Mentioned in dispatches
A member of the armed forces mentioned in dispatches is one whose name appears in an official report written by a superior officer and sent to the high command, in which his or her gallant or meritorious action in the face of the enemy is described. In some countries, a service member's name must be mentioned in dispatches as a condition for receiving certain decorations. Service men and women of the British Empire or the Commonwealth who are mentioned in despatches are not awarded a medal for their action, but receive a certificate and wear an oak leaf device on the ribbon of the appropriate campaign medal. A smaller version of the oak leaf device is attached to the ribbon. Prior to 2014 only one device could be worn on a ribbon, irrespective of the number of times the recipient was mentioned in despatches. Where no campaign medal is awarded, the oak leaf is worn directly on the coat after any medal ribbons. In the British Armed Forces, the despatch is published in the London Gazette. Before 1914 nothing was worn in uniform to signify a mention in despatches, although sometimes a gallantry medal was awarded.
For 1914–1918 and up to 10 August 1920, the device consisted of a spray of oak leaves in bronze worn on the ribbon of the Victory Medal. Those who did not receive the Victory Medal wore the device on the British War Medal. Established in 1919, it was retrospective to August 1914, it was not a common honour with, for example, only twenty-five members of the Royal Newfoundland Regiment in the First World War mentioned in despatches. In all, 141,082 mentions were recorded in the London Gazette between 1914 and 1920. From 1920 to 1993, the device consisted of a single bronze oak leaf, worn on the ribbon of the appropriate campaign medal, including the War Medal for a mention during the Second World War; the Canadian Armed Forces still use the bronze oak leaf device. Since 1993 a number of changes have been made in respect of United Kingdom armed forces: For awards made from September 1993, the oak leaf has been in silver; the criteria were made more specific, it now being defined as an operational gallantry award for acts of bravery during active operations.
From 2003, in addition to British campaign medals, the MiD device can be worn on United Nations, NATO and EU medals. In a change introduced in 2014, up to three MiD devices may be worn on a single campaign medal and ribbon bar for those with multiple mentions, backdated to 1962. Prior to this change if the serviceman was mentioned in despatches more than once, only a single such device was worn. Prior to 1979, a mention in despatches was one of three awards that could be made posthumously, the others being the Victoria Cross and George Cross; the 1979 reform allowed. Soldiers can be mentioned multiple times; the British First World War Victoria Cross recipient John Vereker Field Marshal Viscount Gort, was mentioned in despatches nine times, as was the Canadian general Sir Arthur Currie. The Australian general Gordon Bennett was mentioned in despatches a total of eight times during the First World War, as was Field Marshal Sir John Dill. Below are illustrations of the MiD device being worn on a variety of campaign medal ribbons: Australian service personnel are no longer eligible to be mentioned in dispatches.
Since 15 January 1991, when the Australian Honours System was established, the MiD has been replaced by the Australian decorations: the Commendation for Gallantry and the Commendation for Distinguished Service. The equivalents of the MiD for acts of bravery by civilians and by soldiers not engaged with the enemy have been reformed; the reformed and comprehensive system is now as follows: The Commendation for Gallantry is now the fourth level decoration for gallantry. The Commendation for Brave Conduct recognises acts of bravery carried by soldiers not directly fighting the enemy and by civilians in war or peace; the Commendation for Distinguished Service, a third level distinguished service decoration, recognises distinguished general service, for exemplary performance in fields such as training and administration. A mention in dispatches – in French, Citation à l'ordre du jour – gives recognition from a senior commander for acts of brave or meritorious service in the field; the Mention in dispatches is among the list of awards presented by the Governor General of Canada.
Mention in dispatches has been used since 1947, in order to recognize distinguished and meritorious service in operational areas and acts of gallantry which are not of a sufficiently high order to warrant the grant of gallantry awards. Eligible personnel include all Army and Air Force personnel including personnel of the Reserve Forces, Territorial Army and other lawfully constituted armed forces, members of the Nursing Service and civilians working under or with the armed forces. Personnel can be mentioned in dispatches posthumously and multiple awards are possible. A recipient of a mention in a dispatch is entitled to wear an emblem, in the form of a lotus leaf on the ribbon of the relevant campaign medal, they are issued with an official certificate from the Ministry of Defence. Under the current Pakistani military honours system, the Imtiazi Sanad is conferred upon any member of the Pakistani Armed Forces, mentioned in dispatches for an act of gallantry that does not qualify for a formal gallantry award.
