England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
John Reynolds (U.S. politician)
John Reynolds was a United States politician from the state of Illinois. He was one of the original four justices of the Illinois Supreme Court, 1818–1825, a member of the Illinois House of Representatives from 1826–1830, 1846–1848, 1852–1854, the 4th Illinois Governor from 1830–1834, he represented Illinois in the United States House of Representatives, 1834–1837 and 1839–1843. Reynolds was born in Pennsylvania, his father, Robert Reynolds and his mother, née Margaret Moore, were both natives of Ireland, from which country they emigrated to the United States in 1785, arriving first at Philadelphia. When Reynolds was about six months old, his parents emigrated with him to Tennessee, where many of their relatives had located, at the base of the Copper Ridge Mountain, about 14 miles northeast of the present city of Knoxville. After experiencing harassment from Native Americans fighting encroachment by european settlers upon their territory, the Reynolds moved into the interior of the state, they were poor, brought up their children to habits of manual industry.
In 1800 the family moved to Kaskaskia, where Reynolds spent most of his childhood. As part of his upbringing, he adopted the principle and practice of total abstinence from intoxicating liquors. In 1807 the family made another move, this time to the Goshen Settlement, at the foot of the bluffs overlooking the Mississippi River southwest of Edwardsville. At the age of twenty, Reynolds attended college for two years near Knoxville, where he had relatives, taking courses in classical studies, he studied law in Knoxville, but health problems forced him to return home to Illinois. In the fall of 1812 he was admitted to the bar at Kaskaskia. About this time he learned the French language, which he regarded as being superior to all others for social intercourse. With the ranks of private and orderly sergeant, Reynolds served as a scout in campaigns against the western Native Americans during the War of 1812. For this service, Reynolds became known as the "Old Ranger." In 1814, Reynolds opened a law office in the old French village of Cahokia the county seat of St. Clair County.
In the fall of 1818 he was elected an associate justice of the Illinois Supreme Court by the Illinois General Assembly. In 1818, he was an unsuccessful candidate for election to the United States Senate. In 1826, he was elected a member of the Illinois House of Representatives for the first time, serving until 1830. Although aligning himself with the Jacksonian Democrats, his moderation earned him respect from both pro-Jackson and anti-Jackson factions. In August 1830, Reynolds was elected governor of Illinois and took office on December 6; the most significant event of his administration was the Black Hawk War in 1832. He called out the militia, was field commander appearing in person on the battle-grounds, he was recognized by U. S. President Andrew Jackson as Major-General, was authorized to make treaties with the Indians. On November 17, 1834, Reynolds resigned as governor, having been elected to the United States House of Representatives for the Twenty-third Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Charles Slade.
He was reelected to the Twenty-fourth Congress, serving from December 1, 1834 to March 3, 1837. He was an unsuccessful candidate for reelection in 1836 to the Twenty-fifth Congress, he was subsequently elected to the Twenty-sixth and Twenty-seventh Congresses, serving from March 4, 1839 to March 3, 1843. In 1837, while out of Congress and in company with a few others, he built the first railroad in the Mississippi Valley, about six miles long, leading from his coal mine in the Mississippi bluff to the bank of the river opposite St. Louis. Not having the funds to purchase a locomotive, the railroad was operated by horse-power; the next spring, the company sold out at great loss. In 1839 Reynolds was appointed one of the Canal Commissioners and traveled to Philadelphia to raise funds for that purpose. During that year, he made a tour of Europe with his wife, he introduced the Latter-day Saint Prophet, Joseph Smith to President Martin Van Buren when Smith was seeking redress for the greviances that the Latter-day Saints suffered in Missouri.
