Australasia comprises Australia, New Zealand, some neighbouring islands. It is used in a number of different contexts including geopolitically, physiographically, ecologically where the term covers several different but related regions. Charles de Brosses coined the term in Histoire des navigations, he derived it from the Latin for "south of Asia" and differentiated the area from Polynesia and the southeast Pacific. In Australia "Australasia" is considered to be Australia, New Zealand, New Guinea, the neighbouring islands of the Pacific, while in New Zealand it means Australia, New Zealand and former New Zealand dependencies. Richards, Kel. "Australasia". Wordwatch. ABC News Radio. Retrieved 2006-09-30. Media related to Australasia at Wikimedia Commons
South Sydney Rabbitohs
The South Sydney Rabbitohs are a professional Australian rugby league team based in Redfern, a suburb of inner-southern Sydney, New South Wales. They participate in the National Rugby League premiership and are one of nine existing teams from the state capital, they are called Souths and The Bunnies. The club was formed in 1908 as one of the founding members of the New South Wales Rugby Football League, making them one of Australia's oldest rugby league teams; the Rabbitohs were formed, under their original 1908 articles of association with the NSWRL competition, to represent the Sydney municipalities of Redfern, Zetland, Waterloo and Botany. They are one of only two foundation clubs still present in the NRL, the other being the Sydney Roosters; the South Sydney District Rugby League Football Club is a subsidiary company 75% owned by Blackcourt League Investments which is, in turn, 50% owned by the actor Russell Crowe and 50% owned by James Packer's Consolidated Press Holdings. The Rabbitohs' traditional heartland covers the once working-class suburbs of inner-south Sydney now occupied by factories.
The club is based in Redfern, where the club's administration and training facilities are located, however they have long held a wide supporter base spread all over New South Wales. The team's home ground is Stadium Australia in Sydney Olympic Park. In the New South Wales Rugby League, Australian Rugby League, National Rugby League competitions South Sydney are the most successful professional team in the history of Australian rugby league in terms of total championships won, having claimed 21 first grade premierships. In addition to winning the most premierships, the Rabbitohs hold the distinction of being the only club to win a premiership in their inaugural season; the South Sydney District Rugby League Football Club was formed at a meeting on 17 January 1908 at Redfern Town Hall when administrator J J Giltinan, cricketer Victor Trumper and politician Henry Hoyle gathered together in front of a large crowd of supporters. The club played in the first round of the newly formed New South Wales Rugby League, defeating North Sydney 11–7 at Birchgrove Oval on 20 April 1908.
The team went on to win the inaugural premiership successfully defended their title in the 1909 season, winning the Grand Final by default. During these early years Arthur Hennessy was considered the "founding father" of the South Sydney rugby league club. A hooker and prop forward, Hennessy was coach, he was New South Wales' first captain and Australia's first test captain in 1908. S. G. "George" Ball became Club Secretary in 1911 after Arthur Hennessy stood down from the position, he remained in that capacity for over fifty years, only retiring a few years before his death in 1969. After further premiership success in 1914 and 1918, South Sydney won seven of the eight premierships from 1925–1932, only missing out in 1930; the 1925 side went through the season undefeated and is only one of six Australian premiership sides in history to have achieved this feat. Such was Souths dominance in the early years of the rugby league competition that the Rabbitohs were labelled "The Pride of the League".
South Sydney struggled through most of the 1940s. South Sydney's longest losing streak of 22 games was during the period 1945–1947. In the 1945 season they only managed to win one game while in 1946 they were unable to win a single game. In the 1950s South Sydney again had great success, winning five of the six premierships from 1950–1955, losing the 1952 Grand Final against Western Suburbs in controversial circumstances; the 1951 side's point scoring feat in their 42–14 victory over Manly-Warringah remains the highest score by a team in a Grand Final and "the miracle of'55" involved South Sydney winning 11 straight sudden death matches to win the premiership. Players that were involved in these years included Denis Donoghue, Jack Rayner, Les "Chicka" Cowie, Johnny Graves, Ian Moir, Greg Hawick, Ernie Hammerton, Bernie Purcell and Clive Churchill. Churchill, nicknamed "the Little Master" for his brilliant attacking fullback play, is universally regarded as one of the greatest Australian rugby league players.
