A student is a person enrolled in a school or other educational institution who attends classes in a course to attain the appropriate level of mastery of a subject under the guidance of an instructor and who devotes time outside class to do whatever activities the instructor assigns that are necessary either for class preparation or to submit evidence of progress towards that mastery. In the broader sense, a student is anyone who applies themselves to the intensive intellectual engagement with some matter necessary to master it as part of some practical affair in which such mastery is basic or decisive. In the United Kingdom and India, the term "student" denotes those enrolled in secondary schools and higher. In Nigeria, education is classified into four system known as a 6-3-3-4 system of education, it implies six years in primary school, three years in junior secondary, three years in senior secondary and four years in the university. However, the number of years to be spent in university is determined by the course of study.
Some courses have longer study length than others. Those in primary school are referred to as pupils; those in university, as well as those in secondary school, are being referred to as students. The Nigerian system of education has other recognized categories like the polytechnics and colleges of education; the Polytechnic gives out National Diploma and Higher National Diploma certifications after a period of two years and/or four years of study respectively. Higher National Diploma can be obtained in a different institution from where the National Diploma was obtained. However, the HND cannot be obtained without the OND certificate. On the other hand, colleges of education give out NCE after a two year period of study. In South Africa, education is divided into four bands: Foundation Phase, Intermediate Phase, Senior Phase, the Further Education and Training or FET Phase. However, because this division is newer than most schools in the country, in practice, learners progress through three different types of school: primary school, junior school, high school.
After the FET phase, learners who pursue further studies take three or four years to obtain an undergraduate degree or one or two years to achieve a vocational diploma or certificate. The number of years spent in university varies as different courses of study take different numbers of years; those in the last year of high school are referred to as'Matrics' or are in'Matric' and take the Grade 12 examinations accredited by the Umalusi Council in October and November of their Matric year. Exam papers are set and administered nationally through the National Department of Basic Education for government schools, while many private school Matrics sit for exams set by the Independent Education Board, which operates with semi-autonomy under the requirements of Umalusi.. A school year for the majority of schools in South Africa runs from January to December, with holidays dividing the year into terms. Most public or government schools are 4-term schools and most private schools are 3-term school, but the 3-term government or public schools and 4-term private schools are not rare.
Six years of primary school education in Singapore is compulsory. Primary School Secondary School Junior College There are schools which have the integrated program, such as River Valley High School, which means they stay in the same school from Secondary 1 to Junior College 2, without having to take the "O" level examinations which most students take at the end of Secondary school. International Schools are subject to overseas curriculums, such as the British, Canadian or Australian Boards. Primary education is compulsory in Bangladesh, it is a near crime to not to send children to primary school. But it is not a punishable crime; because of the socio-economic state of Bangladesh, child labour is sometimes legal. But the guardian must ensure the primary education. Everyone, learning in any institute or online may be called a student in Bangladesh. Sometimes students taking undergraduate education are called undergraduates and students taking post-graduate education may be called post-graduates.
Education System Of Bangladesh: Education is free in Brunei. Darussalam not limited to government educational institutions but private educational institutions. There are two types of educational institutions: government or public, private institutions. Several stages have to be undergone by the prospective students leading to higher qualifications, such as Bachelor's Degree. Primary School Secondary School High School Colleges University Level It takes six and five years to complete the primary and secondary levels respectively. Upon completing these two crucial stages, students/pupils have freedom to progress to sixth-form
London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans; the City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of the London Assembly. London is considered to be one of the world's most important global cities and has been termed the world's most powerful, most desirable, most influential, most visited, most expensive, sustainable, most investment friendly, most popular for work, the most vegetarian friendly city in the world. London exerts a considerable impact upon the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism and transportation.
London ranks 26 out of 300 major cities for economic performance. It is one of the largest financial centres and has either the fifth or sixth largest metropolitan area GDP, it is the most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the busiest city airport system as measured by passenger traffic. It is the leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. London's universities form the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted three modern Summer Olympic Games. London has a diverse range of people and cultures, more than 300 languages are spoken in the region, its estimated mid-2016 municipal population was 8,787,892, the most populous of any city in the European Union and accounting for 13.4% of the UK population. London's urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census.
