The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Annapolis is the capital of the U. S. state of Maryland, as well as the county seat of Anne Arundel County. Situated on the Chesapeake Bay at the mouth of the Severn River, 25 miles south of Baltimore and about 30 miles east of Washington, D. C. Annapolis is part of the Baltimore–Washington metropolitan area, its population was measured at 38,394 by the 2010 census. This city served as the seat of the Confederation Congress and temporary national capital of the United States in 1783–1784. At that time, General George Washington came before the body convened in the new Maryland State House and resigned his commission as commander of the Continental Army. A month the Congress ratified the Treaty of Paris of 1783, ending the American Revolutionary War, with Great Britain recognizing the independence of the United States; the city and state capitol was the site of the 1786 Annapolis Convention, which issued a call to the states to send delegates for the Constitutional Convention to be held the following year in Philadelphia.
Over 220 years the Annapolis Peace Conference, was held in 2007. Annapolis is the home of St. John's College, founded 1696. A settlement in the Province of Maryland named "Providence" was founded on the north shore of the Severn River on the middle Western Shore of the Chesapeake Bay in 1649 by Puritan exiles from the Province/Dominion of Virginia led by third Proprietary Governor William Stone; the settlers moved to a better-protected harbor on the south shore. The settlement on the south shore was named "Town at Proctor's," "Town at the Severn," and "Anne Arundel's Towne". In 1654, after the Third English Civil War, Parliamentary forces assumed control of the Maryland colony and Stone went into exile further south across the Potomac River in Virginia. Per orders from Charles Calvert, fifth Lord Baltimore, Stone returned the following spring at the head of a Cavalier royalist force, loyal to the King of England. On March 25, 1655, in what is known as the Battle of the Severn, Stone was defeated, taken prisoner, replaced by Lt. Gen. Josias Fendall as fifth Proprietary Governor.
Fendall governed Maryland during the latter half of the Commonwealth period in England. In 1660, he was replaced by Phillip Calvert as fifth/sixth Governor of Maryland, after the restoration of Charles II as King in England. In 1694, soon after the overthrow of the Catholic government of second Royal Governor Thomas Lawrence third Royal Governor Francis Nicholson, moved the capital of the royal colony, the Province of Maryland, to Anne Arundel's Towne and renamed the town Annapolis after Princess Anne of Denmark and Norway, soon to be the Queen Anne of Great Britain. Annapolis was incorporated as a city in 1708.17th-century Annapolis was little more than a village, but it grew for most of the 18th century until the American Revolutionary War as a political and administrative capital, a port of entry, a major center of the Atlantic slave trade. The Maryland Gazette, which became an important weekly journal, was founded there by Jonas Green in 1745. Water trades such as oyster-packing and sailmaking became the city's chief industries.
Annapolis is home to a large number of recreational boats that have replaced the seafood industry in the city. Dr. Alexander Hamilton was a Scottish-born writer who lived and worked in Annapolis. Leo Lemay says his 1744 travel diary Gentleman's Progress: The Itinerarium of Dr. Alexander Hamilton is "the best single portrait of men and manners, of rural and urban life, of the wide range of society and scenery in colonial America." Annapolis became the temporary capital of the United States after the signing of the Treaty of Paris in 1783. Congress was in session in the state house from November 26, 1783 to June 3, 1784, it was in Annapolis on December 23, 1783, that General Washington resigned his commission as commander-in-chief of the Continental Army. For the 1783 Congress, the Governor of Maryland commissioned John Shaw, a local cabinet maker, to create an American flag; the flag is different from other designs of the time. The blue field extends over the entire height of the hoist. Shaw created two versions of the flag: one which started with a red stripe and another that started with a white one.