In the late 1950s Souths began a poor run of form failing to make the finals from 1958–1964. However, in 1965 a talented young side made the Grand Final against St. George who were aiming to secure their 10th straight premiership; the young Rabbitohs weren't overawed by the Dragons formidable experience and in front of a record crowd of 78,056 at the Sydney Cricket Ground, they went down narrowly 12–8. The nucleus of this side went on to feature in Australian representative teams for the next six years and ensured another golden period for South Sydney making five successive grand finals from 1967–1971, winning four. Bob McCarthy, John O'Neill, Eric Simms, Ron Coote, Mike Cleary and John Sattler from 1965 were joined by Elwyn Walters, Ray Branighan, Paul Sait, Gary Stevens and coach Clive Churchill to form a fearsome combination before internal strife and poaching by other clubs from 1972 onwards unravelled the star studded pack. From this period comes part of South's and Australian Rugby League folklore when in the 1970 premiership decider against Manly, captain John Sattler inspired the side to victory playing out 70 minutes of the match with his jaw broken in three places after being king hit by Manly prop John Bucknall.
Financial problems started to hit Souths in the early 1970s, forcing some players to go to other clubs. The licensed Leagues Club, traditionally such an important revenue provider to all first grade league s
1911–12 Kangaroo tour of Great Britain
The 1911–12 Kangaroo tour of Great Britain was the second Kangaroo tour and was a tour by an "Australasian" squad including four New Zealand players in addition to twenty-four Australian representatives. It took place over the British winter of 1911–12 and this time, to help promote the game of Rugby league in New Zealand, the Northern Rugby Football Union invited a combined Australian and New Zealand team, they became the first tourists to win the Ashes. and the last to do so on British soil for over half a century. The tour was a success in organisation. Matches were well attended, the squad's touring payments were maintained throughout and the players all shared in a bonus at the tour's end. Prior to the tour a three-way series of matches between New South Wales and New Zealand was organised as a basis of selection for the tour; the New South Welshmen dominated the touring side, with four New Zealanders and only one Queenslander selected. However counted amongst the New South Welshmen was Con Sullivan, who had moved to Australia from New Zealand a few years before.
Due to family and business commitments, rugby league great Dally Messenger declined to tour with the 1911–12 Kangaroos. His friend and teammate Sandy Pearce chose not to go. Chris McKivat who had captained the 1908 Wallabies to Olympic Gold was at age 32 a natural selection as tour captain; the Heads/Middleton reference describes McKivat as being revered on that tour – a magnificent general, durable and an inspiration to the men around him. It quotes Johnny Quinlan the tour co-manager "He always set a splendid example in conduct and training – a natural leader" Tour vice-captain was Paddy McCue. Tour managers were John Quinlan; the team sailed to England on the RMS Orvieto. The tourists received a bonus of £ 178 each. All eight teams of the New South Wales Rugby Football League premiership were represented in the touring squad; the New Zealand players that accompanied the Australians on tour have been listed in the Australian Rugby League's Kangaroos players register. Robert "Harold" Nicholson of Queensland was selected for the tour but withdrew.
Played: 35 Won: 28 Drew: 2 Lost: 5 Ashes: Australia 2–0 Test No. 12 In this match, Australia's Charles Fraser became Australia's youngest Test player at 18 years and 301 days, a record which would stand until 2007. Test No. 13 McKivat lead the way for Australia scoring a vital try. Renowned Australian journalist Claude Corbett was acting as one of the touch judges and referee Renton, over-ruled his goal decision on one of the Australian conversion attempts. Test No. 14 Great Britain only needed to win the third Test to tie the series and keep the Ashes but were reduced to 12 men early in the encounter after an injury to Dick Ramsdale. Great Britain had no answer to the Australian attack as they ran in nine tries; this would be the first time the Kangaroos would win The Ashes on British soil until the 1963–64 Kangaroo tour. "Australian tour of Great Britain". Hunterlink.net. Archived from the original on 11 May 2006. Ashes series 1911 at rugbyleagueproject.org
Rugby union at the Summer Olympics
Rugby union has been a men's medal sport at the modern Summer Olympic Games, being played at four of the first seven competitions. The sport debuted at the 1900 Paris games, it was subsequently featured at the London games in 1908, the Antwerp games in 1920 and the Paris games in 1924. Shortly after the 1924 games, the International Olympic Committee dropped rugby union as an Olympic sport. Since there have been numerous attempts to bring the sport back to the Olympic programme. In October 2009 the IOC voted at its session in Copenhagen to include the sevens version of the sport in the 2016 Summer Olympics in Rio de Janeiro; the event made its debut in an Olympic programme at the 2014 Summer Youth Olympics. The sport was introduced by Pierre de Coubertin, famous for reviving the modern Olympics, he helped to establish rugby in France, refereeing the first domestic French club championship in 1892 and France's first international, on New Year’s Day, 1906, at Parc des Princes. Coubertin formed the IOC in 1894.