In 1920 the Minister of Defence of the Union of South Africa was empowered to award a multiple-leaved bronze oak leaf emblem to all servicemen and servicewomen mentioned in dispatches during the First World War for valuable services in action. The emblem, regarded as a decoration, was worn on the ribbon of the Victory Medal. Only one emblem was
Air Marshal Sir Colin Thomas Hannah, was a senior commander in the Royal Australian Air Force and a Governor of Queensland. Born in Western Australia, he was a member of the Militia before joining the RAAF in 1935. After graduating as a pilot, Hannah served in Nos. 22 and 23 Squadrons from 1936 to 1939. During the early years of World War II, he was the RAAF's Deputy Director of Armament, he saw action in the South West Pacific as commander of No. 6 Squadron and No. 71 Wing, operating Bristol Beaufort bombers. By 1944, he had risen to the rank of group captain, at the end of the war was in charge of Western Area Command in Perth. Hannah commanded RAAF Station Amberley, Queensland, in 1949–50, saw service during the Malayan Emergency as senior air staff officer at RAF Far East Air Force Headquarters, from 1956 to 1959, his other post-war appointments included Deputy Chief of the Air Staff from 1961 to 1965, Air Officer Commanding Operational Command from 1965 to 1967, AOC Support Command from 1968 to 1969.
In January 1970, he was promoted to air marshal and became Chief of the Air Staff, the RAAF's senior position. Knighted in 1971, Hannah concluded his three-year appointment as CAS a year early, in March 1972, to become Governor of Queensland, he attracted controversy in this role after making comments critical of the Federal government of the day, the British government refused to agree to his term being extended. Hannah retired in March 1977, died the following year. Born on 22 December 1914 in Menzies, Western Australia, Hannah was the son of Thomas Howard Hannah, the local mining registrar and Clerk of Courts, his wife Johanna Frame. In 1936 Thomas Hannah was appointed Acting Magistrate of the Eastern Goldfields, in 1939, Magistrate of the Local Court in Perth. Hannah attended Hale School, leaving with a Junior Certificate in 1930, he served with an Australian Militia unit, the 8th Field Artillery Brigade, from February 1933, became a clerk in the Crown Law Department of the State Public Service that year.
Hannah joined the Royal Australian Air Force on 15 January 1935 as an air cadet at RAAF Station Point Cook, Victoria. After graduating from No. 1 Flying Training School, he obtained his commission as a pilot officer in July 1936. His first posting was to No. 22 Squadron at New South Wales. Promoted to flying officer, he was appointed adjutant with the newly formed No. 23 Squadron at RAAF Station Laverton, Victoria, in May 1937. Hannah accompanied the squadron, which operated Hawker Demons and Avro Ansons, to its new location at the opened RAAF Station Pearce, Western Australia, in March 1938. On 5 January 1939, he married Patricia Gordon at Claremont. Having specialised as an instructor, he served on the staff of No. 1 FTS, Point Cook. Promoted to flight lieutenant, Hannah was posted to Britain in July 1939 to undertake a Royal Air Force armaments training course, which he had begun when war was declared on 3 September, he completed the course, returned to Australia in March 1940. After brief postings to No. 1 Armament School, Point Cook, Station Headquarters Laverton, he was assigned to Air Force Headquarters, Melbourne, in May.
He was made an acting squadron leader in September 1940 and became Deputy Director of Armament the next year. In April 1942, Hannah was promoted to temporary wing commander, he undertook a general reconnaissance course the following May. In November 1943, Hannah was appointed commanding officer of No. 6 Squadron at Milne Bay, flying Bristol Beaufort light bombers. During a familiarisation flight he came under friendly fire from anti-aircraft guns on Kiriwina Island, but avoided serious injury, he was raised to temporary group captain in December, assumed command of No. 71 Wing the following month. The Beauforts of No. 6 Squadron and No. 71 Wing took part in a series of major attacks on Rabaul and strafing airfields and shipping. The same month, Hannah had to be repatriated to Australia. After six weeks recuperation at Laverton, he returned based on Goodenough Island. From March to August, the squadron was involved in convoy escort and anti-submarine duties. In September 1944, Hannah was appointed senior air staff officer at Headquarters Western Area Command, Perth.