In 1786, delegates from all states of the Union were invited to meet in Annapolis to consider measures for the better regulation of commerce. Delegates from only five states—New York, Virginia, New Jersey, Delaware—actually attended the convention, known afterward as the "Annapolis Convention." Without proceeding to the business for which they had met, the delegates passed a resolution calling for another convention to meet at Philadelphia in the following year to amend the Articles of Confederation. The Philadelphia convention drafted and approved the Constitution of the United States, still in force. On April 24, 1861, the midshipmen of the Naval Academy relocated their base in Annapolis and were temporarily housed in Newport, Rhode Island until October 1865. In 1861, the first of three camps that were built for holding paroled soldiers was created on the campus of St. John's College; the second location of Camp Parole would
United States Sixth Fleet
The Sixth Fleet is a numbered fleet of the United States Navy operating as part of United States Naval Forces Europe. The Sixth Fleet is headquartered at Italy; the stated mission of the Sixth Fleet in 2011 is that it "conducts the full range of Maritime Operations and Theater Security Cooperation missions, in concert with coalition, joint and other parties, in order to advance security and stability in Europe and Africa." The current commander of the Sixth Fleet is Vice Admiral Lisa M. Franchetti; the Sixth Fleet was established in February 1950 by redesignation of the former Sixth Task Fleet, which in turn was the 1948 redesignation of U S Naval Forces, Mediterranean. Since that time, it has been continually engaged in world affairs around the Mediterranean, and, on occasion, further afield, it was involved in numerous NATO maritime exercises, the U. S. Lebanese intervention of 1958, confrontation with the Soviets during the Yom Kippur War of 1973, clearance of the Suez Canal after 1973, several confrontations with Libya during the 1980s, maintenance of task forces in the Adriatic during the wars in former Yugoslavia in the 1990s.
Most it launched airstrikes on Libya again during the Libyan Civil War of 2011. The United States has maintained a naval presence in the Mediterranean since the early 19th century, when U. S. Naval forces first engaged the Barbary pirates to prevent them from interfering with commercial shipping; the earliest unit was the Mediterranean Squadron. On 1 February 1946, U. S. Naval Forces, Northwest African Waters, was redesignated U. S. Naval Forces, Mediterranean; the force was responsible to U. S. Naval Forces, Eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean in London, had as its flagship a destroyer tender, anchored at Naples, Italy. In 1946, President Truman dispatched the battleship Missouri to the Eastern Mediterranean, ostensibly to return the body of Münir Ertegün, former Turkish Ambassador to Washington, back to Istanbul; however a much stronger motive was to demonstrate U. S. power in view of Soviet threats to Turkey and Iran. The cruiser Dayton began operating with the fleet. In June 1946 Fargo, flying the flag of Vice Admiral Bernhard Bieri, Naval Forces Mediterranean, was despatched to Trieste.
On 5 September 1946, USS Franklin D. Roosevelt, flying the flag of Rear Admiral John H. Cassady, Commander Carrier Division 1, accompanied by USS Little Rock, USS Cone, USS New and USS Corry, visited Piraeus, the port of Athens. USS Randolph, escorted by USS Fargo and USS Perry, visited Greece in December 1946; the title of Naval Forces Mediterranean was changed to Commander Sixth Task Fleet and in 1950, Sixth Fleet. Sixth Fleet's NATO guise was the principal player in Exercise Longstep during November 1952. In 1957, a naval exercise, Operation Deep Water, took place within the Allied Forces Southern Europe area of responsibility, it was conducted by Naval Striking and Support Forces Southern Europe, commanded by Vice Admiral Charles R. Brown USN, who commanded the Sixth Fleet. STRIKEFORSOUTH was the NATO designation for the U. S. Sixth Fleet, though additional NATO headquarters personnel would be assigned, while maintaining American control over its nuclear weapons on board U. S. aircraft carriers as mandated by the Atomic Energy Act of 1946.
Sixth Fleet supported American land forces during Operation Blue Bat in Lebanon in 1958. On 20 January 1967, following France's withdrawal from the NATO Military Command Structure, the removal of NATO troops from France, Sixth Fleet Headquarters was moved from Villefranche-sur-Mer, France to Gaeta, Italy. During the Cold War, the Sixth Fleet had several confrontations with the Soviet Navy's 5th Operational Squadron, notably during the 1973 Yom Kippur War. During the Yom Kippur War Elmo Zumwalt describes part of the Sixth Fleet buildup as follows: On 25 October JCS directed TG 20.1, John F. Kennedy and escorts, to... ComSixthFleet as TG 60.3 and proceed to join TG 60 south of Crete. Additionally, Franklin D. Roosevelt and escorts and TF61/62 were directed to join TG 60.1 south of Crete.... TG 100.1 were ordered to proceed to the Mediterranean and chop to ComSixthFleet... In an exchange of notes on 13 and 25 April 1974, the United States and Egypt agreed that the United States would provide extensive assistance to clear the Suez Canal of mines, unexploded ordnance, sunken ships.