Three National Olympic Committees, France and Great Britain, entered teams at the 1900 games. The German and British teams were not national teams in the current sense of the word: Moseley Wanderers RFC represented Great Britain and the Frankfurt Club represented Germany. Rules were different from today's. 4 points were awarded for a goal from mark, which would be reduced to 3 points in 1905 and eliminated in 1977. Points for penalties and conversions, 3 and 2 were the same as in the modern game. France won the gold, beating Great Britain 27 points to 8 and defeating Germany 27 points to 17. Other sources list the German team as second, because of the points difference, but no such determination was made in 1900. 6,000 people watched the game between France and Great Britain, the largest crowd at the games. Constantin Henriquez, a player on the French team, is the first known coloured athlete to compete in the Olympic Games. Rugby union was not played at the 1904 games in St. Louis, nor at the 1906 Intercalated Games, but was included in 1908, when the Olympics were held in the sport's native country.
The Rugby Football Union was involved in the organization of the sport at this edition of the Olympics. Like the 1900 games, three teams entered: Australasia and hosts Great Britain. France pulled out prior to the commencement of the tournament, being unable to field a representative team. Australasia was represented by the Wallabies, who were on tour in Britain; as the best English and Welsh players were on tour in New Zealand at the time, Great Britain was represented by the Cornwall county team, who were chosen by the RFU as an appropriate side after they defeated Durham in the 1907 English county championship. The choice of Cornwall was controversial, as only three of their players had represented England and the Wallabies had defeated them 18 points to five; as expected, Australasia defeated Great Britain, claiming the gold medal, the score being 32 points to three. The match at the White City Stadium was played under poor conditions, in fog and on a slippery field. Two of the Australian team members would win another Olympic gold medal.
Danny Carroll would win another rugby gold with the United States in 1920, while Sydney Middleton would win a gold medal in rowing at the 1912 Games, where rugby was not on the programme. The sport failed to appear on the provisional schedule of the 1916 Summer Olympics, which were cancelled due to World War I. A campaign to send an American side to the 1920 games in Antwerp started in California after a Berkeley rugby union touring party returned from British Columbia undefeated in 1920; the United States Olympic Committee granted permission for entry. A pool of players from Stanford and Santa Clara made up the squad. 1908 champion Danny Carroll, a player-coach at Stanford at the time, was the team's most prominent member. When the U. S. arrived in Antwerp, the Czechoslovakian and Romanian teams had withdrawn, leaving only France and the United States. The English RFU had decided not to enter a team, so as not to interfere with the start of the English domestic season; the only match was played in rain in front of around 20,000 spectators.
The U. S. featuring many players new to the sport of rugby, caused a shock by winning the only match eight points to zero, all points being scored in the second half. One of the U. S. team members, Morris Kirksey, took home two more medals from Antwerp, finishing second to Charles Paddock in the 100 meters dash, anchoring the winning 4 × 100 meters relay team. The sport was again included in the subsequent 1924 games in Paris; the USOC decided to send a team. Along with the U. S. and the host nation, Romania entered. The American team was again made up of Californian players; the U. S. squad departed on a seven-day voyage to England on an ocean liner from New York City. France entered the final game as favorites; the gold medal game was played on 18 May in front of 21,000 spectators at the Colombes venue. The U. S. defeated France. At the final whistle the pitch was invaded by the French fans; the medal ceremony took place with police protection. Rare vintage footage of the 1924 Gold Medal match was included in the rugby documentary, A Giant Awakens: the Rise of American Rugby.