He took over control of the formation from Air Commodore Raymond Brownell in July 1945, following Brownell's departure to command No. 11 Group in the Dutch East Indies. Hannah handed over command of Western Area in October 1946, was posted to Britain. Over the next two years, he undertook study at RAF Staff College and served as SASO at RAAF Overseas Headquarters in London. Returning to Australia, in May 1949 he assumed command of Queensland. From August 1950, he held temporary command of the base's Avro Lincoln heavy bomber formation, No. 82 Wing. Promoted to substantive group captain in October 1950, Hannah was appointed an Officer of the Order of the British Empire in the 1951 New Year Honours, in particular for his "exceptional ability" as SASO at RAAF Overseas Headquarters. In September that year, he was made Director of Personnel Services; as aide-de-camp to Queen Elizabeth II, Hannah was involved in planning the RAAF's part in the 1954 Royal Tour of Australia. He was raised to Commander of the Order of the British Empire in the Queen's Birthday Honours that June.
In 1955, Hannah attended the Imperial Defence College in London, was promoted to air commodore. He was posted to Singapore as SASO
Distinguished Flying Cross (United Kingdom)
The Distinguished Flying Cross is the third-level military decoration awarded to officers, since 1993 to other ranks, of the United Kingdom's Royal Air Force and other services, to officers of other Commonwealth countries, for "an act or acts of valour, courage or devotion to duty whilst flying in active operations against the enemy". The award was established on 3 June 1918, shortly after the formation of the Royal Air Force, with the Royal Warrant published on 5 December 1919, it was awarded to RAF commissioned and warrant officers, including officers in Commonwealth and allied forces. In March 1941 eligibility was extended to Naval Officers of the Fleet Air Arm, in November 1942 to Army officers, including Royal Artillery officers serving on attachment to the RAF as pilots-cum-artillery observers. Posthumous awards were permitted from 1979. Since the 1993 review of the honours system as part of the drive to remove distinctions of rank in bravery awards, all ranks of all arms of the Armed Forces have been eligible, the Distinguished Flying Medal, which had until been awarded to other ranks, was discontinued.
While remaining a reward for "flying in active operations against the enemy", the requirement was changed from "valour, courage or devotion to duty" to "exemplary gallantry". The DFC had been awarded by Commonwealth countries but by 1990's most, including Canada and New Zealand, had established their own honours systems and no longer recommended British honours; the DFC now serves as the third-level award for all ranks of the British Armed Forces for exemplary gallantry in active operations against the enemy in the air, not to the standard required to receive the Victoria Cross or the Conspicuous Gallantry Cross. Apart from honorary awards to those serving with allied forces, all awards of the DFC are announced in the London Gazette. A bar is added to the ribbon for holders of the DFC who received a further award, with a silver rosette worn on the ribbon when worn alone to denote the award of each bar. Recipients are entitled to use the post-nominal letters "DFC"; the decoration, designed by Edward Carter Preston, is a cross flory, 2.125 inches wide.
The horizontal and bottom bars are terminated with the upper bar with a rose. The decoration's face features aeroplane propellers, superimposed on the vertical arms of the cross, wings on the horizontal arms. In the centre is a laurel wreath around the RAF monogram, surmounted by a heraldic Imperial Crown; the reverse is plain, except for a central roundel bearing the reigning monarch's cypher and the date'1918'. Awarded unnamed, from 1939 the year of issue was engraved on the reverse lower limb of cross, since 1984 it has been awarded named to the recipient; the suspender is straight and decorated with laurel wreaths. The ribbon bar denoting a further award is silver, with the Royal Air Force eagle in its centre. Bars awarded during World War II have the year of award engraved on the reverse; the 1.25 inch ribbon was white with deep purple broad horizontal stripes, but it was changed in 1919 to the current white with purple broad diagonal stripes. From 1918 to 2017 22,322 Distinguished Flying Crosses and 1,737 bars have been awarded.
