyères because he and his wife suffered from ill health. Edwin Lee M. D. published in 1857 a book on the virtues of the climate of Hyères for the recovery of pulmonary consumption and in November 1880 Adolphe Smith first published The Garden of Hyères, still in print. In 1883, Robert Louis Stevenson came to Hyères and for about two years lived first at the Grand Hotel, in a chalet called Solitude in the present rue Victor-Basch, he wrote then: "That spot our garden and our view are sub-celestial. I sing daily with that great bard. I dwell next door to Heaven!" In years, he wrote from his retreat in Valima: "Happy.
In 1884, Elisabeth Douglas, daughter of Alfred, Lord Douglas, had a small "cottage", as she called it, built on the Costebelle hill by the architect Thomas Donaldson, who used to spend his winters in Hyères during those years. The British presence culminated in the winter of 1892 when Queen Victoria came for a stay of three weeks at the Albion Hotel. At that time, the British influence was so strong that shop signs were in both English. There was an English butcher, a chemist, two banks, two golf courses. There were two English churches, whose buildings still exist: All Saint's Church at Costebelle and Saint Paul's English Church, Avenue Beauregard; some signs of this English presence have vanished, like the small dell in the cemetery where there were once some hundred graves. Some of these, such as those of Lord Arthur Somerset or Richard John Meade, bore testimony to the aristocratic nature
Louis Rosier was a racing driver from France. He participated in 38 Formula One World Championship Grands Prix, debuting on 13 May 1950, he achieved 2 podiums, scored a total of 18 championship points. He won the Dutch Grand Prix twice in consecutive years between 1950 and 1951, the Circuit d'Albi, Grand-Prix de l'Albigeois and the 24 Hours of Le Mans with his son Jean-Louis Rosier. Rosier owned the Renault dealership of Clermont-Ferrand. In 2016, in an academic paper that reported a mathematical modeling study that assessed the relative influence of driver and machine, Rosier was ranked the 19th best Formula One driver of all time. Rosier finished 4th at Silverstone in a Talbot, in October 1948; the event was the RAC International Grand Prix, the first grand prix to be held in England since 1927. He drove a 4.5-liter, unsupercharged Talbot-Lago to 3rd place at the 1949 British Grand Prix at Silverstone. He was a lap behind the winner with a speed of 76.21 miles per hour. Rosier won an International Grand Prix at Spa-Francorchamps in June 1949.
He piloted a Talbot in the 500-kilometre, 32-lap event, achieving a time of 3 hours, 15 minutes, 17 seconds. He assumed the lead after 23 laps. Rosier won the 1950 24 Hours of Le Mans in a blue Talbot, he teamed up with his son Jean-Louis Rosier who only drove two laps during the race, which means Louis won the race by himself. He finished one lap ahead of Pierre Meyrat; the Rosiers covered 256 laps, 2,163 miles, in 23:54:2.2. Rosier captured the Grand Prix d'Albi in Albi, France in May 1953, he drove a Ferrari, covering the 18 laps of the finals, 160 kilometres, in 56:36:8. He averaged 160 kilometres per hour. Rosier placed second in a Ferrari at a Grand Prix in Aix-Les-Bains, in July 1953, his time was 2:24:48.1. In April 1956 Rosier finished 4th in a 201-mile race at Aintree. Stirling Moss drove a blue Maserati to victory in the 67-lap event for Formula One cars, with an average speed of 84.24 miles per hour. Rosier finished 5th at the 1956 German Grand Prix behind the wheel of a Maserati. Louis Rosier was the owner and manager of a racing team, the "Ecurie Rosier".
Set up to run Rosier's Talbot-Lago T26, evolved to an actual team running 250Fs and Ferrari 500s for Rosier and another driver. Throughout the 1950s, Écurie Rosier provided drives in Formula One for Henri Louveau, Georges Grignard, Louis Chiron, Maurice Trintignant, André Simon and Robert Manzon. Louis Rosier was one of the key sponsors of the Charade race track. After World War II, Jean Auchatraire and Louis Rosier promoted the idea of a race track around Clermont-Ferrand. A set of preliminary designs were drawn up for a circuit of a length between 4 and 6 km, meeting the latest safety regulations with large parking capacity at a location just outside the city limits on a hilly landscape; the Le Mans disaster on 11 June 1955 brought the project to a halt. All race events were postponed. No further events were allowed to take place on temporary urban tracks. Racing events were only to be allowed on dedicated race-tracks, providing that they met a new set of rules. In Clermont-Ferrand, as was the case for many other new race tracks, new safety devices were being imagined and discussed and assessed.