The pitch invasion at the 1924 Paris Olympics had given rugby a poor image and this, together with the problems of attracting sufficient teams to make it a viable spo
Christopher Hobart McKivat was an Australian rugby union and rugby league player – a dual-code rugby international. He represented the Wallabies in over 20 Tests and tour matches from 1907 to 1909 and the Kangaroos in 5 Tests from 1910 to 1912, he is unique in Australian rugby history as the only man to captain both the national rugby union and rugby league teams. Following his playing career he became the most successful coach of the North Sydney Bears in the club's history, he captained the 1908 Summer Olympics gold medal winning Wallaby side and was the eighth captain of the Australian national rugby league team leading them in all 3 Tests of the 1911–12 tour. Thus he captained his country to victory on tour in two different rugby codes, he was educated by the Patrician Brothers in Orange. He played country rugby union with the "Our Boys" club in Wellington and was selected in country representative teams until he was 26, he was a great on-field leader of both forwards and backs. Affectionately known as the "hairy bloke", he moved to Sydney to join the Glebe Rugby Club in 1905 and played five-eighth for four seasons outside Fred Wood who would be vice-captain of the 1908–09 Wallabies.
McKivat was selected for New South Wales in 1905 to represent against the visiting All Blacks and for the Wallabies in 1907 playing three Tests against the All Blacks. He was on the first Wallaby tour of the United Kingdom in 1908–09 and captained the side in 17 tour matches including the historic gold medal winning match against Cornwall representing England in the 1908 London Olympics, he crossed over to the professional code joining the Glebe Rugby League Club as a 29-year-old veteran in 1910. He made his rugby league international debut that same year in the first Test in Sydney on 18 June 1910 against Great Britain. Four of his former Wallaby team mates debuted that day John Barnett, Bob Craig, Jack Hickey and Charles Russell – making them collectively Australia's 11th to 15th dual code internationals; this repeated a similar occurrence two years earlier when five former Wallabies in Micky Dore, Dally Messenger, Denis Lutge, Doug McLean snr and Johnny Rosewell all debuted for the Kangaroos in the first Test against New Zealand.
The crowning achievement of his distinguished football career came on the 1911–12 Kangaroo tour of Great Britain when he captained Australia in all three Tests against Great Britain for two wins and one draw to a series victory that would not be equalled for more than 50 years Australia's first Rugby League Ashes success was testament to his on-field genius and off-field leadership. He scored 10 tries; the Heads/Middleton reference describes him a being revered on that tour – a magnificent general, durable and an inspiration to the men around him. It quotes Johnny Quinlan the tour co-manager "He always set a splendid example in conduct and training – a natural leader"Chris McKivat is listed on the Australian Players Register as Kangaroo No. 67. His representative career ended at age 32 with that Ashes success and in retirement he became the first of the game's high-profile non-playing coaches, he coached Glebe and Norths in the following years, including North Sydney's premiership winning sides of 1921 and 1922.
Christopher McKivat died on 4 May 1941 after a short illness at the age of 60. He died at Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Camperdown, he was survived by one son. A large funeral was held at St. James Church, Forest Lodge, New South Wales, he was buried at Botany Cemetery; the Heads/Middleton reference describes him as quiet, good humoured man off the football field, always immaculately dressed and puffing on a cigar but a lesson in contrasts on the field – voluble, hard-driving and relentlessly barking orders. The Sydney Morning Herald said of him " He was described by Rugby and Rugby League authorities as the'best' halfback of all time. No one possessed better all round ability, his service from the scrum was the speediest of any halfback since the coming of district football." In 2005 McKivat was admitted into the Australian Rugby League Hall of Fame. In August 2006 he was named as coach of the North Sydney Bears' Team of the Century. In February 2008, McKivat was named in the list of Australia's 100 Greatest Players, commissioned by the NRL and ARL to celebrate the code's centenary year in Australia.
Heads and Middleton, David A Centenary of Rugby League, MacMillan Sydney Whiticker, Alan Captaining the Kangaroos, New Holland, Sydney Howell, Max Born to Lead - Wallaby Test Captains, Celebrity Books, Auckland NZ Chris McKivat at the Online Dictionary of Australian Biographies Chris McKivat biography at Sport Australia Hall of Fame at the Wayback Machine profile at the Wayback Machine Chris McKivat at the Orange Sporting Hall of Fame at the Wayback Machine
New South Wales Rugby League
The New South Wales Rugby League is the governing body of rugby league in New South Wales and the Australian Capital Territory and is a member of the Australian Rugby League Commission. It was formed in Sydney on 8 August 1907 and was known as the New South Wales Rugby Football League until 1984. From 1908 to 1994, the NSWRL ran Sydney's New South Wales', Australia's top-level rugby league club competition from their headquarters on Phillip Street, Sydney; the organisation is responsible for administering the New South Wales rugby league team. The following clubs are the member clubs of the NSWRL; the New South Wales Rugby Football League was responsible for the introduction of rugby league into New South Wales in 1907. Since that time the NSWRFL has built a rich tradition at all levels of the game. Great names and great games illuminate the League's growth since 1907 up to the present day; the NSWRFL was formed in August 1907, when player discontent with the administration of the New South Wales Rugby Union, over rejection of compensation payments for injuries and lost wages, led to a breakaway movement.
