Charles Shirreff (painter)
Charles Shirreff was a deaf Scottish painter, specializing in portrait miniatures. Charles Shirreff was born in either 1749 or 1750, his last name has, at times, been spelled as Sherriff, or Shirref. His father, Alexander Shirreff, was a wealthy wine merchant of South Leith in Edinburgh. At the age of three or four, Shirreff became mute. In 1760, his father approached Thomas Braidwood, owner of a school of mathematics in Edinburgh, seeking an education for the boy ten years old, in the hope that he could be taught to write. Charles became Braidwood's first deaf student. At the age of 18, in August 1769, Shirreff left Braidwood's Academy to study art in London at the Royal Academy Schools, he graduated in 1772 with a silver medal, took up a career as a miniaturist. In addition to painting portrait miniatures, Shirreff produced pastels in his early years. Shirreff exhibited oil paintings and pencil drawings at the Royal Academy of Arts in 1771, at the Free Society of Artists from 1770 until 1773. Shirreff worked in London after graduating from the Royal Academy, building up a clientele, theatrical.
He befriended Caleb Whitefoord, a well-connected Scottish merchant and political satirist who moved in London's wealthiest elite circles, where Shirreff developed advantageous associations with portraitists Sir Joshua Reynolds, George Dance the younger, Richard Cosway. After Shirreff's father had been financially ruined in the Crisis of 1772 by the failure of banking house Neal, James and Down, Shirreff supported the family with his work, he applied to go to India in 1778, stating in his application to the East India Company that he had no speech but was able to make himself understood by signs. He requested that he be accompanied by his sister Mary to act as interpreters. However, his original plan to visit India was abandoned and he remained in England for two more decades. Shirreff taught miniature painting in London to students that included, in 1786–1788, Scottish miniaturist Archibald Robertson. Shirreff lived and worked in Bath either from 1791 to 1795, or from c. 1786 to 1800. His sitters included actress Sarah Siddons, who wrote of him as more successful in her portrait than any miniature painter she had sat to.
During that period, he had clients for portraits in common with two other deaf miniaturists in Bath, Sampson Towgood Roch and Richard Crosse. In 1795, he renewed his application to go to India, left England in the Lord Hawkesbury, which reached Madras in January 1797, he painted in Madras for some years before moving to Calcutta, where he worked on his Illustrations of Signs. In 1807, he announced it was nearly completed and would be available to subscribers as soon as possible; this work is presumed lost in passage from India. He returned from India in 1808 or 1809, again took up residence in London, where he continued to work. Shirreff's date of death given as c. 1830 or 1831, has been contested. More recent biographies give an earlier year of death, based on 1829 probate records showing that Shirreff must have died prior to 5 November 1829, when his will was proved in court. On 11 January 1810, Shirreff married Mary Ann Brown, the sister of a fellow artist, at St George's, Hanover Square; the couple lived in London, in Fitzroy Square and in Connaught Square, until his death.
Walpole, Horace. "To Dalrymple 17 January 1768". Horace Walpole's Correspondence. 15: 116 nn. 1–2. Archived from the original on 2017-08-03. Steuart, A. Francis. "Anglo-Indian Miniaturists". The Imperial and Asiatic Quarterly Oriental and Colonial Record. 3rd Series. Woking, England: The Oriental University Institute. 13: 106–112, at 110
Port Hope, Ontario
Port Hope is a municipality in Southern Ontario, about 109 kilometres east of Toronto and about 159 kilometres west of Kingston. It is located at the mouth of the Ganaraska River on the north shore of Lake Ontario, in the west end of Northumberland County. Port Hope's nearest urban neighbour is the City of Oshawa. Since 1868, the town has been home to Trinity College School. Besides the town proper of Port Hope, the municipality of Port Hope comprises a number of villages and hamlets, including the following communities such as Campbellcroft, Dale, Davidson's Corners, Decker Hollow, Garden Hill, Morrish, Perrytown, Port Britain, Quay's Crossing, Thomstown, Wesleyville, Zion. Ganaraska was attributed to the area by the First Nations natives of the region and is what they called the river that flows through the town; the name originates from the Cayuga village first located at the current townsite. The Cayuga, part of the Iroquois Confederacy, had migrated there from New York in 1779, after suffering extensive damage as British allies at their homeland in New York state during the American Revolution.
