University of Louisville
The University of Louisville is a public university in Louisville, Kentucky, a member of the Kentucky state university system. When founded in 1798, it was the first city-owned public university in the United States and one of the first universities chartered west of the Allegheny Mountains; the university is mandated by the Kentucky General Assembly to be a "Preeminent Metropolitan Research University". The university enrolls students from 118 of 120 Kentucky counties, all 50 U. S. states, 116 countries around the world. The University of Louisville School of Medicine is touted for the first self-contained artificial heart transplant surgery as well as the first successful hand transplantation; the University Hospital is credited with the first civilian ambulance, the nation's first accident services, now known as an emergency department, one of the first blood banks in the US. Between 1999 and 2006 Louisville was one of the fastest growing medical research institutions according to National Institutes of Health rankings.
As of 2006, the melanoma clinic ranked third in among public universities in NIH funding, the neurology research program fourth, the spinal cord research program 10th. Louisville is known for its Louisville Cardinals athletics programs. Since 2005 the Cardinals have made appearances in the NCAA Division I men's basketball Final Four in 2005, 2012, 2013, football Bowl Championship Series Orange Bowl in 2007 and Sugar Bowl in 2013, the College Baseball World Series 2007, 2013, 2014, 2017, the women's basketball Final Four in 2009, 2013, 2018, the men's soccer national championship game in 2010; the Louisville Cardinals Women's Volleyball program has three-peated as champions of the Big East Tournament, were Atlantic Coast Conference Champions in 2015 and 2017. Women's track and field program has won Outdoor Big East titles in 2008, 2009 and 2010 and an Indoor Big East title in 2011; the University of Louisville traces its roots to a charter granted in 1798 by the Kentucky General Assembly to establish a school of higher learning in the newly founded town of Louisville.
It ordered the sale of 6,000 acres of South Central Kentucky land to underwrite construction, joined on April 3, 1798 by eight community leaders who began local fund raising for what was known as the Jefferson Seminary. It opened 15 years and offered college and high school level courses in a variety of subjects, it was headed by Edward Mann Butler from 1813 to 1816, who ran the first public school in Kentucky in 1829 and is considered Kentucky's first historian. Despite the Jefferson Seminary's early success, pressure from newly established public schools and media critiques of it as "elitist" would force its closure in 1829. Eight years in 1837, the Louisville City council established the Louisville Medical Institute at the urging of renowned physician and medical author Charles Caldwell; as he had earlier at Lexington's Transylvania University, Caldwell led LMI into becoming one of the leading medical schools west of the Allegheny Mountains. In 1840, the Louisville Collegiate institute, a rival medical school, was established after an LMI faculty dispute.
It opened in 1844 on land near the present day Health sciences campus. In 1846, the Kentucky legislature combined the Louisville Medical Institute, the Louisville Collegiate Institution, a newly created law school into the University of Louisville, on a campus just east of Downtown Louisville; the LCI folded soon afterwards. The university experienced rapid growth in the 20th century, adding new schools in the liberal arts, graduate studies, engineering and social work. In 1923, the school purchased what is today the Belknap Campus, where it moved its liberal arts programs and law school, with the medical school remaining downtown; the school had attempted to purchase a campus donated by the Belknap family in The Highlands area in 1917, but a citywide tax increase to pay for it was voted down. The Belknap Campus was named after the family for their efforts. In 1926, the building that would be dedicated as Grawemeyer Hall, was built. In 1931, the university established the Louisville Municipal College for Negroes on the former campus of Simmons University, as a compromise plan to desegregation.
As a part of the university, the school had an equal standing with the school's other colleges. It was dissolved in 1951. During World War II, Louisville was one of 131 colleges and universities nationally that took part in the V-12 Navy College Training Program which offered students a path to a Navy commission. In the second half of the 20th century, schools were opened for business and justice administration. Talk of Louisville joining the public university system of Kentucky began in the 1960s; as a municipally funded school, the movement of people to the suburbs of Louisville created budget shortfalls for the school and forced tuition prices to levels unaffordable for most students. At the same time, the school's well established medicine and law schools were seen as assets for the state system. Still, there was opposition to the university becoming public, both from faculty and alumni who feared losing the small, close-knit feel of the campus, from universities in the state system who feared funding cuts.