This was done by Reynolds with the hope of winning the votes of the growing number of Latter-day Saints in Illinois in latter political contests. Reynolds was elected in 1846 for one term as a member of the Illinois House of Representatives from St. Clair County, he was again elected in 1852. In 1860, aged and infirm, he attended the Democratic National Convention in Charleston, South Carolina, as an anti-Douglas Delegate, instead supporting John C. Breckinridge in the U. S. presidential election. He had no children, he died in Belleville in May 1865, just after the close of the Civil War, is interred at Walnut Hill Cemetery in Belleville. Portrait and Biographical Album of Champaign County, Illinois Chapman Brothers, Chicago, 1887 Milan Girls The Romantic Story of Cahokia, IllinoisUnited States Congress. "John Reynolds". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. John Reynolds at Find a Grave
Illinois's 1st congressional district
Illinois's first congressional district is a congressional district in the U. S. state of Illinois. Based in Cook County, the district includes much of the South Side of Chicago, continues southwest to Joliet. From 2003 to early 2013 it extended into the city's southwest suburbs until reaching the border of Will County, covered 97.84 square miles, making it one of the 40 smallest districts in the U. S.. The district had a population, 65% African American, the highest percentage of any congressional district in the nation, it includes the home of former President Barack Obama. The 1st is a majority-minority district, has been since at least the 1920s. Since redistricting by the state legislature after the 2010 census, it is 51.3% African American, 40.6% white, 9.8% Hispanic population. The district is represented by Democrat Bobby Rush, re-elected in 2016, has been elected continuously in the 1st district since 1992. In 2011, following the 2010 census, the state legislature redistricted, it expanded the district to cover parts of Will Counties.
After redistricting, all or parts of Alsip, Blue Island, Calumet Park, Country Club Hills, Dixmoor, Evergreen Park, Frankfort Square, Manhattan, Merrionette Park, Mokena, New Lenox, Oak Forest, Oak Lawn, Orland Hills, Orland Park, Palos Heights, Riverdale, Tinley Park, Worth are included. The representative for these districts were elected in the 2012 primary and general elections, the boundaries became effective on January 3, 2013; the district was adjacent to the 2nd District to the east and south, the 7th District to the north, the 3rd and 13th Districts to the west, bordered the 11th District at its southwest corner. The district's northeast border followed Lake Michigan's shoreline for a mile; the district was created following the 1830 U. S. Census and came into existence in 1833. S. House of Representatives with representative elected on an at-large basis; the district included Southwestern Illinois until 1853. It included the state's northern edge until 1863. Since that time, the district has included all or part of Cook County.
Historical populations reflected waves of immigration into the area: previous majority populations were ethnic Irish and east European. Beginning in the mid-19th century, the Irish were the first to establish their physical and political control of the area within the city's South Side; the current 1st district has a minority-majority population: 51.3% of the residents are African-American. It has been represented in Congress by African Americans since 1929. Tens of thousands of African Americans moved to Chicago from the rural South in the Great Migration, they were confined by discrimination to the South Side of Chicago and replaced ethnic whites who moved out to suburbs. This has been one of the most reliably Democratic districts in the country, although not to the extent that it was during the 1980s, when more than 90% of the district's residents were black; the district has not elected a Republican to the U. S. House of Representatives since 1932. After the civil rights movement gained support from national Democratic Party for major legislation to restore constitutional rights, including the franchise in the South, most African Americans shifted to support the Democratic Party.
Democratic congressional candidates receive over 80% of the vote here. Based in Chicago, the district includes the neighborhoods of Auburn Gresham, Burnside and Greater Grand Crossing; the district's area south of 95th Street is entirely west of Interstate 57. The district includes the municipalities of Crestwood, Evergreen Park, Midlothian and Robbins, nearly all of Alsip, Blue Island and Oak Forest, parts of Calumet Park, Markham, Orland Hills, Orland Park, Palos Heights, Tinley Park and Worth, some small sections of Country Club Hills and Riverdale. In the twentieth century after the Great Migration from the South and concentration of blacks on the South Side due to de facto residential segregation, the district became the nation's first with a black-majority population. Since the 1920s, it has included the central area of Chicago's South Side African-American community. Over 85% of the district's residents were black during the period from the 1950s through the 1980s, but redistricting since that time – which redrew the district lines with the goal of maintaining three Chicago districts with black populations exceeding 60% – has reduced the percentage of black residents in the district to 70% in the 1990s.