In 1793, United Empire Loyalists became the first permanent settlers of European heritage in Port Hope, which they called Smith's Creek after a former fur trader. Mills and a town plot were developing by the turn of the century. After the War of 1812, more British settlers were wanted, a better name was required. After a brief fling with the name Toronto, the village was renamed in 1817 as Port Hope, after the Township of Hope of which it was a part, which in turn had been named for Colonel Henry Hope, lieutenant governor of the Province of Quebec. In 1834 Port Hope was incorporated as a town. Slow growth from 1881 to 1951 resulted in much of the town's original architecture not being demolished in the name of progress. Port Hope's downtown is celebrated now as the best-preserved 19th-century streetscape in Ontario; the town's local chapter of the Architectural Conservancy of Ontario and the Heritage Port Hope Advisory Committee are active and advise on the restoration and preservation of architecturally or significant buildings.
With over 270 heritage-designated buildings throughout the municipality, Port Hope has a higher per capita rate of preservation than any other town or city in Canada. Downtown businesses are regulated by the municipality to maintain the town's unique character. On January 1, 2001, the original town amalgamated with Hope Township to form the Municipality of Port Hope and Hope, renamed to its current name in November of that same year. Prior to amalgamation, the town's census population was listed as 11,718 while the township's was 3,877. Downtown Port Hope is well known as a shopping destination for antiques and other specialty items and is regarded as one of the best-preserved main streets in Ontario. Port Hope is served by a Via Rail station, it has a medical centre, a walk-in clinic, a community health centre. It has had its own daily newspaper since 1878, the Port Hope Evening Guide, which was, until 2007, a part of the Osprey Media chain and subsequently a part of the Sun Media organization.
In November 2017 this newspaper was included in the large scale closing of many local community newspapers throughout the province of Ontario. Port Hope's Economic Development Strategic Plan aims to increase job growth at least as fast as population growth; the town has a variety of industries. Port Hope is known for having the largest volume of historic low-level radioactive wastes in Canada; these wastes were created by Eldorado Mining and Refining Limited and its private sector predecessors, as a result of the refining process used to extract radium from uranium ore. Radium was used in "glow-in-the-dark" paint, in the early treatment of cancer; the Eldorado plant produced uranium, which may have been used in the Manhattan Project that created the first nuclear weapon. It continues to produce uranium fuel for nuclear power plants, now under the ownership of Cameco. In 2002, a large amount of contaminated soil was removed from beachfront areas. More a testing program has begun of over 5,000 properties, with a plan to remove and store contaminated soil used as landfill.
Well over a billion dollars is expected to be spent on the soil remediation project, the largest such cleanup in Canadian history. The effort is projected to be complete in 2022; the Ganaraska River, is well known to area anglers for annual salmon and trout runs. It has caused many historic floods, the most recent having been in April, 1980; every April since, Port Hope has commemorated the flood with "Float Your Fanny Down the Ganny" ten kilometer river race. "Participants range from serious paddlers navigating the cold, fast moving water in kayaks and canoes, to the entertaining'crazy craft' paddlers, floating any combination of materials down the river in an attempt to reach the finish line." Highway 401 runs through the north end of Port Hope. Port Hope Transit provides local bus service, VIA Rail provides passenger service from the Port Hope railway station along the Toronto-Montreal corridor; the station was built in 1856 for the Grand Trunk Railway and CN Rail. It was restored in 1985. Pleasure boats dock at the foot of John Street at Hayward Street and share the facilities with Cameco, which has berths for freighters servicing their manufacturing facilities at the mouth of the Ganaraska River.