Key figures in the new movement were James Joseph Giltinan, legendary cricketer Victor Trumper, Alex Burdon, Peter Moir, Labor politician Henry Hoyle, George Brackenreg and Jack Feneley. The first rugby league game in New South Wales was played on 17 August 1907, in which New Zealand defeated New South Wales Rugby League team 12–8; the Sydney premiership was started on 20 April 1908. Nine teams contested the initial season, they were: Balmain Tigers Cumberland Fruitpickers Eastern Suburbs Roosters Glebe Dirty Reds Newcastle Rebels Newtown Jets North Sydney Bears Western Suburbs Magpies South Sydney RabbitohsThe NSWRFL premiership was continued on the successful basis of the first competition in 1908. In 1929 Jersey Flegg was appointed to the position of president of the NSWRFL and in 1941 he became chairman of the Australian Rugby League Board of Control. At the time of his death in 1960, aged 82, he was still serving in these roles; when NSWRFL president Flegg died in 1960, Bill Buckley replaced him and became boss of the Australian Rugby League, a position he remained in from 1960 until his death in 1973.
In 1973 Kevin Humphreys was appointed President of New South Wales Rugby League and Chairman of Australian Rugby League. Under him State of Origin was introduced. In 1983 Humphreys was succeeded in these positions by Ken Arthurson. Under Arthurson the clubs in the NSWRL expanded outside the borders of the state and the country until in 1994, after administering its 87th consecutive premiership season, the NSWRL was replaced by the Australian Rugby League as club football's peak administrative body. Notwithstanding the hand over of control of the game at the elite level across Australia to the Commission, the NSWRL did retain responsibility for both the administration of the New South Wales rugby league team in State of Origin series, as well as day-to-day management of the state-based New South Wales Cup second-tier premiership, as well as junior representative competitions and divisional leagues throughout NSW and the ACT, it does so in conjunction with the NSW Country Rugby League. In a similar way, the rival Queensland Rugby League retained responsibility for that state's Origin team and lower tier competitions.
The Royal Agricultural Society Shield, or RAS Shield was the New South Wales Rugby League's first premiership trophy. It was presented to each year's premiership winning rugby league team; the Eastern Suburbs club achieved this feat winning premierships in 1911, 1912 and 1913. The hand crafted silver and oak designed shield was donated to the NSWRL by the Royal Agricultural Society of New South Wales in its first year of competition. Leading journalist Claude Corbett wrote in Sydney, newspaper on, 1 May 1914, "The Royal Agricultural Society Shield, presented at the inception of the League's first grade competition has been won outright by Eastern Suburbs, who upset all calculations by winning the premiership three years in succession; the club has presented the shield to their captain, Dally Messenger,'as a token of appreciation of his captaincy." In 1929 Jersey Flegg was appointed to the position of president of the NSWRFL. Midway through the 1909 season, Edward Larkin was appointed full-time secretary of the NSWRFL.
In 1951, the NSWRFL originated the J. J. Giltinan Shield, following his death in 1950; this trophy was awarded to the premiers of the NSWRFL competition, being named after one of the founding fathers of the NSWRFL and rugby league in Australia. The trophy remains today, being awarded to the minor premiers of the National Rugby League competition. Following Jersey Flegg's death in 1960, Bill Buckley was made the NSWRFL's new president. In 1967 the NSWRFL grand final became the first football grand final of any code to be televised live in Australia; the Nine Network had paid $5,000 for the broadcasting rights. In 1973 NSWRFL boss Kevin Humphreys negotiated rugby league's first television deal with the Australian Broadcasting Corporation; the NSWRFL had commenced a popular and successful mid-week competition in 1974 known as the Amco Cup, but as the Tooth Cup and the National Panasonic Cup. The success of this competition, which included teams from both Brisbane and New Zealand created pressure for further expansion in the NSWRFL competition.