But the concept of a "mountain race track" moved forward. It would be the only one of its kind in France. Auchatraire and Raymond Roche worked together to get the project accepted by the political community before searching for funding, but Rosier was killed at Montlhéry on 26 October 1956 and would not witness his project come to fruition. The racetrack was opened on 27 July 1958, with the name of its famous founder "Circuit de Charade Louis Rosier". Soon after, several champions participated in racing events on the track, each of them, including Stirling Moss, making positive statements about the track and its surrounding. Rosier's Renault dealership in Clermont-Ferrand was one of the largest Renault dealerships in France. Rosier's dealership sold other industrial and farming equipment; the building housing this important business has been destroyed. In 1951, Louis Rosier designed a prototype based on the 4CV Renault. In 1953, using the concept of a barchetta that he raced at Le Mans, together with Italian coachbuilder Rocco Motto, designed a cabriolet, still using 4CV Renault sub assemblies.
This model was built in a quantity of about 200 units by Brissonneau. It was introduced at a car show in New York; some time he designed a roadster using Renault Frégate elements with an aluminum body developed by Rocco Motto, on a multi-tubular frame. The engine was revised, the body was lightened, the results was an interesting 950 kg for 80 hp. Louis Rosier sustained head injuries in a crash at the Montlhéry track, south of Paris, France, on 7 October 1956. Three weeks on 29 October 1956, Rosier succumbed to the injuries received in the crash. * Indicates shared drive with Charles Pozzi
Ferrari Berlinetta Boxer
The Ferrari Berlinetta Boxer is an automobile, produced by Ferrari in Italy between 1973 and 1984. Replacing the front engined Daytona, it was the first in a series of Ferraris to use a mid-mounted flat-12 engine; the Boxer was designed by Leonardo Fioravanti and was the first mid-engined road-car to bear the Ferrari name and the Cavallino Rampante logo. It was replaced by the Testarossa; the BB was not imported into the United States by the Ferrari company, as Enzo Ferrari believed that emerging environmental and safety regulations and a 55 MPH national speed limit suggested the company's 8 cylinder cars would suffice in the US market. Instead, dealers in the United States contracted with independent third parties that made the necessary EPA and US DOT modifications such as the installation of catalytic converters, many of them are now in the United States. Production of the BB was a major step for Enzo Ferrari, he felt that a mid-engined road car would be too difficult for his buyers to handle, it took many years for his engineers to convince him to adopt the layout.
This attitude began to change as the marque lost its racing dominance in the late 1950s to mid-engined competitors. The mid-engined 6- and 8-cylinder Dino racing cars were the result, Ferrari allowed for the production Dino road cars to use the layout as well; the company moved its V12 engines to the rear with its P and LM racing cars, but the Daytona was launched in 1968 with its engine in front. The BB was the first mid-engined 12-cylinder road car; the first "Boxer" was the 365 GT4 BB shown at the 1971 Turin Motor Show. Designed to rival the Lamborghini Miura and the newly developed Lamborghini Countach, it was released for sale in 1973 at the Paris Motor Show. 387 were built. The Pininfarina-designed body followed the P6 show car with popup headlights. Though it shared its numerical designation with the Daytona, the Boxer was radically different, it was a mid-engined car like the Dino, the now flat-12 engine was mounted longitudinally rather than transversely. The engine produced 380 hp more than the Daytona.
The engine shared its internal dimensions with the V12 from the Daytona, but was spread out to 180° as on Ferrari's 1970 Formula One car and was mounted above a five-speed manual transmission. One major difference in this engine was its use of timing belts rather than chains. Although referred to as a Boxer, the 180° V12 was not a true boxer engine, but rather a flat engine; the 365 GT4 BB was updated as the BB 512 in 1976, resurrecting the name of the earlier Ferrari 512 racer. The name 512 referred to the car's 12 cylinder engine; the engine was enlarged to 4943 cc, with an increased compression ratio of 9.2:1. Power was down to 360 hp, while a dual plate clutch handled the added torque and eased the pedal effort. Dry sump lubrication prevented oil starvation in hard cornering; the chassis remained unaltered. External differentiators included a new chin spoiler upfront, incorporated in the bumper. A NACA duct on the side provided cooling for the exhaust system. At the rear there were now twin tail lights and exhaust pipes each side, instead of triple units as on the 365 GT4 BB.929 BB 512 models were produced.