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Georgian Bay is a large bay of Lake Huron, located within Ontario, Canada. The main body of the bay lies east of the Bruce Manitoulin Island. To its northwest is the North Channel. Georgian Bay is surrounded by the districts of Manitoulin, Parry Sound and Muskoka, as well as the more populous counties of Simcoe and Bruce; the Main Channel separates the Bruce Peninsula from Manitoulin Island and connects Georgian Bay to the rest of Lake Huron. The North Channel, located between Manitoulin Island and the Sudbury District, west of Killarney, was once a popular route for steamships and is now used by a variety of pleasure craft to travel to and from Georgian Bay; the shores and waterways of the Georgian Bay are the traditional domain of the Anishinaabeg First Nations peoples to the north and Huron-Petun to the south. The bay was thus a major Algonquian-Iroqouian trade route. Samuel de Champlain, the first European to explore and map the area in 1615–1616, called it "La Mer douce", a reference to the bay's freshwater.
In 1822, after Great Britain had taken over the territory, Lieutenant Henry Wolsey Bayfield of a Royal Navy expedition named it as "Georgian Bay". Georgian Bay is about 190 kilometres long by 80 kilometres wide, it covers 15,000 square kilometres, making it nearly 80% the size of Lake Ontario. Eastern Georgian Bay is part of the southern edge of the Canadian Shield, granite bedrock exposed by the glaciers at the end of the last ice age, about 11,000 years ago; the granite rock formations and windswept eastern white pine are characteristic of the islands and much of the shoreline of the bay. The rugged beauty of the area inspired landscapes by artists of the Group of Seven; the western part of the bay, from Collingwood north, including Manitoulin, Cockburn and St. Joseph islands, borders the Niagara Escarpment; because of its size and narrowness of the straits joining it with the rest of Lake Huron, analogous to if not as pronounced as the separation of Lake Huron and Lake Michigan, Georgian Bay is sometimes called the "sixth Great Lake".
If Georgian Bay were considered a lake in its own right, it would be the fourth largest lake located within Canada. With Georgian Bay, Lake Huron is considered to be the second largest of the Great Lakes - if Georgian Bay were excluded, Lake Huron would be the third largest. There are tens of thousands of islands in Georgian Bay. Most of these islands are along the east side of the bay and are collectively known as the "Thirty Thousand Islands", including the larger Parry Island. Manitoulin Island, lying along the northern side of the bay, is the world's largest island in a freshwater lake; the Trent–Severn Waterway connects Georgian Bay to Lake Ontario, running from Port Severn in the southeastern corner of Georgian Bay through Lake Simcoe into Lake Ontario near Trenton. Further north, Lake Nipissing drains into Georgian Bay through the French River. In October 2004, the Georgian Bay Littoral was declared a Biosphere Reserve by UNESCO. Archaeological records reveal an Aboriginal presence in the southern regions of the Canadian Shield dating from 11,000 years ago.
Evidence of Paleo-Indian settlements have been found on Manitoulin Island and near Killarney. At the time of European contact, the Ojibwe and Ottawa First Nations, both of whom call themselves Anishinaabe, lived along the northern and western shores of Georgian Bay; the Huron and Tionontati inhabited the lands along the southern coast, having migrated from the northern shores of Lake Ontario. Names of islands such as "Manitoulin" and "Giant's Tomb" are indicative of the richness of the cultural history of the area. Aboriginal communities continue to practise their cultural traditions; the first European to visit this area was Étienne Brûlé, who at age less than 20, in 1610 was sent to live as an interpreter trainee with the Onontchataronon, an Algonquian people of the Ottawa River. They travelled every winter to live with the Arendarhonon people of the Huron confederacy at the southern end of Georgian Bay, in the area now called "Huronia". Brulé returned to the Arendarhonon the following year.