The figures to 1979 are laid out in the table below, the dates reflecting the relevant entries in the London Gazette: In addition, between 1980 and 2017 80 DFCs have been earned, including awards for the Falklands and the wars in the Gulf and Afghanistan. In addition, two second-award, one third-award bar have been awarded; the above figures include awards to the Dominions:In all, 4,460 DFCs have gone to Canadians, including 256 first bars and six second bars. Of these, 193 crosses and nine first bars were for service with the RAF in World War I. For World War II, 4,018 DFCs with 213 first bars and six second bars were earned by members of the Royal Canadian Air Force, with a further 247 crosses and 34 first bars to Canadians serving with the RAF. From 1918 to 1972 the DFC was awarded to 2,391 Australians, along with 144 first Bars and five second Bars. Over 1,000 DFCs were awarded to New Zealanders during the World War II, with the most recent awards for service in Vietnam. In 1999 the DFC was replaced by the New Zealand Gallantry Decoration.
A total of 1,022 honorary awards have been made to members of allied foreign forces. This comprises 46 for World War I, 927 with 34 first and three second award bars for World War II, eight with three bars to members of the US Air Force for the Korean War, one to the US Marine Corps during the Iraq War. King Albert I of Belgium, who on many occasions during World War I was flown in a British aircraft to reconnoitre enemy positions. Wing Commander Douglas Rivers Bagnall, DSO, who won the DFC and the American DFC. John Balmer, RAAF pilot Roy Calvert, RNZAF pilot, awarded the DFC three times. Major General Levi R. Chase, American flying ace, awarded DFC with bar Major William Chesarek, United States Marine Corps, helicopter pilot who in 2006 rescued a British serviceman during the Iraq War. Flight Lieutenant Pierre Clostermann, French RAF officer, in 1945, awarded RAF DFC & bar. Harry Cobby, flying ace of the Australian Flying Corps, awarded the DFC three times. Gordon Cochrane, RNZAF pilot, awarded the DFC three times.
Flight Lieutenant Michelle Goodman, in 2008 she became the first woman to be awarded the DFC. Peter Stanley James, RAF, who in July 1941 took part in a daylight raid on the German battleship Scharnhorst in dock at La Rochelle. Philip Robinson, RAF pilot, awarded the DFC three times. Arjan Singh, Indian Air Force was awarded the DFC, he become Marshal of Indian Air Force. Mohinder Singh Pujji, Indian Air Force was awarded the DFC. Group C
The Hawker Hart was a British two-seater biplane light bomber aircraft of the Royal Air Force. It was manufactured by Hawker Aircraft; the Hart was a prominent British aircraft in the inter-war period, but was obsolete and side-lined for newer monoplane aircraft designs by the start of the Second World War, playing only minor roles in the conflict before being retired. Several major variants of the Hart were developed, including a navalised version for the Royal Navy's aircraft carriers. Beyond Britain, the Hart would be operated by a number of foreign nations, including Sweden, Estonia, South Africa, Canada. In 1926, the Air Ministry stated a requirement for a two-seat high-performance light day-bomber, to be of all-metal construction and with a maximum speed of 160 mph. Designs were tendered by Avro and de Havilland. Fairey, who had sold a squadron's worth of its wooden Fox bomber in 1925, was not at first invited to tender to the specification, was sent a copy of the specification only after protesting to the Chief of the Air Staff, Hugh Trenchard.
Hawker's design was a single-bay biplane powered by a Rolls-Royce F. XI water-cooled V12 engine, it had, as the specification required, a metal structure, with a fuselage structure of steel-tube covered by aluminium panels and fabric, with the wings having steel spars and duralumin ribs, covered in fabric. The crew of two sat in individual tandem cockpits, with the pilot sitting under the wing trailing edge, operating a single.303 in Vickers machine gun mounted on the port side of the cockpit. The observer sat behind the pilot, was armed with a single Lewis gun on a ring mount, while for bomb-aiming, he lay prone under the pilot's seat. Up to 520 pounds of bombs could be carried under the aircraft's wings. J9052, the prototype Hart, first flew in June 1928, being delivered to the Aeroplane and Armament Experimental Establishment at RAF Martlesham Heath on 8 September, it demonstrated good performance and handling, reaching 176 mph in level flight and 282 miles per hour in a vertical dive. The competition culminated in the choice of the Hawker Hart in April 1929.