The Bosch K-Jetronic CIS fuel injected. The fuel injected motor produced cleaner emissions and offered a better balance of performance and driveability. External differentiators from the BB 512 besides badging include a change to metric sized wheels and the Michelin TRX metric tyre system, small white running lights in the nose, red rear fog lamps outboard of the exhaust pipes in the rear valance. 1,007 BB 512i models were produced. Measurements are notoriously variable and definitionally vague from Ferrari-issued sources of the same period. For example, the workshop manual documents maximum speed, whereas the owner's manual documents attainable speed, which appears to be speed at maximum HP per RPM not exceeding redline; the workshop manual does not distinguish measurements between the carbureted and injected engines except with respect to the fuel delivery system though it is common knowledge that differences exist. In 1974, Luigi Chinetti's North American Racing Team developed a racing variant of the 365 GT4 BB to replace the team's Daytonas for use in sports car racing.
NART's car debuted at the 24 Hours of Daytona in 1975 before earning a sixth-place finish at the 12 Hours of Sebring two months later. NART continued to use the car into 1978, by which time Ferrari had begun their own development of a racing variant of the updated 512 BB. Ferrari's Customer Assistance Department extensively modified four 512s in 1978, adding wider wheel arches, a roof-mounted aerofoil, reusing rear wings from Ferrari 312T2 Formula One cars. Power from the flat-12 was increased to 440 hp while the cars' weight was decreased to 1,200 kg; the four cars, termed BB LM by Ferrari, were entered by Charles Pozzi, Ecurie Francorchamps, NART in the 1978 24 Hours of Le Mans, but none was able to complete the race. After the failure of the first batch
Casablanca, located in the central-western part of Morocco and bordering the Atlantic Ocean, is the largest city in Morocco. It is the largest city in the Maghreb region, as well as one of the largest and most important cities in Africa, both economically and demographically. Casablanca is one of the largest financial centers on the continent. According to the 2014 population estimate, the city has a population of about 3.35 million in the urban area and over 6.8 million in the Casablanca-Settat region. Casablanca is considered the economic and business center of Morocco, although the national political capital is Rabat; the leading Moroccan companies and many international corporations doing business in the country have their headquarters and main industrial facilities in Casablanca. Recent industrial statistics show Casablanca retains its historical position as the main industrial zone of the country; the Port of Casablanca is one of the largest artificial ports in the world, the second largest port of North Africa, after Tanger-Med 40 km east of Tangier.
Casablanca hosts the primary naval base for the Royal Moroccan Navy. The original name of Casablanca was Anfa, in Berber language, by at least the seventh century BC. After the Portuguese took control of the city in the 15th century AD, they rebuilt it, changing the name to Casa Branca, it derives from the Portuguese word combination meaning "White House". The present name, the Spanish version, came when the Portuguese kingdom was integrated in personal union to the Spanish kingdom. During the French protectorate in Morocco, the name remained Casablanca. In 1755 an earthquake destroyed most of the town, it was rebuilt by Sultan Mohammed ben Abdallah who changed the name into the local Arabic, Ad-dar Al Baidaa', although Arabic has its own version of Casablanca. The city is still nicknamed Casa by many outsiders to the city. In many other cities with a different dialect, it is called Ad-dar Al-Bida, instead; the area, today Casablanca was founded and settled by Berbers by at least the seventh century BC.
It was used as a port by the Phoenicians and the Romans. In his book Description of Africa, Leo Africanus refers to ancient Casablanca as "Anfa", a great city founded in the Berber kingdom of Barghawata in 744 AD, he believed Anfa was the most "prosperous city on the Atlantic Coast because of its fertile land." Barghawata rose as an independent state around this time, continued until it was conquered by the Almoravids in 1068. Following the defeat of the Barghawata in the 12th century, Arab tribes of Hilal and Sulaym descent settled in the region, mixing with the local Berbers, which led to widespread Arabization. During the 14th century, under the Merinids, Anfa rose in importance as a port; the last of the Merinids were ousted by a popular revolt in 1465. In the early 15th century, the town became an independent state once again, emerged as a safe harbour for pirates and privateers, leading to it being targeted by the Portuguese, who bombarded the town which led to its destruction in 1468; the Portuguese used the ruins of Anfa to build a military fortress in 1515.