After several years of heated debate, the university joined the state system in 1970, a move orchestrated by Kentucky governor and Louisville alumnus Louie Nunn. The first years in the public system
William Owen Cowger, a Republican, served as mayor of Louisville, as a member of the United States House of Representatives. Cowger was born in Nebraska, he moved to Kentucky to study political science at the University of Louisville. After other graduate work and military service in World War II, he returned to Louisville and became president of a mortgage loan company. In 1961, Cowger was elected mayor of Louisville for a single four-year term. Cowger was elected to the United States House of Representatives in 1966 and served in the House of Representatives from January 3, 1967 to January 3, 1971. Cowger unsuccessfully sought re-election in 1970 while dealing with a fatal illness, but was defeated by Democrat Romano L. Mazzoli. After his defeat, Cowger returned to his mortgage business in Louisville and died less than one year after, he is buried in Cave Hill Cemetery in Louisville. United States Congress. "William Cowger". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress
Kentucky's 3rd congressional district
Kentucky's 3rd congressional district is a congressional district in the U. S. state of Kentucky. It encompasses all of Louisville Metro, since the merger of 2003, is consolidated with Jefferson County, though other incorporated cities exist within the county, such as Shively and St. Matthews; the far southeast reaches of Louisville Metro are part of the 4th Congressional District. The district is represented by Democrat John Yarmuth; this district is Democratic, is contained within Jefferson County, Kentucky. It has the highest percentage of African Americans in the state, who are concentrated in and near Louisville, it is a cosmopolitan, diverse district, with major businesses, health care organizations and universities. As of September 2013, there were 518,028 registered voters: 305,121 Democrats, 166,271 Republicans, 46,636 "Others". All of the "Others" included 35,209 unclassified Others, 10,528 Independents, 678 Libertarians, 177 Greens, 28 Constitutionalists, 3 Reforms, 13 Socialist Workers.
Until January 1, 2006, Kentucky did not track party affiliation for registered voters who were neither Democratic nor Republican. The Kentucky voter registration card does not explicitly list anything other than Democratic Party, Republican Party, or Other, with the "Other" option having a blank line and no instructions on how to register as something else; as of June 2017, there are three living former members of the House from the district. The most recent representative to die was Frank W. Burke on June 29, 2007; the most serving representative to die was William O. Cowger on October 2, 1971. Kentucky's congressional districts List of United States congressional districts Specific GeneralMartis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present United States House of Representatives elections, 2006
Cave Hill Cemetery
Cave Hill Cemetery is a 296-acre Victorian era National Cemetery and arboretum located at 701 Baxter Avenue, Kentucky, United States. Its main entrance is on Baxter Avenue and there is a secondary one on Grinstead Drive, it is the largest cemetery by number of burials in Louisville. Cave Hill was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1979. Cave Hill National Cemetery, containing military graves, is on the National Register, added in 1998. Cave Hill was chartered in 1848 on what was William Johnston's Cave Hill Farm a rural property some distance east of Louisville. Johnston, who died in 1798, had built the first brick house in Louisville on the grounds circa 1788. City officials had purchased part of the land in the 1830s in anticipation of building a railroad through it, a workhouse was built there; the railroad was built elsewhere, the land was leased to local farmers. In 1846, Mayor Frederick A. Kaye began investigating the possibility of developing a garden-style cemetery on the grounds, a popular concept at the time.
Hartford, Connecticut civil engineer Edmund Francis Lee was hired, who planned a cemetery with winding paths, graves across the tops of hills, lakes and ponds in the valleys. The Cave Hill Cemetery Co. was chartered in February 1848, the cemetery was dedicated on July 25, 1848. Reverend Doctor Edward Porter Humphrey delivered the dedicatory address and elaborated on the idea of the garden cemetery, among other things, that "... Reason and taste suggest that should be decorated appropriately by the beautiful productions of our great Creator..." Before the era of large municipal parks, it was common for cities to promote a garden cemetery as a green oasis and recreation destination, Louisville was no exception. This ended with the opening of nearby Cherokee Park in 1892. After administrators sold several acres of land for the burial of Union soldiers during the Civil War, local Confederate supporters purchased nearby land as well. Several deceased patients from the Brown General Hospital and other nearby army medical facilities were interred in Cave Hill Cemetery.
Johnston's farmhouse was converted to the city's pesthouse, was demolished in 1872. In 1872, Beechhurst Sanitarium was built near the pesthouse and the modern Grinstead entrance. Beechurst was torn down in 1936; the grounds were remapped in 1888 to their modern size of nearly 300 acres. In the 1980s, razor wire was added to the brick walls surrounding Cave Hill to keep out after-hours visitors; the first scenic overlook for the cemetery, Twin Lakes Scenic Overlook, opened on August 20, 2008. The signature Baxter Avenue entrance, called the Broadway Entrance by the cemetery, was completed in 1892; the Corinthian-style building includes a 2,000-pound bell in its clock tower. The tower, once the tallest structure for miles, was hit by lightning and last renovated in 2001; the Grinstead Drive entrance was built in 1913. The third public entrance on the residential street of Dearing Court was closed as of 2007. Another public entrance no longer in use, was built off Payne Street in 1910, closest to the military sections.