The de Havilland Hound was rejected due to handling problems during landing and because of its part-wooden primary structure. While the Avro Antelope demonstrated similar performance and good handling, the Hart was preferred as it was far cheaper to maintain, a vital aspect to a programme during defence budget constraints that the British armed forces faced during the 1920s; the Fairey Fox IIM, delayed by Fairey's late start on the design compared to the other competitors, only flew for the first time on 25 October 1929, long after the Hart had been selected. A total of 992 aircraft were built as Harts, it became the most used light bomber of its time and the design would prove to be a successful one with a number of derivatives, including the Hawker Hind and Hector. There were a number of Hart variants; the Hart India was a tropical version, the Hart Special was a tropical Hawker Audax, a Hart variant with desert equipment. Vickers built 114 of the latter model at Weybridge between 1931 and June 1936.
The production Hart day bomber had a 525 hp Rolls-Royce Kestrel IB 12-cylinder V-type engine. It was faster than most contemporary fighters, an astonishing achievement considering it was a light bomber and had excellent manoeuvrability, making the Hart one of the most effective biplane bombers produced for the Royal Air Force. In particular, it was faster than the Bristol Bulldog, which had entered service as the RAF's front line fighter; this disparity in performance led the RAF to replace the Bulldog with the Hawker Fury. Demand was such. Of the 962 built in the United Kingdom, Hawker produced 234, Armstrong Whitworth 456, Gloster 46, Vickers 226 and 42 were produced in Sweden under licence by ASJA who built 18, Götaverken who built three and the Central Workshops of the Air Force who built 21. 1004 Harts were produced. The Hart entered service with No. 33 Squadron RAF in February 1930, replacing the larger and slower Hawker Horsley. No. 12 Squadron replaced its Foxes with Harts in January 1931, with a further two British-based Hart light bomber squadrons forming during 1931.
Harts were deployed to the Middle East during the Abyssinia Crisis of 1935–1936. The Hart saw extensive and successful service on the North-West Frontier, British India during the inter-war period. Four Hawker Harts from the Swedish Air Force saw action as dive bombers during the 1939–1940 Winter War as part of a Swedish volunteer squadron, designated F19, fighting on the Finnish side. Though obsolete compared to the United Kingdom's opposition at the start of the Second World War, the Hart continued in service performing in the communications and training roles until being declared obsolete in 1943; the Hart proved to be a successful export, seeing service with the Royal Egyptian Air Force, Royal Indian Air Force, South African Air Force, Estonian Air Force, Southern Rhodesia and the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. The Rhodesian Hardys saw service on the Allied side during the opening moves of the East African theatre of World War II. Swedish Air Force General Björn Bjuggren wrote in his memoirs how his squadron developed dive-bombing techniques in the mid-1930s for their B4s.
When the Hawker engineers found out, th
RAAF Williams is a Royal Australian Air Force military air base set across two locations, at Point Cook and Laverton, located 20 kilometres south-west of the Melbourne central business district in Victoria, Australia. Both establishments existed as separate RAAF Bases until 1989 when they were amalgamated to form RAAF Williams; the name was chosen in honour of Air Marshal Sir Richard Williams, the'father' of the RAAF. RAAF Williams, Point Cook is the birthplace of the Royal Australia Air Force and is the oldest continually operating military airfield in the world. Since 1994 RAAF Williams has been the home of RMIT Flight Training; the land area at Point Cook was purchased by the Australian Government in 1912 with the vision to form what would become the Australian Flying Corps. Due to the success of the AFC in the First World War, the AFC became a separate service, now known as the Royal Australian Air Force. Point Cook remained the RAAF's only base until 1925 when RAAF Base Richmond and RAAF Base Laverton were built.
Point Cook is considered the birthplace and the spiritual home of the RAAF. It is the airport at which the Royal Victorian Aero Club was established, it contains a memorial parade ground, built in the 1920s, a site, used by the AFC for drill training. Point Cook still has an operating airfield, but military operations are restricted to the museum based there; the airfield is used by a number of general aviation users, although it is still classified as a military aerodrome. It is the oldest continuously operating military aerodrome in the world. Radio communication frequencies include CTAF on 126.2 MHz. The airfield NDB is inactive. RAAF Williams, Point Cook, is the former home of the RAAF College including Officer Training School and the RAAF Academy from 1961 to 1985, is used for the Air Force element of the Australian Defence Force Gap Year Program. All administrative functions are located at RAAF Williams and there is a single mess service which provides a meal service to all personnel, a bar service to Gap Year students only.