The town that grew up around it was called meaning "white house" in Portuguese. Between 1580 and 1640, the Crown of Portugal was integrated to the Crown of Spain, so Casablanca and all other areas occupied by the Portuguese were under Spanish control, though maintaining an autonomous Portuguese administration; as Portugal broke ties with Spain in 1640, Casablanca came under Portuguese control once again. The Europeans abandoned the area in 1755 following an earthquake which destroyed most of the town; the town was reconstructed by Sultan Mohammed ben Abdallah, the grandson of Moulay Ismail and an ally of George Washington, with the help of Spaniards from the nearby emporium. The town was called الدار البيضاء ad-Dār al-Bayḍāʼ, the Arabic translation of the Spanish Casa Blanca. In the 19th century, the area's population began to grow as it became a major supplier of wool to the booming textile industry in Britain and shipping traffic increased. By the 1860s, around 5,000 residents were there, the population grew to around 10,000 by the late 1880s.
Casablanca remained a modestly sized port, with a population reaching around 12,000 within a few years of the French conquest and arrival of French colonialists in the town, at first administrators within a sovereign sultanate, in 1906. By 1921, this rose to 110,000 through the development of shanty towns. In June 1907, the French attempted to build a light railway near the port and passing through a graveyard; as an act of resistance and protestation, the locals attacked the French, riots ensued, causing a few soldiers to be wounded and one general to be killed. In response, the French attacked by ship, bombarding the city from the coast, landing troops inside the town, which caused severe damage to the town and 15,000 dead and wounded bodies; the French claimed. This began the process of colonization, although French control of Casablanca was not formalised until 1910. Under the French rule, Muslim anti-Jewish riots occurred in 1908; the famous 1942 film Casablanca, although filmed in Los Angeles, is supposed to have been set in Casablanca.
The film underlined the city's colonial status at the time—depicting it as the scene of a power s
Levallois-Perret is a commune in the northwestern suburbs of Paris, France. It is located 6.4 km from the centre of Paris. It is the most densely populated town in Europe. Together with neighboring Neuilly-sur-Seine, it is one of the most expensive suburbs of Paris; the name Levallois-Perret comes from two housing developments and Village Levallois, which resulted in the incorporation of the commune. On the territory of what is now Levallois-Perret, before the French Revolution, the village of Villiers and the hamlet of Courcelles were there, they now give their names to two Paris Métro stations. At the time of the creation of French communes during the French Revolution, they were part of the commune of Clichy, the commune of Neuilly-sur-Seine extended over what is now the south-western part of Levallois-Perret. Landowner Jean-Jacques Perret started some housing developments in 1822 in the northeast of the commune of Neuilly-sur-Seine, in a place soon called Champerret, which gave its name to one station of the Paris Métro.
In 1845, Nicolas-Eugène Levallois started some housing developments for landowner André Noël on his land near La Planchette. The land developed by Nicolas-Eugène Levallois soon became known as Village Levallois. In the 1860s, the village had grown to the point of forming a single builtup area. Several demands were made to the authorities as a commune. On 30 June 1866, the commune of Levallois-Perret was created by detaching that part of the territory of Clichy where the Village Levallois stood and merging it with that part of the territory of Neuilly-sur-Seine of Champerret; the Eiffel company had its factory in the city and so the structure of the Statue of Liberty and the Eiffel Tower were built there. Levallois-Perret became an important centre of the early French automotive industry with the establishment of companies such as Clément-Bayard and coachbuilders Chapron and Faget & Varnet. Citroën purchased the Clément-Bayard factory and the famous Citroën 2CV was produced in Levallois for nearly forty years.
Levallois-Perret was an important centre of cosmetics industry in the early 20th century. It is home to the large European commercial real estate company Atisreal and the conglomerate Alstom; the northern part of the famous Île de la Jatte in the river Seine, is where French impressionist painters created many of their masterpieces. It is part of the commune of Levallois-Perret. Part of the wealthy Ouest Parisien, Levallois-Perret is the most densely-populated commune of France and Europe. Patrick Balkany has been mayor of the city for 20 years in a row. Molenbeek-Saint-Jean, Belgium The Schöneberg district, Germany Clichy Neuilly-sur-Seine Asnières-sur-Seine Courbevoie Paris Levallois-Perret constitutes one canton: canton of Levallois-Perret. Alstom has its headquarters in Levallois-Perret. Speed Rabbit Pizza has its headquarters in the commune. EVA Air has its Paris office in Levallois-Perret. According to Le Journal du Net, the debt per inhabitant of Levallois is 9,030 euros, the French record.