There are several service entrances around the perimeter. Other buildings include the stone office building near the lake, the Rustic Shelter House built in 1892 at a cost of $565; the cemetery contains graves of three Union generals. The 32nd Indiana Monument known as the "August Bloedner Monument", is separately on the National Register; the middle fork of Beargrass Creek runs through Cave Hill, a source stream flowing into the creek divides the cemetery in new and old sections. That stream flows from a spring near the cave; the cave can be entered for about 30 feet, there is a marginal amount of crawl space beyond that, however the cave is off limits. There are five man-made lakes; the cemetery features more than 500 species of trees and shrubs, including some two dozen current state champion trees, including both native species such as pignut hickory and exotics such as Caucasian wingnut. It is well known as an arboretum. There were about 120,000 people interred with space remaining for 22,000 more graves.
Notable among those interred in the cemetery is American Revolutionary War military war officer and founder of Louisville George Rogers Clark. More than 200 Confederate soldiers are buried in Section "O" of the cemetery, with 30–40 buried in a row near the National Cemetery; the original wooden markers in Section "O" were replaced with stone markers in 1880–1881. A number of markers are marked as unknown. Included in the Section "O" burials is a Confederate Brigadier General, Alpheus Baker. There are two other Confederate generals buried in other locations in the cemetery. In the addition to Section "O" are a number of residents of the Kentucky Confederate Home, who died around the start of the 20th century; the confederate flag flies over the area. Within another U. S. Soldiers plot in Section E is one British war grave, of a soldier of the Machine Gun Corps, a member of the British Military Mission to the United States, who died in 1918. Patty Hill and Mildred J. Hill composers of the Happy Birthday song are interred here.
Muhammad Ali, boxing champion born in Louisville, was interred on June 10, 2016. Interred is the founder of Kentucky Fried Chicken, Colonel Harland Sanders. Eastern Cemetery History of Louisville, Kentucky List of attractions and events in the Louisville metropolitan area List of botanical gardens and arboretums in the United States List of
John G. Baxter
John George Baxter Jr. was the nineteenth and twenty-first mayor of Louisville, Kentucky. Baxter was born December 1826 to Scottish immigrants in Lexington, Kentucky, he came to Louisville in 1847 and established a successful stove company. He served on the Board of Aldermen during the 1860s, was elected president of the board from 1865 to 1867, he was elected mayor twice as a Democrat. His first administration saw the construction of the new city hall, as well as a new city hospital and an almshouse, he did not run again in 1872 after his first term because the new city charter restricted incumbents from running. He ran in 1875 and lost by a small margin to Charles Donald Jacob, but was reelected in 1879. Baxter died on March 1885 in Louisville, he is buried at Cave Hill Cemetery on Baxter Avenue, renamed in his honor. List of mayors of Louisville, Kentucky Yater, George H.. Two Hundred Years at the Fall of the Ohio: A History of Louisville and Jefferson County. Louisville, KY: Filson Club, Incorporated.
ISBN 0-9601072-3-1. "John George Baxter Jr.". The Encyclopedia of Louisville. 2001
Find a Grave
Find A Grave is a website that allows the public to search and add to an online database of cemetery records. It is owned by Ancestry.com. It receives and uploads digital photographs of headstones from burial sites, taken by unpaid volunteers at cemeteries. Find A Grave posts the photo on its website; the site was created in 1995 by Salt Lake City resident Jim Tipton to support his hobby of visiting the burial sites of famous celebrities. He added an online forum. Find A Grave was launched as a commercial entity in 1998, first as a trade name and incorporated in 2000; the site expanded to include graves of non-celebrities, in order to allow online visitors to pay respect to their deceased relatives or friends. In 2013, Tipton sold Find A Grave to Ancestry.com, saying that the genealogy company had "been linking and driving traffic to the site for several years. Burial information is a wonderful source for people researching their family history." In a September 30, 2013, press release, Ancestry.com officials said they would "launch a new mobile app, improve customer support, introduce an enhanced edit system for submitting updates to memorials, foreign-language support, other site improvements."As of October 2017, Find A Grave contained over 165 million burial records and 75 million photos.