The current figure is 65%. Outward migration has caused the South Side's population to decrease over the years, the district was expanded geographically to the southwest to gain residents as the state's congressional delegation has been reduced in numbers due to population changes and reapportio
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Illinois is a state in the Midwestern and Great Lakes region of the United States. It has the fifth largest gross domestic product, the sixth largest population, the 25th largest land area of all U. S. states. Illinois is noted as a microcosm of the entire United States. With Chicago in northeastern Illinois, small industrial cities and immense agricultural productivity in the north and center of the state, natural resources such as coal and petroleum in the south, Illinois has a diverse economic base, is a major transportation hub. Chicagoland, Chicago's metropolitan area, encompasses over 65% of the state's population; the Port of Chicago connects the state to international ports via two main routes: from the Great Lakes, via the Saint Lawrence Seaway, to the Atlantic Ocean and from the Great Lakes to the Mississippi River, via the Illinois Waterway to the Illinois River. The Mississippi River, the Ohio River, the Wabash River form parts of the boundaries of Illinois. For decades, Chicago's O'Hare International Airport has been ranked as one of the world's busiest airports.
Illinois has long had a reputation as a bellwether both in social and cultural terms and, through the 1980s, in politics. The capital of Illinois is Springfield, located in the central part of the state. Although today's Illinois' largest population center is in its northeast, the state's European population grew first in the west as the French settled the vast Mississippi of the Illinois Country of New France. Following the American Revolutionary War, American settlers began arriving from Kentucky in the 1780s via the Ohio River, the population grew from south to north. In 1818, Illinois achieved statehood. Following increased commercial activity in the Great Lakes after the construction of the Erie Canal, Chicago was founded in the 1830s on the banks of the Chicago River at one of the few natural harbors on the southern section of Lake Michigan. John Deere's invention of the self-scouring steel plow turned Illinois's rich prairie into some of the world's most productive and valuable farmland, attracting immigrant farmers from Germany and Sweden.
The Illinois and Michigan Canal made transportation between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River valley faster and cheaper, new railroads carried immigrants to new homes in the country's west and shipped commodity crops to the nation's east. The state became a transportation hub for the nation. By 1900, the growth of industrial jobs in the northern cities and coal mining in the central and southern areas attracted immigrants from Eastern and Southern Europe. Illinois was an important manufacturing center during both world wars; the Great Migration from the South established a large community of African Americans in the state, including Chicago, who founded the city's famous jazz and blues cultures. Chicago, the center of the Chicago Metropolitan Area, is now recognized as a global alpha-level city. Three U. S. presidents have been elected while living in Illinois: Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant, Barack Obama. Additionally, Ronald Reagan, whose political career was based in California, was born and raised in the state.
Today, Illinois honors Lincoln with its official state slogan Land of Lincoln, displayed on its license plates since 1954. The state is the site of the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum in Springfield and the future home of the Barack Obama Presidential Center in Chicago. "Illinois" is the modern spelling for the early French Catholic missionaries and explorers' name for the Illinois Native Americans, a name, spelled in many different ways in the early records. American scholars thought the name "Illinois" meant "man" or "men" in the Miami-Illinois language, with the original iliniwek transformed via French into Illinois; this etymology is not supported by the Illinois language, as the word for "man" is ireniwa, plural of "man" is ireniwaki. The name Illiniwek has been said to mean "tribe of superior men", a false etymology; the name "Illinois" derives from the Miami-Illinois verb irenwe·wa - "he speaks the regular way". This was taken into the Ojibwe language in the Ottawa dialect, modified into ilinwe·.
The French borrowed these forms, changing the /we/ ending to spell it as -ois, a transliteration for its pronunciation in French of that time. The current spelling form, began to appear in the early 1670s, when French colonists had settled in the western area; the Illinois's name for themselves, as attested in all three of the French missionary-period dictionaries of Illinois, was Inoka, of unknown meaning and unrelated to the other terms. American Indians of successive cultures lived along the waterways of the Illinois area for thousands of years before the arrival of Europeans; the Koster Site demonstrates 7,000 years of continuous habitation. Cahokia, the largest regional chiefdom and urban center of the Pre-Columbian Mississippian culture, was located near present-day Collinsville, Illinois, they built an urban complex of more than 100 platform and burial mounds, a 50-acre plaza larger than 35 football fields, a woodhenge of sacred cedar, all in a planned design expressing the culture's cosmology.