Carrefour had its head office in Levallois-Perret. Public preschools and elementary schools: Alfred-de-Musset Anatole-France Buffon George-Sand Jules-Ferry Maurice-Ravel Saint-Exupéry Edith Gorce-Franklin Public preschools: Charles-Perrault Jean-Jaurès Louis-PasteurPublic elementary schools: Françoise-Dolto Jean-de-La-FontainePrivate preschools and elementary schools: Ecole maternelle et élémentaire Sainte-Marie-de-la-Providence Ecole maternelle et élémentaire Emilie-BrandtJunior high schools: Collège Danton Collège Jean-Jaurès Collège Louis-Blériot Collège privé Saint-JustinSenior high schools/sixth-form colleges: Lycée Léonard de VinciLycée Montalembert is in nearby Courbevoie Post-secondary: École supérieure des techniques aéronautiques et de construction automobile are in the city. Levallois-Perret is served by three stations on Paris Métro Line 3: Louise Michel, Anatole France, Pont de Levallois – Bécon, it is served by Clichy – Levallois station on the Transilien Paris – Saint-Lazare suburban rail line.
The municipality of Levallois-Perret operates two free bus lines circulating the town. Levallois Sporting Club is one of the most important sports club in France with 14500 members. Among them you can find notable sportsperson like Gauthier Grumier and Gevrise Emane. During his youth Didier Drogba played for the football section; the traditional coat of arms for the municipality puts emphasis on the importance of industry in the its history. The centre of the arms consists of a shield with red background. Three red bees, are depicted on a silver bend from the top left to bottom right of the shield, these are another symbol of work in the city, beekeeping taking place at the île de la Jatte; the coat of arms has a wreath at the bottom around the shield and three castles topping the shield. VILLE DE / LEVALLOIS – PERRET, is inscribed in black letters above the coat of arms. A cartoon-style bee is used in the modern emblem of the municipality. Oli
Saint-Gaudens is a commune and a sub-prefecture of the Haute-Garonne department in southwestern France. Saint-Gaudens lies at an altitude of 405 m on a ledge overlooking the valley of the Garonne, it faces the Pyrenees and is a natural crossroads for routes between the Atlantic and the Mediterranean and between Toulouse and the Val d'Aran in Catalonia. It has been inhabited since ancient times and was called Mas-Saint-Pierre, before taking the name of the young shepherd, martyred by the Visigoths at the end of the 5th century for refusing to renounce his faith; the town developed around the 11th century Romanesque church. It was granted its city charter in 1202 and became the capital of the Nébouzan area, protected by solid ramparts; as an important regional marketplace, Saint-Gaudens became the economic capital of the Comminges. The town was damaged by Protestant forces under Montgomery in 1569, became the seat of the Nébouzan Assembly after coming under the control of the French crown in 1607.
The name was changed to "Mont-Unité" during the Revolution and the area became part of the Haute-Garonne départment. The Collegiate Church of St. Peter and St. Gaudens, with its cloister and chapter house, this was one of the most important religious buildings in the Comminges, it was home to a college of canons ordinary, a community founded by Bishop Bertrand. The 11th century romanesque church, built on the typical Pyrenean plan as a basilica with a nave and two aisles, stands on the site of an earlier construction, it was extended in the 12th and 13th centuries with the construction of the cloister and chapter house. The lateral north door was added in the 16th century. Several tall buildings are reminders of the city's mediaeval period, with plain façades to which balconies were added at the end of the 19th century. Other buildings, including some town houses, date back to the 18th century, are decorated with stone carvings; some buildings have façades with pediments and cornices, mouldings and gabled dormer windows.
On Boulevard Bepmale, the façades that face the Sun, with a view of the Pyrenees, have balconies and galleries up to their top floors. St Gaudens has a Rugby League team playing in the Saint-Gaudens Bears. St Gaudens hosts a popular rugby union team SSGL; the Open International Féminin Midi-Pyrénées Saint-Gaudens Comminges, an ITF Women's Circuit tennis tournament, is held in Saint-Gaudens. The 2014 Tour de France cycle race began stage 17 in Saint Gaudens, with a 124.5 kilometres route to Saint-Lary. Saint-Gaudens is twinned with: Avranches, France Barbastro, Spain Vielha e Mijaran, Spain Yves Giraud-Cabantous, racing driver Grand Prix du Comminges Sculptor Augustus St. Gaudens Communes of the Haute-Garonne department INSEE Official website Saint-Gaudens Tourist Office website