In 1980, the NSWRFL President Kevin Humphries, chairman of the League since 1973, was instrumental in the establishment of the State of Origin series between teams representing the NSWRFL and Queensland Rugby League. The immediate success o
Rugby union known in most of the world as rugby, is a contact team sport which originated in England in the first half of the 19th century. One of the two codes of rugby football, it is based on running with the ball in hand. In its most common form, a game is between two teams of 15 players using an oval-shaped ball on a rectangular field with H-shaped goalposts at each end. Rugby union is a popular sport around the world, played by male and female players of all ages. In 2014, there were more than 6 million people playing worldwide, of whom 2.36 million were registered players. World Rugby called the International Rugby Football Board and the International Rugby Board, has been the governing body for rugby union since 1886, has 101 countries as full members and 18 associate members. In 1845, the first football laws were written by Rugby School pupils. An amateur sport, in 1995 restrictions on payments to players were removed, making the game professional at the highest level for the first time.
Rugby union spread from the Home Nations of Great Britain and Ireland and was absorbed by many of the countries associated with the British Empire. Early exponents of the sport included New Zealand, South Africa and France. Countries that have adopted rugby union as their de facto national sport include Fiji, Madagascar, New Zealand and Tonga. International matches have taken place since 1871 when the first game took place between Scotland and England at Raeburn Place in Edinburgh; the Rugby World Cup, first held in 1987, takes place every four years. The Six Nations Championship in Europe and The Rugby Championship in the Southern Hemisphere are other major international competitions, held annually. National club or provincial competitions include the Premiership in England, the Top 14 in France, the Mitre 10 Cup in New Zealand, the National Rugby Championship in Australia, the Currie Cup in South Africa. Other transnational club competitions include the Pro14 in Europe and South Africa, the European Rugby Champions Cup in Europe, Super Rugby, in the Southern Hemisphere and Japan.
The origin of rugby football is reputed to be an incident during a game of English school football at Rugby School in 1823, when William Webb Ellis is said to have picked up the ball and run with it. Although the evidence for the story is doubtful, it was immortalised at the school with a plaque unveiled in 1895. Despite the doubtful evidence, the Rugby World Cup trophy is named after Webb Ellis. Rugby football stems from the form of game played at Rugby School, which former pupils introduced to their university. Old Rugbeian Albert Pell, a student at Cambridge, is credited with having formed the first "football" team. During this early period different schools used different rules, with former pupils from Rugby and Eton attempting to carry their preferred rules through to their universities. A significant event in the early development of rugby football was the production of the first written laws of the game at Rugby School in 1845, followed by the Cambridge Rules drawn up in 1848. Other important events include the Blackheath Club's decision to leave the Football Association in 1863 and the formation of the Rugby Football Union in 1871.
The code was known as "rugby football". Despite the sport's full name of rugby union, it is known as rugby throughout most of the world; the first rugby football international was played on 27 March 1871 between Scotland and England in Edinburgh. Scotland won the game 1-0. By 1881 both Ireland and Wales had representative teams, in 1883 the first international competition, the Home Nations Championship had begun. 1883 is the year of the first rugby sevens tournament, the Melrose Sevens, still held annually. Two important overseas tours took place in 1888: a British Isles team visited Australia and New Zealand—although a private venture, it laid the foundations for future British and Irish Lions tours. During the early history of rugby union, a time before commercial air travel, teams from different continents met; the first two notable tours both took place in 1888—the British Isles team touring New Zealand and Australia, followed by the New Zealand team touring Europe. Traditionally the most prestigious tours were the Southern Hemisphere countries of Australia, New Zealand and South Africa making a tour of a Northern Hemisphere, the return tours made by a joint British and Irish team.
Tours would last for months, due to the number of games undertaken. Touring international sides would play Test matches against international opponents, including national and county sides in the case of Northern Hemisphere rugby, or provincial/state sides in the case of Southern Hemisphere rugby. Between 1905 and 1908, all three major Southern Hemisphere rugby countries sent their first touring teams to the Northern Hemisphere: New Zealand in 1905, followed by South Africa in 1906 and Australia in 1908. All three teams brought new styles of play, fitness levels and tactics, were far more successful than critics had expected; the New Zealand 1905 touri