The RAAF Museum is located at Point Cook and has a large collection of ex-RAAF aircraft and military memorabilia from the prewar years until recent decades. The museum is open every day except Monday. Laverton is the third oldest RAAF base, being built in 1925 at the same time as RAAF Base Richmond, opened before Laverton. Located seven kilometres from Point Cook, Laverton is the home of Headquarters Air Force Training Group, it contains all the administrative functions of RAAF Williams. Other units at Laverton are the ADF School of Languages, Defence International Training Centre, Director General Technical Airworthiness, No. 21 Squadron and a number of smaller sub-units. It hosts an element of 8th/7th Battalion of the Royal Victoria Regiment, Australian Army Reserve, as well as elements of the Defence Materiel Organisation. In 1946 Laverton played host to the first flight of the newly formed Trans Australia Airlines, its Douglas DC-3 VH-AES Hawdon forced to use the base as operations at Essendon had become adversely affected by recent heavy rains.
The base hosted the shotgun portion of the shooting events for the 1956 Summer Olympics. Laverton's runway was decommissioned September 1996. In early 2007 the Victorian Government gave approval for the land, the Laverton airfield and runway to be developed into the new suburb of Williams Landing. Three areas totalling 55 hectares were set aside for conservation. More than 100 ha of nationally significant native grassland outside the reserves was permitted to be cleared by the state- and federal governments. Williams Landing is being developed into a transit-oriented development, major activity centre and employment node; as well as being a major activity centre and employment node, there will be four residential neighbourhoods each with their own distinctive character. Construction of Williams Landing commenced in late 2007 and is due for completion by 2025. In 2016 it was speculated that the Department of Defence would shut down Laverton and its land sold under plans by the RAAF to consolidate its facilities towards northern Australia.
The following units are located at RAAF Williams: The 1948 Australian Grand Prix was held on a racetrack mapped out on the runways and support roads of the Point Cook airfield. The race was won by Frank Pratt driving a BMW 328. Since 1994 RAAF Williams has been the home of RMIT Flight Training. Land was set aside by the Australian Government west of the Williams bases from 1940 to 1952 for a spare grass airfield and aircraft storage. Several hangars and accommodation buildings were built in 1942 by the United States Army Air Forces in the style of US hangars; the USAAF units assigned to Werribee left in 1945. The land was part of. Two hangars remain on the land; the northern-most hangar on Geelong Road near Farm Road now houses a former RAAF Consolidated B-24 Liberator under restoration by the B-24 Liberator Memorial Restoration Fund. United States Army Air Forces in Australia List of airports in Victoria List of Royal Australian Air Force installations RAAF Williams at airforce.gov.au
No. 3 Squadron RAAF
No. 3 Squadron is a Royal Australian Air Force fighter squadron, headquartered at RAAF Base Williamtown, near Newcastle, New South Wales. Established in 1916, it was one of four combat squadrons of the Australian Flying Corps during World War I, operated on the Western Front in France before being disbanded in 1919, it was re-raised as a permanent squadron of the RAAF in 1925, during World War II operated in the Mediterranean Theatre. The Cold War years saw the squadron re-raised twice, it was based at RAAF Butterworth during the Malayan Emergency and the Indonesia–Malaysia Konfrontasi. Equipped with McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet multi-role fighters from 1986, the squadron deployed to Diego Garcia in 2002 to provide local air defence, the following year contributed aircraft and crews to the invasion of Iraq as part of Operation Falconer. In April 2016, it deployed to the Middle East as part of the military intervention against ISIL. No. 3 Squadron was formed at Point Cook, Victoria, on 19 September 1916 under the command of Major David Blake.