These operations took the form of Nimbus Star, Nimbus Moon, Nimrod Spar, in which a private salvage contractor would clear the canal of the ten sunken ships under the supervision of the Sixth Fleet's Task Force 65. Captain J. Huntly Boyd, the Navy's Supervisor of Salvage, was sent to the Canal Zone as Commander, Salvage Task Group, he supervised the actual salvage clearing operation, carried out by the Murphy Pacific Marine Salvage Company of New York. A total of ten ships blocked the canal; the canal reopened on 5 June 1975, with the Sixth Fleet flagship Little Rock in attendance. In 1999, changes to CINCUSNAVEUR's area of responsibility were announced, after amendments to the Unified Command Plan; the United States Atlantic Command areas that had included the waters off Europe and the west coast of Africa were to be transferred to European Command. U. S. European Command had responsibility for all U. S. land and air military planning in Europe and most of Africa. The change gave EUCOM, NAVEUR, the respon
United States Naval Academy Cemetery
The United States Naval Academy Cemetery and Columbarium is a cemetery at the United States Naval Academy in Annapolis, Maryland. In 1868 the Naval Academy purchased a sixty-seven acre piece of land called Strawberry Hill as part of their efforts to expand after the American Civil War. Within a year of its acquisition part of the property became the cemetery. Since its beginning the cemetery has become the final resting place for Medal of Honor recipients, Superintendents of the Naval Academy and former employees of the Academy and hundreds more of the nation's veterans; the cemetery is home to monuments that do not mark remains, but commemorate the heroism of individuals who gave their life in service to their country. The Jeannette Monument, erected in 1890, is the most notable such monument, it was built in memory of the men. In 1987, the Naval Academy constructed a columbarium adjacent to the cemetery on College Creek; the columbarium was built by the Naval Academy Alumni Association with $500,000 in gifts from alumni and friends of the Academy.
This included a major grant from the George and Carol Olmsted Foundation in memory of Jerauld L. Olmsted, Class of 1922; the columbarium offers resting places for those. The columbarium is 160 feet long and six feet high on a three-tiered pedestal. All exterior surfaces are white marble; each niche front is removable by a special key. Niches can not be reserved in advance. In front of the columbarium stands a memorial donated by the Class of 1937 in honor of the Academy graduates who died in the line of duty and whose bodies were never recovered. Vice Admiral Bernard L. Austin Captain Edward L. Beach, Jr. Vice Admiral Donald B. Beary Admiral Arleigh A. Burke Lieutenant General Henry W. Buse Jr. USMC, William J. Crowe Commander William B. Cushing Lieutenant Commander George Washington DeLong Theodore Gordon Ellyson Rear Admiral Wilson F. Flagg Ben Hebard Fuller Rear Admiral Bancroft Gherardi Lieutenant General George F. Good Jr. USMC, Rear Admiral Harold Hauser Fleet Admiral Ernest J. King Vice Admiral Julien J. LeBourgeois Captain Robert F. R. Lewis Rear Admiral Charles Elliott Loughlin Captain Bruce McCandless II Senator John McCain Rear Admiral John Porter Merrell Major General Charles D. Mize Commodore James Philips Parker Lieutenant Samuel W. Preston Joseph M. Reeves Rear Admiral Frederick Lois Riefkohl Colonel John W. Ripley, USMC, Clarence Wade McClusky Vice Admiral Herbert D. Riley Rear Admiral Thomas H. Robbins, Jr. Rear Admiral Paul Wilhelm Steinhagen Rear Admiral Charles J. Train Stansfield Turner Jesse Wallace Lieutenant General Pedro Augusto del Valle, USMC, Bandmaster Charles A. Zimmerman Thomas Calvin Cooney Eugene B.
Fluckey Thomas Jones Isaac Campbell Kidd Bruce McCandless Frederick Vallette McNair Daniel Montague Robert Sommers James Bond Stockdale William Peterkin Upshur, USMC, Wainwright Richard, Jr. Charles Turner Joy Draper Laurence Kauffman Ronald F. Marryott Charles Cochran Kirkpatrick Charles R. Larson Vice Admiral Charles L. Melson Charles Stamps Minter Louis M. Nulton James L. Holloway, Jr. William P. Mack To be buried at the United States Naval Academy Cemetery is an honor, below are the requirements to be eligible for burial, note that Naval Academy graduates must attain a flag rank while on active duty in order to be eligible. 1. Those eligible for burial in the Naval Academy Cemetery are: Officers, midshipmen, or enlisted persons of the Navy or Marine Corps on active duty at the Naval Academy, Naval Station, Annapolis, or the staff of the Naval Medical Clinic, Annapolis; those Naval Academy graduates who have served on active duty with the rank of Rear Admiral or Brigadier General, or senior thereto, such others as the Secretary of the Navy or the Superintendent may designate.