The population within the London commuter belt is the most populous in the EU with 14,040,163 inhabitants in 2016. London was the world's most populous city from c. 1831 to 1925. London contains four World Heritage Sites: the Tower of London. Other landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Paul's Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square and The Shard. London has numerous museums, galleries and sporting events; these include the British Museum, National Gallery, Natural History Museum, Tate Modern, British Library and West End theatres. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world. "London" is an ancient name, attested in the first century AD in the Latinised form Londinium. Over the years, the name has attracted many mythicising explanations; the earliest attested appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, written around 1136. This had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
Modern scientific analyses of the name must account for the origins of the different forms found in early sources Latin, Old English, Welsh, with reference to the known developments over time of sounds in those different languages. It is agreed; this was adapted into Latin as Londinium and borrowed into Old English, the ancestor-language of English. The toponymy of the Common Brythonic form is much debated. A prominent explanation was Richard Coates's 1998 argument that the name derived from pre-Celtic Old European *lowonida, meaning "river too wide to ford". Coates suggested that this was a name given to the part of the River Thames which flows through London. However, most work has accepted a Celtic origin for the name, recent studies have favoured an explanation along the lines of a Celtic derivative of a proto-Indo-European root *lendh-, combined with the Celtic suffix *-injo- or *-onjo-. Peter Schrijver has suggested, on these grounds, that the name meant'place that floods'; until 1889, the name "London" applied to the City of London, but since it has referred to the County of London and Greater London.
"London" is sometimes written informally as "LDN". In 1993, the remains of a Bronze Age bridge were found on the south foreshore, upstream of Vauxhall Bridge; this bridge either reached a now lost island in it. Two of those timbers were radiocarbon dated to between 1750 BC and 1285 BC. In 2010 the foundations of a large timber structure, dated to between 4800 BC and 4500 BC, were found on the Thames's south foreshore, downstream of Vauxhall Bridge; the function of the mesolithic structure is not known. Both structures are on the south bank. Although there is evidence of scattered Brythonic settlements in the area, the first major settlement was founded by the Romans about four years after the invasion
South Bank is an entertainment and commercial district in central London, next to the River Thames opposite the City of Westminster. It forms a narrow strip of riverside land within the London Borough of Lambeth and the London Borough of Southwark; as such, South Bank may be regarded as somewhat akin to the riverside part of an area known as Lambeth Marsh and North Lambeth. While South Bank is not formally defined, it is understood to bounded by Westminster Bridge and Blackfriars Bridge, to be centred half a mile south-east of Charing Cross; the name South Bank was first used in 1951 during the Festival of Britain. The area's long list of attractions includes the County Hall complex, the Sea Life London Aquarium, the London Dungeon, Jubilee Gardens and the London Eye, the Southbank Centre, Royal Festival Hall, National Theatre, BFI Southbank. In addition to their official and business functions, both the County Hall and the Shell Centre have major residential components. Due to it being waterlogged in winter, the area was slower to develop than the "North Bank" of the Thames.
Throughout its history, it has twice functioned as an entertainment district, interspersed by around a hundred years of wharfs, domestic industry and manufacturing being its dominant use. Restoration began in 1917 with the construction of County Hall at Lambeth replacing the Lion Brewery, its Coade stone symbol was retained and placed on a pedestal at Westminster Bridge and is known as the South Bank Lion. The pedestrianised embankment is The Queen's Walk, part of the Albert Embankment built not only for public drainage but to raise the whole tract of land to prevent flooding. In 1951 the Festival of Britain redefined the area as a place for arts and entertainment, it now forms a significant tourist district in central London, stretching from Blackfriars Bridge in the east to Westminster Bridge in the west. A series of central London bridges connect the area to the northern bank of the Thames Golden Jubilee and Waterloo Bridge. During the Middle Ages this area developed as a place of entertainment outside the formal regulation of the City of London on the north bank.
By the 18th century the more genteel entertainment of the pleasure gardens had developed. The shallow bank and mud flats were ideal locations for industry and docks and went on to develop as an industrial location in a patchwork of private ownership. There was a shift in use when the London County Council required a new County Hall, built between 1917 and 1922 on the south bank near North Lambeth's Lower Marsh; the construction of County Hall returned the first section of river frontage to public use. This was extended eastwards in 1951 when the Festival of Britain caused a considerable area to be redeveloped, it was renamed'South Bank' as part of promoting the Festival. The legacy of the festival was mixed, with buildings and exhibits demolished to make way for Jubilee Gardens, whilst the Royal Festival Hall and The Queen's Walk were retained as part of the Southbank Centre. During the years following the festival the arts and entertainment complex grew with additional facilities, including the Queen Elizabeth Hall, other arts venues opened along the river such as the Royal National Theatre.
The South Bank stretches two square miles along the southern bank of the River Thames. The western section is in the Bishops ward of the London Borough of Lambeth, the eastern section is in the London Borough of Southwark where it joins Bankside. There is a significant amount of public open space along the riverside. Between the London Studios and the Oxo Tower lies Bernie Spain Gardens, named after Bernadette Spain, a local community activist, part of the Coin Street Action Group; the South Bank is a significant arts and entertainment district. The Southbank Centre comprises the Royal Festival Hall, the Queen Elizabeth Hall and The Hayward Gallery; the Royal National Theatre, the London IMAX super cinema and BFI Southbank adjoin to the east, but are not part of the centre. County Hall is non-administrative and has been converted into The London Marriott Hotel County Hall, Sea Life London Aquarium and the London Dungeon; the OXO Tower Wharf is towards the eastern end of South Bank, houses Gallery@Oxo and boutiques, the OXO Tower Restaurant run by Harvey Nichols.
Gabriel's Wharf is a redeveloped wharf on the South Bank, located at London. It has been converted into a shopping area. Nearby places include Bernie Spain Gardens; the London Studios, the main home of ITV faces the Thames and Rambert Dance Company have their new studios on Upper Ground. The Old Vic and Young Vic theatres are nearby; the Florence Nightingale Museum to nursing and the Crimean War adjoins the'district'. Part of the Southbank Centre under the Queen Elizabeth Hall is known as the undercroft, has been used by the skateboarding community since the early 1970s. An architectural dead-spot, it has become a landmark of British skateboarding culture; the size of the under-croft has been reduced in recent years and was supposed to be returned to original size. This now seems unlikely and the future of the whole space is unsure at present with campaigns for its future survival being fought by the Long Live Southbank campaign. Part of the Southbank Centre has been turned into shops looking out over the river.
The South Bank was the main scene of the 1952 comedy film The Happy Family, set around the Festival of Britain. Part of the success of the area as a visitor attraction is attributed to the high levels of public transport access. Several major
Gibraltar Broadcasting Corporation
The Gibraltar Broadcasting Corporation is Gibraltar's public service broadcaster. It has provided the community with a radio and television service since 1963. Modelled on the BBC, the Corporation was established in 1963 with the amalgamation of Gibraltar Television, a private company, the Government-owned radio service, Radio Gibraltar which started regular broadcasting in 1958. Unlike the BBC, the majority of GBC's funding comes in the form of a grant from the Government. GBC did receive a small amount of income from the levying of a television licence fee. However, it was announced in Gibraltar's budget speech of 23 June 2006 that the TV licence was to be abolished; the activities of the corporation are controlled and governed by a board consisting of a chairman and not more than seven members appointed by the governor. Subject only to any directions of the Governor-in-Council the board is responsible for the corporation's policy; the corporation appoints a general manager and other staff to carry out its policies and the board is empowered to delegate any of their duties to their employees except responsibility for policy.
Within GBC the board's powers are absolute. The chairman and board thus work through their permanent staff, headed by a general manager, who are responsible to the board. Although the chief concern of the board is undoubtedly broad policy, once laid down it is left to the general manager and senior staff, whom they appoint to carry out as trustees of the public interest in broadcasting. In view of their ultimate responsibility for everything, broadcast, it is the board's duty to take an active interest not only in the programmes, but in the financial and staff policies of the corporation; this is done through a number of sub-committees in which board members and senior staff participate in decisions relating to the treatment of political and public affairs and development, programmes. Only the House of Assembly has the power to change the ordinance and the Governor-in-Council the directions. Radio Gibraltar broadcasts 24 hours a day and its programme format is similar to that of commercial local radio stations in the United Kingdom.
The station operates on both FM and AM, broadcasting a mix of local programming in English and Spanish, retransmissions of the BBC World Service. In December 2005, GBC started internet streaming of its radio service on the Internet, along with an up-to-date programme guide for GBC television and radio, can be found on the website. You can hear Radio Gibraltar live from 7 am to 8 pm on weekdays, after 8 pm the station plays continuous music through the night with only the brief interruption of Radio Gibraltar's jingle. On the station's AM frequencies BBC transmission can be heard through the night. On Weekends the station broadcasts live from 8 am to 9 pm with the same format. Radio Gibraltar's station is located at 18 South Barrack Road in Gibraltar's south district, after moving there in the 1980s from Wellington Front, its old location since its beginning in 1958. On Saturday 16 February 2008 Radio Gibraltar celebrated its 50th anniversary. To commemorate the occasion, past presenters were invited to co-host programmes in the slot which they once occupied, amongst them Peter Canessa, David Hoare, Norma Delgado, Gerry Martinez, Christine Dobinson and Richard Cartwright.
During the week leading up to the anniversary, Radio Gibraltar broadcast interviews with former presenters who recalled their memories of Radio Gibraltar as well as on-air jingles from the past. One of the high points of Radio Gibraltar's history was that it served as a communications link between Gibraltar and the neighbouring communities in Spain during the closure of the land frontier, which divided families between 1969 and 1982. A special Roadshow live from Main Street. GBC TV showed a special programme to commemorate Radio Gibraltar's 50th anniversary, celebrated during the week starting 18 February 2008. Radio Gibraltar devotes its daytime hours to local news and current affairs, delivered through the flagship programme Focus, which has an AM, Lunchtime and PM edition. Outside the Focus News programmes, Radio Gibraltar's daytime hours are filled with magazine type shows that feature chat, games and phone-ins, all is sandwiched in between "Classic Hits, Latest Songs" as per the station's slogan.
Programmes include The Morning Show, The Afternoon Show and the long-running Spanish language programme Saludos which has anchored the 2-4 pm slot for over twenty years. The weekend schedule features personality-led shows alongside repeats from Radio Gibraltar's evening schedule, the UK Chart Show and a live transmission of Sunday Mass. Radio Gibraltar's evening schedule is made up of one locally produced programme airing in the 7-8 pm slot. Programmes include; this series is Radio Gibraltar's longest running series. Soundtrack of my life. Radio Gibraltar covers Community events such as National Day, sessions of Parliament, General Elections and others, it is well known for organising Roadshows throughout the entire year organised around Charity events, Awareness Campaigns and similar, culminating in th
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
The classical guitar is a member of the guitar family used in classical music. An acoustic wooden string instrument with strings made of gut or nylon, it is a precursor of the acoustic and electric guitars which use metal strings; the name guitar comes from Persian language. Tar is the name of an Iranian instrument that could be the primary form of guitar. Classical guitars are derived from the Spanish vihuela and gittern in the fifteenth and sixteenth century, which evolved into the seventeenth and eighteenth century Baroque guitar and the modern classical guitar in the mid nineteenth century. For a right-handed player, the traditional classical guitar has twelve frets clear of the body and is properly held on the left leg, so that the hand that plucks or strums the strings does so near the back of the sound hole; the modern steel string guitar, on the other hand has fourteen frets clear of the body and is played off the hip. The phrase "classical guitar" may refer to either of two concepts other than the instrument itself: the instrumental finger technique common to classical guitar—individual strings plucked with the fingernails or fingertips.
The instrument's classical music repertoireThe term modern classical guitar is sometimes used to distinguish the classical guitar from older forms of guitar, which are in their broadest sense called classical, or more early guitars. Examples of early guitars include the six-string early romantic guitar, the earlier baroque guitars with five courses; the materials and the methods of classical guitar construction may vary, but the typical shape is either modern classical guitar or that historic classical guitar similar to the early romantic guitars of France and Italy. Classical guitar strings once made of gut are now made of such polymers as nylon, with fine wire wound about the acoustically lower strings. A guitar family tree may be identified; the flamenco guitar derives from the modern classical, but has differences in material and sound. Today's modern classical guitar was established by the late designs of the 19th-century Spanish luthier, Antonio Torres Jurado; the classical guitar has a long history and one is able to distinguish various: instruments repertoire Both instrument and repertoire can be viewed from a combination of various perspectives: Historical Baroque guitar – 1600 to 1750 CE Early romantic guitars – 1750 to 1850 CE Modern classical guitarsGeographical Spanish guitars and French guitars, etc.
Cultural Baroque court music, 19th century opera and its influences, 19th century folk songs, Latin American music While "classical guitar" is today associated with the modern classical guitar design, there is an increasing interest in early guitars. The musicologist and author Graham Wade writes: Nowadays it is customary to play this repertoire on reproductions of instruments authentically modelled on concepts of musicological research with appropriate adjustments to techniques and overall interpretation, thus over recent decades we have become accustomed to specialist artists with expertise in the art of vihuela, Baroque guitar, 19th-century guitar, etc. Different types of guitars have different sound aesthetics, e.g. different colour-spectrum characteristics, different response, etc. These differences are due to differences in construction. There is a historical parallel between musical styles and the style of "sound aesthetic" of the musical instruments used, for example: Robert de Visée played a baroque guitar with a different sound aesthetic from the guitars used by Mauro Giuliani and Luigi Legnani – they used 19th century guitars.
These guitars in turn sound different from the Torres models used by Segovia that are suited for interpretations of romantic-modern works such as Moreno Torroba. When considering the guitar from a historical perspective, the musical instrument used is as important as the musical language and style of the particular period; as an example: It is impossible to play a informed de Visee or Corbetta on a modern classical guitar. The reason is that the baroque guitar used courses, which are two strings close together, that are plucked together; this gives baroque guitars an unmistakable sound characteristic and tonal texture, an integral part of an interpretation. Additionally the sound aesthetic of the baroque guitar is different from modern classical type guitars, as is shown below. Today's use of Torres and post-Torres type guitars for repertoire of all periods is sometimes critically viewed: Torres and post-Torres style modern guitars have a thick and strong tone suitable for modern-era repertoire.
However, they are considered to emphasize the fundamental too for earlier repertoire (Classical/Romantic: Carulli, Giuliani, Mertz....
Classical music is art music produced or rooted in the traditions of Western culture, including both liturgical and secular music. While a more precise term is used to refer to the period from 1750 to 1820, this article is about the broad span of time from before the 6th century AD to the present day, which includes the Classical period and various other periods; the central norms of this tradition became codified between 1550 and 1900, known as the common-practice period. The major time divisions of Western art music are as follows: the ancient music period, before 500 AD the early music period, which includes the Medieval including the ars antiqua the ars nova the ars subtilior the Renaissance eras. Baroque the galant music period the common-practice period, which includes Baroque the galant music period Classical Romantic eras the 20th and 21st centuries which includes: the modern that overlaps from the late-19th century, impressionism that overlaps from the late-19th century neoclassicism, predominantly in the inter-war period the high modern the postmodern eras the experimental contemporary European art music is distinguished from many other non-European classical and some popular musical forms by its system of staff notation, in use since about the 11th century.
Catholic monks developed the first forms of modern European musical notation in order to standardize liturgy throughout the worldwide Church. Western staff notation is used by composers to indicate to the performer the pitches, tempo and rhythms for a piece of music; this can leave less room for practices such as improvisation and ad libitum ornamentation, which are heard in non-European art music and in popular-music styles such as jazz and blues. Another difference is that whereas most popular styles adopt the song form or a derivation of this form, classical music has been noted for its development of sophisticated forms of instrumental music such as the symphony, fugue and mixed vocal and instrumental styles such as opera and mass; the term "classical music" did not appear until the early 19th century, in an attempt to distinctly canonize the period from Johann Sebastian Bach to Ludwig van Beethoven as a golden age. The earliest reference to "classical music" recorded by the Oxford English Dictionary is from about 1829.
Given the wide range of styles in European classical music, from Medieval plainchant sung by monks to Classical and Romantic symphonies for orchestra from the 1700s and 1800s to avant-garde atonal compositions for solo piano from the 1900s, it is difficult to list characteristics that can be attributed to all works of that type. However, there are characteristics that classical music contains that few or no other genres of music contain, such as the use of music notation and the performance of complex forms of solo instrumental works. Furthermore, while the symphony did not exist prior to the late 18th century, the symphony ensemble—and the works written for it—have become a defining feature of classical music; the key characteristic of European classical music that distinguishes it from popular music and folk music is that the repertoire tends to be written down in musical notation, creating a musical part or score. This score determines details of rhythm, and, where two or more musicians are involved, how the various parts are coordinated.
The written quality of the music has enabled a high level of complexity within them: fugues, for instance, achieve a remarkable marriage of boldly distinctive melodic lines weaving in counterpoint yet creating a coherent harmonic logic that would be difficult to achieve in the heat of live improvisation. The use of written notation preserves a record of the works and enables Classical musicians to perform music from many centuries ago. Musical notation enables 2000s-era performers to sing a choral work from the 1300s Renaissance era or a 1700s Baroque concerto with many of the features of the music being reproduced; that said, the score does allow the interpreter to make choices on. For example, if the tempo is written with an Italian instruction, it is not known how fast the piece should be played; as well, in the Baroque era, many works that were designed for basso continuo accompaniment do not specify which instruments should play the accompaniment or how the chordal instrument should play the chords, which are not notated in the part.
The performer and the conductor have a range of options for musical expression and interpretation of a scored piece, including the phrasing of melodies, the time taken during fermatas or pauses, the use of effects such as vibrato or glissando. Although Classical music in the 2000s has lost most of its tradition for musical improvisation, from the Baroque era to the Romantic era, there are examples of performers who could improvise in the style of their era. In the Baroque era, organ performers would improvise preludes, keyboard performers playing harpsichord would improvise chords from the figured bass symbols beneath the bass notes of the basso continuo part and b