In March 2017, a beta website for a redesigned Find A Grave was launched at gravestage.com. Public feedback was mixed. Sometime between May 29 and July 10 of that year, the beta website was migrated to new.findagrave.com, a new front end for it was deployed at beta.findagrave.com. In November 2017, the new site became the old site was deprecated. On August 20, 2018, the original Find; the website contains listings of graves from around the world. American cemeteries are organized by state and county, many cemetery records contain Google Maps and photographs of the cemeteries and gravesites. Individual grave records may contain dates and places of birth and death, biographical information and plot information and contributor information. Interment listings are added by individuals, genealogical societies, other institutions such as the International Wargraves Photography Project. Contributors must register as members to submit listings, called memorials, on the site; the submitter may transfer management.
Only the current manager of a listing may edit it, although any member may use the site's features to send correction requests to the listing's manager. Managers may add links to other listings of deceased spouses and siblings for genealogical purposes. Any member may add photographs and notations to individual listings. Members may post requests for photos of a specific grave. Although it does not ask permission from immediate family members before uploading the photos, it will remove and take down photos or a URL for a deceased loved one at the request of an immediate family member. Find A Grave maintains lists of memorials of famous persons by their "claim to fame", such as Medal of Honor recipients, religious figures, educators. Find A Grave exercises editorial control over these listings. Canadian Headstones Interment.net United States National Cemetery System's nationwide gravesite locator Random Acts of Genealogical Kindness Tombstone tourist Official website
Alma mater is an allegorical Latin phrase for a university, school, or college that one attended. In US usage it can mean the school from which one graduated; the phrase is variously translated as "nourishing mother", "nursing mother", or "fostering mother", suggesting that a school provides intellectual nourishment to its students. Fine arts will depict educational institutions using a robed woman as a visual metaphor. Before its current usage, alma mater was an honorific title for various Latin mother goddesses Ceres or Cybele, in Catholicism for the Virgin Mary, it entered academic usage when the University of Bologna adopted the motto Alma Mater Studiorum, which describes its heritage as the oldest operating university in the Western world. It is related to alumnus, a term used for a university graduate that means a "nursling" or "one, nourished". Although alma was a common epithet for Ceres, Cybele and other mother goddesses, it was not used in conjunction with mater in classical Latin. In the Oxford Latin Dictionary, the phrase is attributed to Lucretius' De rerum natura, where it is used as an epithet to describe an earth goddess: After the fall of Rome, the term came into Christian liturgical usage in association with the Virgin Mary.
"Alma Redemptoris Mater" is a well-known 11th century antiphon devoted to Mary. The earliest documented use of the term to refer to a university in an English-speaking country is in 1600, when the University of Cambridge printer, John Legate, began using an emblem for the university's press; the device's first-known appearance is on the title-page of William Perkins' A Golden Chain, where the Latin phrase Alma Mater Cantabrigia is inscribed on a pedestal bearing a nude, lactating woman wearing a mural crown. In English etymological reference works, the first university-related usage is cited in 1710, when an academic mother figure is mentioned in a remembrance of Henry More by Richard Ward. Many historic European universities have adopted Alma Mater as part of the Latin translation of their official name; the University of Bologna Latin name, Alma Mater Studiorum, refers to its status as the oldest continuously operating university in the world. Other European universities, such as the Alma Mater Lipsiensis in Leipzig, Germany, or Alma Mater Jagiellonica, have used the expression in conjunction with geographical or foundational characteristics.
At least one, the Alma Mater Europaea in Salzburg, Austria, an international university founded by the European Academy of Sciences and Arts in 2010, uses the term as its official name. In the United States, the College of William & Mary in Williamsburg, has been called the "Alma Mater of the Nation" because of its ties to the country's founding. At Queen's University in Kingston and the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, British Columbia, the main student government is known as the Alma Mater Society; the ancient Roman world had many statues of the Alma Mater, some still extant. Modern sculptures are found in prominent locations on several American university campuses. For example, in the United States: there is a well-known bronze statue of Alma Mater by Daniel Chester French situated on the steps of Columbia University's Low Library. An altarpiece mural in Yale University's Sterling Memorial Library, painted in 1932 by Eugene Savage, depicts the Alma Mater as a bearer of light and truth, standing in the midst of the personified arts and sciences.
Outside the United States, there is an Alma Mater sculpture on the steps of the monumental entrance to the Universidad de La Habana, in Havana, Cuba. The statue was cast in 1919 by Mario Korbel, with Feliciana Villalón Wilson as the inspiration for Alma Mater, it was installed in its current location in 1927, at the direction of architect Raul Otero. Media related to Alma mater at Wikimedia Commons The dictionary definition of alma mater at Wiktionary Alma Mater Europaea website