At the same time another young interpreter trainee, a youth remembered only as Thomas, employed by the French surgeon and trader Daniel Boyer likely made it to Huronia, in the company of the Onontchataronon, another member of the confederacy. In 1615, Brulé's employer, the French explorer Samuel de Champlain, made his own visit to Georgian Bay and overwintered in Huronia, he was preceded that summer by a Récollet missionary, Joseph Le Caron, who would live among the Huron in 1615–1616 and 1623–1624. Another Récollet missionary, Gabriel Sagard, lived there from 1623–34; the French Jesuit Jean de Brébeuf began a mission in Huronia in 1626. In 1639 he oversaw the building of the mission fort of Sainte-Marie, Ontario's first European settlement, at what is now the town of Midland; the reconstructed Jesuit mission, Sainte-Marie among the Hurons, is now a historic park operated by the province of Ontario. Nearby is the Martyrs' Shrine, a Catholic church dedicated to the Canadian Martyrs, Jesuits who were killed during Iroquois warfare against the Huron around Georgian Bay in the 17th century.
The Bay appears on maps of the time as "Toronto Bay". Penetanguishene, the location of an Ojibwe village located at the southern tip of the bay nea
Fitzroy Harbour is a small village within the city of Ottawa in eastern Ontario, Canada. It is located on the Ottawa River at the mouth of the Carp River. A branch of the Mississippi River, known as the Snye empties into the Ottawa to the west of the village. Fitzroy Provincial Park is located nearby; the village has one school located within St. Michael's Catholic school. Fitzroy Harbour Public School was closed in 2006. There are three churches: St Michael's, St. George's and St. Andrew's; the town was founded by Charles Shirreff in 1831. There was a waterfall known as Chats Falls on the river Ottawa River replaced by a hydroelectric power station and dam operated by Ontario Power Generation. By 1866, Fitzroy Harbour was a post village with a population of 200 of the Fitzroy Township, on the Ottawa river, at the head of the Duchesne lake navigation, on a small bay, dotted with beautiful islands; the picturesque Chats Falls, which form eleven falls, plunge thirty-three feet is nearby. On the south side of the river, directly opposite the village, was the Government timber slide.
The community had hydroelectric power, three churches, built of stone: the Church of England, the Canada Presbyterian church, the Roman Catholic church. The Fourth Division Court was at Riddle's Corners, alternately; the Loyal Orange Lodge, No. 541, met at thc Orange Hall, on the first Friday in each month. In 1974, Fitzroy Township was amalgamated with Torbolton to form West Carleton. In 1977, the Fitzroy Harbour Community Centre was constructed; this facility features a main hall and meeting rooms, two softball diamonds, soccer pitches, a playground and an outdoor rink. In 2001, West Carleton Township became part of the new City of Ottawa. Fitzroy Harbour Community Association
Leith is an area to the north of the city of Edinburgh, Scotland, at the mouth of the Water of Leith. The earliest surviving historical references are in the royal charter authorising the construction of Holyrood Abbey in 1128; the medieval settlements of Leith had grown into a burgh by 1833, the burgh was merged into Edinburgh in 1920. Part of the county of Midlothian, Leith is sited on the coast of the Firth of Forth and lies within the council area of the City of Edinburgh; the port remains one of its most valuable enterprises, handling over 1.5 million tonnes of cargo in 2003. Previous to the bridge being built in the late 15th century, Leith had settlements on either side of the river, lacking an easy crossing. South Leith was larger and was controlled by the lairds of Restalrig: the Logan family, it had many merchants' houses and warehouses. This was where ships offloaded their cargoes at The Shore where they were collected by Edinburgh merchants. Leithers were explicitly forbidden by statute to participate directly in the trade at the port, to ensure that landed goods were not sold elsewhere.