Monks Mound, the center of the site, is the largest Pre-Columbian structure north of the Valley of Mexico. It is 100 feet high, 951 feet long, 836 feet wide, covers 13.8 acres. It contains about 814,000 cubic yards of earth, it was topped by a structure thought to have measured about 105 feet in length and 48 feet in width, covered an area 5,000 square feet, been as much as 50 feet high, making its peak 150 feet above the level of the pl
23rd United States Congress
The Twenty-third United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D. C. from March 4, 1833, to March 4, 1835, during the fifth and sixth years of Andrew Jackson's presidency. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the Fifth Census of the United States in 1830; the Senate had an Anti-Jacksonian or National Republican majority, the House had a Jacksonian or Democratic majority. March 28, 1834: Senate censured President Andrew Jackson for defunding the Second Bank of the United States January 30, 1835: Richard Lawrence unsuccessfully tried to assassinate President Jackson in the United States Capitol; the count below identifies party affiliations at the beginning of the first session of this congress. Changes resulting from subsequent replacements are shown below in the "Changes in membership" section.
For the beginning of this congress, the size of the House was increased from 213 seats to 240 seats, following the 1830 United States Census. President: Martin Van Buren President pro tempore: Hugh Lawson White, until December 15, 1833 George Poindexter, June 28, 1834 – November 30, 1834 John Tyler, from March 3, 1835 Speaker: Andrew Stevenson, until June 2, 1834 John Bell, after June 2, 1834 This list is arranged by chamber by state. Senators are listed by class, Representatives are listed by district. Skip to House of Representatives, below Senators were elected by the state legislatures every two years, with one-third beginning new six-year terms with each Congress. Preceding the names in the list below are Senate class numbers, which indicate the cycle of their election. In this Congress, Class 1 meant their term began with this Congress, requiring reelection in 1838; the count below reflects changes from the beginning of the first session of this Congress. Replacements: 18 Jacksonian: 1 seat net loss Anti-Jacksonian: 1 seat net gain deaths: 8 resignations: 15 contested election: 1 Total seats with changes: 23 Lists of committees and their party leaders.
Agriculture Amendments to the Constitution Audit and Control the Contingent Expenses of the Senate Claims Commerce Distributing Public Revenue Among the States District of Columbia Establishing Branches of the Mint Executive Patronage Finance Foreign Relations French Spoilations Indian Affairs Judiciary Manufactures Michigan and Arkansas Admission to the Union Mileage of Members of Congress Military Affairs Militia Naval Affairs Pensions Post Office and Post Roads President's Message Refusing to Furnish a Paper to Senate Private Land Claims Public Lands Purchasing Boyd Reilly's Gas Apparatus Revolutionary Claims Roads and Canals Shiloh National Park Tariff Regulation Whole Accounts Agriculture Bank of the United States Biennial Register Boundary of the Chickasaw Indians Claims Commerce District of Columbia Elections Establishing an Assay Office in the Gold Region Expenditures in the Navy Department Expenditures in the Post Office Department Expenditures in the State Department Expenditures in the Treasury Department Expenditures in the War Department Expenditures on Public Buildings Foreign Affairs Indian Affairs Invalid Pensions Manufactures Military Affairs Naval Affairs Post Office and Post Roads Public Expenditures Public Lands Revisal and Unfinished Business Revolutionary Claims Roads and Canals Rules Standards of Official Conduct Territories Ways and Means Whole Enrolled Bills Librarian of Congress: John Silva Meehan Secretary: Walter Lowrie Sergeant at Arms: Mountjoy Bayly, until December 9, 1833 John Shackford, elected December 9, 1833 Chaplain: Frederick W. Hatch Clerk: Walter S. Franklin Sergeant at Arms: Thomas B.
Randolph Doorkeeper: Overton Carr Postmaster: William J. McCormick Reading Clerks: Chaplain: Thomas H. Stockton Edward D. Smith, elected December 1, 1834 United States elections, 1832 United States presidential election, 1832 United States Senate elections, 1832 and 1833 United States House of Representatives elections, 1832 United States elections, 1834 United States Senate elections, 1834 and 1835 United States House of Representatives elections, 1834 Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Statutes at Large, 1789-1875 Senate Journal, First Forty-three Sessions of Congress House Journal, First Forty-three Sessions of Congress Biographical Directory of the U. S. Congress U. S. House of Representatives: House History U. S. Senate: Statistics and Lists Congressional Directory of the 23rd Congress, 1st Session
United States House of Representatives
The United States House of Representatives is the lower chamber of the United States Congress, the Senate being the upper chamber. Together they compose the legislature of the United States; the composition of the House is established by Article One of the United States Constitution. The House is composed of Representatives who sit in congressional districts that are allocated to each of the 50 states on a basis of population as measured by the U. S. Census, with each district entitled to one representative. Since its inception in 1789, all Representatives have been directly elected; the total number of voting representatives is fixed by law at 435. As of the 2010 Census, the largest delegation is that of California, with fifty-three representatives. Seven states have only one representative: Alaska, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota and Wyoming; the House is charged with the passage of federal legislation, known as bills, after concurrence by the Senate, are sent to the President for consideration.
In addition to this basic power, the House has certain exclusive powers, among them the power to initiate all bills related to revenue. The House meets in the south wing of the United States Capitol; the presiding officer is the Speaker of the House, elected by the members thereof. The Speaker and other floor leaders are chosen by the Democratic Caucus or the Republican Conference, depending on whichever party has more voting members. Under the Articles of Confederation, the Congress of the Confederation was a unicameral body in which each state was represented, in which each state had a veto over most action. After eight years of a more limited confederal government under the Articles, numerous political leaders such as James Madison and Alexander Hamilton initiated the Constitutional Convention in 1787, which received the Confederation Congress's sanction to "amend the Articles of Confederation". All states except Rhode Island agreed to send delegates; the issue of how to structure Congress was one of the most divisive among the founders during the Convention.
Edmund Randolph's Virginia Plan called for a bicameral Congress: the lower house would be "of the people", elected directly by the people of the United States and representing public opinion, a more deliberative upper house, elected by the lower house, that would represent the individual states, would be less susceptible to variations of mass sentiment. The House is referred to as the lower house, with the Senate being the upper house, although the United States Constitution does not use that terminology. Both houses' approval is necessary for the passage of legislation; the Virginia Plan drew the support of delegates from large states such as Virginia and Pennsylvania, as it called for representation based on population. The smaller states, favored the New Jersey Plan, which called for a unicameral Congress with equal representation for the states; the Convention reached the Connecticut Compromise or Great Compromise, under which one house of Congress would provide representation proportional to each state's population, whereas the other would provide equal representation amongst the states.
The Constitution was ratified by the requisite number of states in 1788, but its implementation was set for March 4, 1789. The House began work on April 1789, when it achieved a quorum for the first time. During the first half of the 19th century, the House was in conflict with the Senate over regionally divisive issues, including slavery; the North was much more populous than the South, therefore dominated the House of Representatives. However, the North held no such advantage in the Senate, where the equal representation of states prevailed. Regional conflict was most pronounced over the issue of slavery. One example of a provision supported by the House but blocked by the Senate was the Wilmot Proviso, which sought to ban slavery in the land gained during the Mexican–American War. Conflict over slavery and other issues persisted until the Civil War, which began soon after several southern states attempted to secede from the Union; the war culminated in the abolition of slavery. All southern senators except Andrew Johnson resigned their seats at the beginning of the war, therefore the Senate did not hold the balance of power between North and South during the war.
The years of Reconstruction that followed witnessed large majorities for the Republican Party, which many Americans associated with the Union's victory in the Civil War and the ending of slavery. The Reconstruction period ended in about 1877; the Democratic Party and Republican Party each held majorities in the House at various times. The late 19th and early 20th centuries saw a dramatic increase in the power of the Speaker of the House; the rise of the Speaker's influence began in the 1890s, during the tenure of Republican Thomas Brackett Reed. "Czar Reed", as he was nicknamed, attempted to put into effect his view that "The best system is to have one party govern and the other party watch." The leadership structure of the House developed during the same period, with the positions of Majority Leader and Minority Leader being created in 1899. While the Minority Leader