Unremarried spouse of an officer or enlisted person of the Navy or Marine Corps, buried or eligible to be buried in the Naval Academy Cemetery. In the event the spouse remarries, his or her eligibility is automatically terminated. Any officer, former officer, or enlisted person of the Navy or Marine Corps whose spouse is buried in the Naval Academy Cemetery. Stillborn and infant children of the officers or enlisted persons on active duty at the Naval Academy. For purposes of this regulation, an infant is considered to be a child who has not reached 7 years of age. Graduates of the Air Force Academy or West Point who cross commissioned to the Navy or Marine Corps and completed 20 years of commissioned service with the rank of Rear Admiral or Brigadier General, or senior thereto. Distinguished Graduates of the Naval Academy.2. Those eligible to make a reservation for future burial in section 17 of the Naval Academy Cemetery are Naval Academy graduates who have served on active duty with the rank of Rear Admiral or Brigadier General or senior thereto and such others as the Secretary of the Navy or Superintendent may designate.
Individual lots in section 17 are not reserved in advan
Find a Grave
Find A Grave is a website that allows the public to search and add to an online database of cemetery records. It is owned by Ancestry.com. It receives and uploads digital photographs of headstones from burial sites, taken by unpaid volunteers at cemeteries. Find A Grave posts the photo on its website; the site was created in 1995 by Salt Lake City resident Jim Tipton to support his hobby of visiting the burial sites of famous celebrities. He added an online forum. Find A Grave was launched as a commercial entity in 1998, first as a trade name and incorporated in 2000; the site expanded to include graves of non-celebrities, in order to allow online visitors to pay respect to their deceased relatives or friends. In 2013, Tipton sold Find A Grave to Ancestry.com, saying that the genealogy company had "been linking and driving traffic to the site for several years. Burial information is a wonderful source for people researching their family history." In a September 30, 2013, press release, Ancestry.com officials said they would "launch a new mobile app, improve customer support, introduce an enhanced edit system for submitting updates to memorials, foreign-language support, other site improvements."As of October 2017, Find A Grave contained over 165 million burial records and 75 million photos.
In March 2017, a beta website for a redesigned Find A Grave was launched at gravestage.com. Public feedback was mixed. Sometime between May 29 and July 10 of that year, the beta website was migrated to new.findagrave.com, a new front end for it was deployed at beta.findagrave.com. In November 2017, the new site became the old site was deprecated. On August 20, 2018, the original Find; the website contains listings of graves from around the world. American cemeteries are organized by state and county, many cemetery records contain Google Maps and photographs of the cemeteries and gravesites. Individual grave records may contain dates and places of birth and death, biographical information and plot information and contributor information. Interment listings are added by individuals, genealogical societies, other institutions such as the International Wargraves Photography Project. Contributors must register as members to submit listings, called memorials, on the site; the submitter may transfer management.
Only the current manager of a listing may edit it, although any member may use the site's features to send correction requests to the listing's manager. Managers may add links to other listings of deceased spouses and siblings for genealogical purposes. Any member may add photographs and notations to individual listings. Members may post requests for photos of a specific grave. Although it does not ask permission from immediate family members before uploading the photos, it will remove and take down photos or a URL for a deceased loved one at the request of an immediate family member. Find A Grave maintains lists of memorials of famous persons by their "claim to fame", such as Medal of Honor recipients, religious figures, educators. Find A Grave exercises editorial control over these listings. Canadian Headstones Interment.net United States National Cemetery System's nationwide gravesite locator Random Acts of Genealogical Kindness Tombstone tourist Official website
Tuscaloosa is a city in and the seat of Tuscaloosa County in west central Alabama. Located on the Black Warrior River at the Atlantic Seaboard fall line of the Piedmont, it is the fifth-largest city in Alabama, with an estimated population of 100,287 in 2017; the city was known as Tuskaloosa until the early 20th century. Incorporated as a town on December 13, 1819, it was named after Tuskaloosa, the chief of a band of Muskogean-speaking people, they battled and were defeated by forces of Spanish explorer Hernando de Soto in 1540 in the Battle of Mabila, thought to have been located in what is now central Alabama. Tuscaloosa served as Alabama's capital city from 1826 to 1846. Tuscaloosa is the regional center of industry, commerce and education for the area of west-central Alabama known as West Alabama, it is the principal city of the Tuscaloosa Metropolitan Statistical Area, which includes Tuscaloosa and Pickens counties. In 2013 its estimated metro population was 235,628. Tuscaloosa is the home of The University of Alabama, Stillman College and Shelton State Community College.