North Leith was proportionately richer, coming under the jurisdiction of Holyrood Abbey. It was a fishing village consisting of one street, now Sandport Street and Quayside Lane. Burgage plots ran down to the river from each house; this has traditionally been the shipbuilding side of Leith with several wet and dry docks built over time. The first dry dock in Scotland was built here in 1720. A small peninsula of land on the east bank came under the same jurisdiction on what is now Sheriff Brae/Sheriff Bank; the first bridge to link both banks of the river was built in 1493 by Abbot Bellenden, who controlled the church at North Leith. The bridge was the revenue supplementing the church's income. Reputedly Leith's oldest building, it was demolished in 1780 to allow ships to sail further upstream; the earliest evidence of settlement in Leith comes from several archaeological digs undertaken in the Shore area in the late 20th century. Amongst the finds were medieval wharf edges from the 12th century.
This date fits with the earliest documentary evidence of settlement in Leith - the foundation charter of Holyrood Abbey. Leith has played a prominent role in Scottish history; as the major port serving Edinburgh, it has been the stage on which many significant events in Scottish history have taken place. Mary of Guise ruled Scotland from Leith in 1560 as Regent while her daughter, Queen of Scots remained in France. Mary of Guise moved the Scottish Court to Leith, to a site, now Parliament Street, off Coalhill. According to the 18th-century historian William Maitland, her palace was situated on Rotten Row, now Water Street. Artifacts from the demolished residence are held by the National Museum of Scotland, her sculptured coat of arms, dated 1560, can be seen in South Leith Parish Church; when the large French garrison stationed in Leith was attacked by Scottish Protestant lords, reinforced by troops and artillery sent from England, Mary of Guise was forced to shut herself in Edinburgh Castle.
In June 1560, Mary of Guise died, the Siege of Leith ended with the departure of the French troops in accordance with the Treaty of Leith known as the Treaty of Edinburgh. Two mounds on Leith Links, known as "Giant's Brae" and "Lady Fyfe's Brae", identified as Somerset's Battery and Pelham's Battery are believed to be artillery mounds created for the siege in April 1560 and are listed as scheduled monuments. Stuart Harris was of the opinion, based on the contemporary Petworth map, that Pelham's Battery was built on the slope to the south of Leith Links and Somerset's Battery was located adjacent to the present Pilrig House, he notes that the "tradition" that these batteries were situated on Leith Links is spurious, going no further back than Campbell's "History of Leith" 1827. Lent authority by the Ordnance Survey map of 1852, this attribution saved the mounds when several other hillocks on the links were removed in the 1880s; the best documented day of the siege was 7 May 1560, when the English and Scots charged the walls of Leith with ladders that turned out to be too short.
John Knox records the delight of Mary of Guise at the failure of the attack, English sources report 1000 casualties. Late in 1561, Queen of Scots, arrived in Leith and, finding no welcoming party to receive her, made a brief stop at the "house of Andro Lamb... beit the space of ane hour", before being collected and escorted by coach to Holyrood Palace, to begin her ill-fated six-year-long reign. The Protestant reformer, John Knox, explained the lack of preparation thus. A century Leith was a prospective battleground when the Army of the Covenant, led by General David Leslie, threw up an earthen rampart between Calton Hill and Leith to defend the northern approach to Edinburgh against Oliver Cromwell's forces; this rampart became the line of one of Edinburgh's longest streets, Leith Walk. After Cromwell's victory at the Battle of Dunbar in 1650 and subsequent occupation of Scotland, a fort known as Leith Citadel was erected in 1656
Quebec City Québec, is the capital city of the Canadian province of Quebec. The city had a population estimate of 531,902 in July 2016, the metropolitan area had a population of 800,296 in July 2016, making it the second largest city in Quebec after Montreal, the seventh largest metropolitan area and eleventh largest city in the country; the Algonquian people had named the area Kébec, an Algonquin word meaning "where the river narrows", because the Saint Lawrence River narrows proximate to the promontory of Quebec and its Cape Diamant. Explorer Samuel de Champlain founded a French settlement here in 1608, adopted the Algonquin name. Quebec City is one of the oldest European cities in North America; the ramparts surrounding Old Quebec are the only fortified city walls remaining in the Americas north of Mexico. This area was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1985 as the "Historic District of Old Québec"; the city's landmarks include the Château Frontenac hotel that dominates the skyline and the Citadelle of Quebec, an intact fortress that forms the centrepiece of the ramparts surrounding the old city and includes a secondary royal residence.
The National Assembly of Quebec, the Musée national des beaux-arts du Québec, the Musée de la civilisation are found within or near Vieux-Québec. According to the Government of Canada, the Government of Quebec and the Geographical Names Board of Canada, the names of Canadian cities and towns have only one official form. Thus, Québec is spelled with an accented é in both Canadian English and French. In English, the city and the province are distinguished by the fact that the province does not have an accented é and the city does. Informally, the accent is omitted in common usage, so the unofficial form "Quebec City" is used to distinguish the city from the province. In French, the names of provinces are gendered nouns and the names of cities are not, so the city and the province are distinguished by the presence or absence of a definite article in front of the name. For example, the concept of "in Quebec" is expressed as "à Québec" for the city and "au Québec" for the province. Quebec City is one of the oldest European settlements in North America and the only fortified city north of Mexico whose walls still exist.
While many of the major cities in Latin America date from the 16th century, among cities in Canada and the U. S. few were created earlier than Quebec City. It is home to the earliest known French settlement in North America, Fort Charlesbourg-Royal, established in 1541 by explorer Jacques Cartier with some 400 persons but abandoned less than a year due to the hostility of the natives and the harsh winter; the fort was in the suburban former town of Cap-Rouge. Quebec was founded by Samuel de Champlain, a French explorer and diplomat, on 3 July 1608, at the site of a long abandoned St. Lawrence Iroquoian settlement called Stadacona. Champlain called "The Father of New France", served as its administrator for the rest of his life; the name "Canada" refers to this settlement. Although the Acadian settlement at Port-Royal was established three years earlier, Quebec came to be known as the cradle of North America's Francophone population; the place seemed favourable to the establishment of a permanent colony.
The population of the settlement remained small for decades. In 1629 it was captured by English privateers, led during the Anglo-French War. Samuel de Champlain argued that the English seizing of the lands was illegal as the war had ended, worked to have the lands returned to France; as part of the ongoing negotiations of their exit from the Anglo-French War, in 1632 the English king Charles agreed to return the lands in exchange for Louis XIII paying his wife's dowry. These terms were signed into law with the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye; the lands in Quebec and Acadia were returned to the French Company of One Hundred Associates. In 1665, there were 550 people in 70 houses living in the city. One-quarter of the people were members of religious orders: secular priests, Ursulines nuns and the order running the local hospital, Hotel-Dieu. Quebec City was the headquarters of many raids against New England during the four French and Indian Wars. In the last war, the French and Indian War, Quebec City was captured by the British in 1759 and held until the end of the war in 1763.
It was the site of three battles during Seven Years' War: a French victory. France ceded New France, including the city, to Britain in 1763. At the end of French rule in 1763, villages and pastures surrounded the town of 8,000 inhabitants; the town distinguished itself by its monumental architecture and affluent homes of masonry and shacks in the suburbs of Saint-Jean and Saint-Roch. Despite its urbanity and its status as capital, Quebec City remained a small colonial city with close ties to its rural surroundings. Nearby inhabitants traded their farm surpluses and firewood for imported goods from France at the two city m
The Ottawa River is a river in the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Quebec. For most of its length, it defines the border between these two provinces, it is a major tributary of the St. Lawrence River; the river rises at Lac des Outaouais, north of the Laurentian Mountains of central Quebec, flows west to Lake Timiskaming. From there its route has been used to define the interprovincial border with Ontario; the river reaches great depths of nearly 460 feet in some places. From Lake Timiskaming, the river flows southeast to Ottawa and Gatineau, where it tumbles over Chaudière Falls and further takes in the Rideau and Gatineau rivers; the Ottawa River drains into the Lake of the St. Lawrence River at Montreal; the river is 1,271 kilometres long. The average annual mean waterflow measured at Carillon dam, near the Lake of Two Mountains, is 1,939 cubic metres per second, with average annual extremes of 749 to 5,351 cubic metres per second. Record historic levels since 1964 are a low of 529 cubic metres per second in 2005 and a high of 8,190 cubic metres per second in 1976.
The river flows through large areas of deciduous and coniferous forest formed over thousands of years as trees recolonized the Ottawa Valley after the ice age. The coniferous forests and blueberry bogs occur on old sand plains left by retreating glaciers, or in wetter areas with clay substrate; the deciduous forests, dominated by birch, beech and ash occur in more mesic areas with better soil around the boundary with the La Varendrye Park. These primeval forests were affected by natural fire started by lightning, which led to increased reproduction by pine and oak, as well as fire barrens and their associated species; the vast areas of pine were exploited by early loggers. Generations of logging removed hemlock for use in tanning leather, leaving a permanent deficit of hemlock in most forests. Associated with the logging and early settlement were vast wild fires which not only removed the forests, but led to soil erosion. Nearly all the forests show varying degrees of human disturbance. Tracts of older forest are uncommon, hence they are considered of considerable importance for conservation.
The Ottawa River has large areas of wetlands. Some of the more biologically important wetland areas include, the Westmeath sand dune/wetland complex, Mississippi Snye, Breckenridge Nature Reserve, Shirleys Bay, Ottawa Beach/Andrew Haydon Park, Petrie Island, the Duck Islands and Greens Creek; the Westmeath sand dune/wetland complex is significant for its pristine sand dunes, few of which remain along the Ottawa River, the many associated rare plants. Shirleys Bay has a biologically diverse shoreline alvar, as well as one of the largest silver maple swamps along the river. Like all wetlands, these depend upon the seasonal fluctuations in the water level. High water levels help create and maintain silver maple swamps, while low water periods allow many rare wetland plants to grow on the emerged sand and clay flats. There are five principal wetland vegetation types. One is swamp silver maple. There are four herbaceous vegetation types, named for the dominant plant species in them: Scirpus, Eleocharis and Typha.
Which type occurs in a particular location depends upon factors such as substrate type, water depth, ice-scour and fertility. Inland, south of the river, older river channels, which date back to the end of the ice age, no longer have flowing water, have sometimes filled with a different wetland type, peat bog. Examples include Alfred Bog. Major tributaries include: Communities along the Ottawa River include: The Ottawa River lies in the Ottawa-Bonnechere Graben, a Mesozoic rift valley that formed 175 million years ago. Much of the river flows through the Canadian Shield, although lower areas flow through limestone plains and glacial deposits; as the glacial ice sheet began to retreat at the end of the last ice age, the Ottawa River valley, along with the St. Lawrence River valley and Lake Champlain, had been depressed to below sea level by the glacier's weight, filled with sea water; the resulting arm of the ocean is known as the Champlain Sea. Fossil remains of marine life dating 12 to 10 thousand years ago have been found in marine clay throughout the region.
Sand deposits from this era have produced vast plains dominated by pine forests, as well as localized areas of sand dunes, such as Westmeath and Constance Bay. Clay deposits from this period have resulted in areas of poor drainage, large swamps, peat bogs in some ancient channels of this river. Hence, the distribution of forests and wetlands is much a product of these past glacial events. Large deposits of a material known as Leda clay formed; these deposits become unstable after heavy rains. Numerous landslides have occurred as a result; the former site of the town of Lemieux, Ontario collapsed into the South Nation River in 1993. The town's residents had been relocated because of the suspected instability of the earth in that location; as the land rose again the sea coast retreated and the fresh water courses of today took shape. Following the demise of the Champlain Sea the Ottawa River Valley continued to drain the waters of the emerging Upper Great Lakes basin through Lake Nipissing and the Mattawa River.
Owing to the ongoing uplift of the la