It was one of four operational squadrons of the Australian Flying Corps, its personnel were members of the Australian Army. Shortly afterwards, the unit embarked upon the HMAT Ulysses and sailed to England for training, before becoming the first AFC squadron deployed to France, in September 1917, equipped with the R. E.8 two-seat reconnaissance/general purpose aircraft. To avoid confusion with the British No. 3 Squadron RFC, it was known to the British military as "No. 69 Squadron RFC". This terminology was never accepted by the squadron or the Australian Imperial Force who continued to use the AFC designation regardless, in early 1918, the British designation was dropped. After moving to the Western Front, the squadron was based at Savy. In November 1917, it was assigned the role of being a corps reconnaissance squadron and allocated to I Anzac Corps, based around Messines, established itself at Bailleul. No. 3 Squadron would remain with I Anzac for the remainder of the war, participated in bombing, artillery spotting and reconnaissance missions supporting ANZAC and other British Empire ground forces.
Its first air-to-air victory came on 6 December 1917. In early 1918, the collapse of Russia allowed the Germans to concentrate their strength on the Western Front, launched a major offensive; as the Allies were pushed back, the squadron's airfield at Baileul came into range of the German guns and it was moved first to Abeele and as the Allies were pushed back further, it moved again to Poulainville. During the offensive, the squadron operated in the Somme Valley, providing artillery observation. In April 1918, the squadron became responsible for the remains of the "Red Baron", Manfred von Richthofen, after he was shot down in its sector. Blake believed that one of the squadron's R. E.8s may have been responsible but endorsed the theory that an Australian anti-aircraft machine gunner shot down the Red Baron. In July, the squadron undertook reconnaissance and deception operations in support of the Australian attack at Hamel, before joining the final Allied offensive of the war around Amiens in August, flying support operations until the armistice in November.
Shortly before the end of the war, the squadron began converting to the Bristol F.2 Fighter. Following the end of hostilities, the squadron was engaged in mail transport duties before being withdrawn to the United Kingdom in early 1919, it was disbanded in February and over the course of the next couple of months its personnel were repatriated back to Australia. Casualties amounted to 23 wounded, of which the majority were aircrew. In 1925, the squadron was re-formed as part of the fledgling independent Royal Australian Air Force. Under the command of Squadron Leader Frank Lukis, it was based at Point Cook and at Richmond, operating a variety of aircraft including S. E.5As, DH.9s, Westland Wapitis and Hawker Demons. Upon the outbreak of World War II, the squadron was one of 12 permanent RAAF squadrons, it was assigned to the 6th Division as an army co-operation squadron when it was deployed to the Middle East in mid-1940. No. 3 Squadron would serve the entire war in the Mediterranean Theatre as part of the Allied Desert Air Force, supporting the 8th Army.
After deploying from Australia without its aircraft, under the command of Squadron Leader Ian McLachlan, the unit sailed to Egypt. The squadron first saw action in late 1940, operating obsolete Gloster Gladiator biplane fighters against the Italian Regia Aeronautica, which it encountered while conducting reconnaissance and ground attack sorties, it operated some Westland Lysanders and Gloster Gauntlets, before being converted to Hawker Hurricanes, flew P-40 Tomahawks and Kittyhawks from 1941 engaging in intense air battles with the German Luftwaffe, as well as Vichy French pilots during the Syria–Lebanon campaign. No. 3 Squadron's longest-serving commanding officer during the war was Squadron Leader Bobby Gibbes, whose tour lasted from February 1942 to April 1943. Gibbes was replaced by Squadron Leader Brian Eaton, who led the unit until February 1944. During this period, No. 3 Squadron took part in the Allied invasions of Italy. It re-equipped with P-51 Mustangs in November 1944 and continued to operate in Italy and Yugoslavia until the end of the European war in May 1945.
No. 3 Squadron's record of 25,663 operational flight hours and 217.5 enemy aircraft destroyed made it the highest-scoring RAAF fighter squadron. At the end of the war, No
No. 1 Flying Training School RAAF
No. 1 Flying Training School was a school of the Royal Australian Air Force. It was one of the Air Force's original units, dating back to the service's formation in 1921, when it was established at RAAF Point Cook, Victoria. By the early 1930s, the school comprised training and seaplane components, it was re-formed several times in the ensuing years as No. 1 Service Flying Training School in 1940, under the wartime Empire Air Training Scheme. After graduating nearly 3,000 pilots, No. 1 SFTS was disbanded in late 1944, when there was no further requirement to train Australian aircrew for service in Europe. The school was re-established in 1946 as No. 1 FTS at RAAF Station Uranquinty, New South Wales, transferred to Point Cook the following year. Under a restructure of flying training to cope with the demands of the Korean War and Malayan Emergency, No. 1 FTS was re-formed in 1952 as No. 1 Applied Flying Training School. For much of this period the school was responsible for training the RAAF's air traffic controllers.
Its pilot trainees included Army and foreign students as well as RAAF personnel. The RAAF's reorganisation of aircrew training in the early 1950s had led to the formation at Uranquinty of No. 1 Basic Flying Training School, which transferred to Point Cook in 1958. In 1969, No. 1 AFTS was re-formed as No. 2 Flying Training School and No. 1 BFTS was re-formed as No. 1 FTS. Rationalisation of RAAF flying training resulted in the disbandment of No. 1 FTS in 1993. No. 1 Flying Training School was the first unit to be formally established as part of the new Australian Air Force on 31 March 1921. No. 1 FTS was formed from the remnants of Australia's original military flying unit, Central Flying School, at RAAF Point Cook, Victoria. Squadron Leader William Anderson, in charge of the Point Cook base, was No. 1 FTS's first commanding officer. The school's initial complement of staff was 67 airmen. In December 1921, the Australian Air Board prepared to form its first five squadrons and allocate aircraft to each, as well as to the nascent flying school.
The plan was for No. 1 FTS to receive twelve Avro 504Ks and four Sopwith Pups, the squadrons a total of eight Royal Aircraft Factory S. E.5s, eight Airco DH.9s, three Fairey IIIs. Funding problems forced the Air Force to disband the newly raised squadrons on 1 July 1922 and re-form them as flights in a composite squadron under No. 1 FTS. The same month, VC, took command of the school; the inaugural flying course commenced in January 1923. Basic instruction took place on the Avro 504Ks, more advanced or specialised training on the school's other aircraft. Fourteen students commenced the year-long course, twelve graduated; as well as flying, they studied aeronautics, navigation and general military subjects. Squadron Leader Anderson resumed command of No. 1 FTS in 1925. The first Citizen Air Force pilots' course ran from December 1925 to March 1926, 26 of 30 students completing the training. Although 24 accidents occurred, there were no fatalities, leading Cole to remark at the graduation ceremony that the students were either made of India rubber or had learned how to crash "moderately safely".
However, the 1926 Permanent Air Force cadet course was marred by three fatal accidents. The following year, 29 students graduated—thirteen PAF, nine reserve, seven destined for exchange with the Royal Air Force. In June 1928, the school's Avro 504Ks were replaced by de Havilland DH.60 Cirrus Moths. Squadron Leader McNamara resumed command of No. 1 FTS in October 1930. By two sub-units had been raised at Point Cook under the school's auspices: "Fighter Squadron", operating Bristol Bulldogs; as of February 1934, No. 1 FTS was organised into Training Squadron, operating Moths and Westland Wapitis, Fighter Squadron and Seaplane Squadron. Fighter and Seaplane Squadrons were formally established as units that month, but remained under the control of the flying school and were "really little more than flights", according to the official history of the pre-war RAAF; as well as participating in training exercises, Fighter Squadron was employed for aerobatic displays and flag-waving duties. One of No. 1 FTS's leading instructors during the early 1930s, Flight Lieutenant Frederick Scherger, was a flight commander in Fighter Squadron.
Seaplane Squadron undertook naval survey tasks, as well as seaplane training. Fighter Squadron was dissolved in December 1935 when its Bulldogs were transferred to No. 1 Squadron at RAAF Laverton, while Seaplane Squadron continued to function until June 1939, when it was separated to form the nucleus of No. 10 Squadron. In 1932, No. 1 FTS started running two courses each year, the first commencing in January and the second in July. The 1,200 applications for each flying course competed for around twelve places. Wing Commander Hippolyte De La Rue became commanding officer in early 1933; the following year, No. 1 FTS commenced regular courses in signals, air observation, aircraft maintenance. In April 1936, the school took delivery of its first Avro Cadets, procured as an intermediat