While the city attracted international attention when Mercedes-Benz announced it would build its first automotive assembly plant in North America in Tuscaloosa County, the University of Alabama remains the dominant economic and cultural engine in the city, making it a college town. Tuscaloosa has been traditionally known as the "Druid City" because of the numerous water oaks planted in its downtown streets since the 1840s; the city has become known nationally for the sports successes of the University of Alabama in football. City leaders adopted the moniker "The City of Champions" after the Alabama Crimson Tide football team won the BCS National Championship in their 2009, 2011, again in their 2012 seasons; the Tide won the College Football Playoff in 2017 season. In 2008, the City of Tuscaloosa hosted the USA Olympic Triathlon trials for the Beijing Games. In recent years, Tuscaloosa has been named the "Most Livable City in America," one of America's "100 Best Communities for Young People," one of the "50 Best College Towns," and one of the "Best Places to Launch a Small Business."
Nearly 12,000 years ago, Native Americans or Paleo-Indians arrived in what today is referred to as the Deep South. They were hunter-gatherers who pursued the megafauna that became extinct following the end of the Pleistocene age. After thousands of years, successive indigenous cultures developed a rich and complex agricultural society. Emerging in the early first millennium of the common era were the people of the Mississippian culture. Like some of the generations before them, they built large earthwork mounds in planned sites that expressed their cosmology, their large earthworks, built for political and religious rituals from 900AD to 1500AD, expressed their cosmology. Their earthwork mounds and great plazas survive throughout the valleys of the Ohio and Mississippi rivers, as well as their tributaries in the Southeast. Descendant Native American tribes include the Muskogee people. Among the historical tribes living in the area of present-day Alabama at the time of European contact were the Iroquoian-speaking Cherokee in the interior, believed to have migrated south centuries before from the Great Lakes area.
The tribes of the coastal plain and Piedmont included the Muskogean-speaking Alabama, Choctaw and Mobile. In 1828, Andrew Jackson was elected president of the United States, he had gained popularity when he defeated the Creek at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend in 1814, following victories in the War of 1812. He long proposed Indian removal to an Indian Territory to be established west of the Mississippi, to make land available in the Southeast for European-American settlement. Jackson abandoned the policy of his predecessors of treating different Indian groups as separate nations. Instead, he aggressively pursued plans to move all Indian tribes living east of the Mississippi River. Following Congressional passage of the Indian Removal Act, in 1832 the Creek National Council signed the Treaty of Cusseta, ceding their remaining lands east of the Mississippi to the U. S. and accepting relocation to the Indian Territory. They had been under pressure from new settlers encroaching on their territory. Most Muscogee-speaking peoples were removed to Indian Territory during the Trail of Tears in 1834, although some remained behind.
Some Muscogee in Alabama live near Poarch Creek Reservation in Atmore. The pace of white settlement in the Southeast increased after the War of 1812 and the Treaty of Fort Jackson. A small assortment of log cabins soon arose near the large Creek village at the fall line of the river, which the new settlers named in honor of the sixteenth-century Chief Tuskaloosa of a Muskogean-speaking tribe. In 1817, Alabama became a territory. On December 13, 1819, the territorial legislature incorporated the town of Tuskaloosa, one day before Congress admitted Alabama to the Union as a state. From 1826 to 1846, Tuskaloosa was the capital of Alabama. In 1831, the University of Alabama was established and the town's population and economy grew but the relocation of the capital to Montgomery caused a severe decline; the state legislature established Alabama State Hospital for the Insane (now Bryce Hospital]] in Tuskaloosa in the 1850s, which helped restore the city's fortunes. During the Civil War following Alabama's secession from the Union, several thousand men from Tuscaloosa fought in the Confederate armies.
During the last weeks of the War, a brigade of Union troops raiding the city burned the campus of the university. The larger town was damaged in the battle and shared in the South's economic
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo