Privy Council of the United Kingdom
Her Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council known as the Privy Council of the United Kingdom or just the Privy Council, is a formal body of advisers to the Sovereign of the United Kingdom. Its membership comprises senior politicians who are current or former members of either the House of Commons or the House of Lords; the Privy Council formally advises the sovereign on the exercise of the Royal Prerogative, corporately it issues executive instruments known as Orders in Council, which among other powers enact Acts of Parliament. The Council holds the delegated authority to issue Orders of Council used to regulate certain public institutions; the Council advises the sovereign on the issuing of Royal Charters, which are used to grant special status to incorporated bodies, city or borough status to local authorities. Otherwise, the Privy Council's powers have now been replaced by its executive committee, the Cabinet of the United Kingdom. Certain judicial functions are performed by the Queen-in-Council, although in practice its actual work of hearing and deciding upon cases is carried out day-to-day by the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council.
The Judicial Committee consists of senior judges appointed as Privy Counsellors: predominantly Justices of the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom and senior judges from the Commonwealth. The Privy Council acted as the High Court of Appeal for the entire British Empire, continues to hear appeals from the Crown Dependencies, the British Overseas Territories, some independent Commonwealth states; the Privy Council of the United Kingdom was preceded by the Privy Council of Scotland and the Privy Council of England. The key events in the formation of the modern Privy Council are given below: In Anglo-Saxon England, Witenagemot was an early equivalent to the Privy Council of England. During the reigns of the Norman monarchs, the English Crown was advised by a royal court or curia regis, which consisted of magnates and high officials; the body concerned itself with advising the sovereign on legislation and justice. Different bodies assuming distinct functions evolved from the court; the courts of law took over the business of dispensing justice, while Parliament became the supreme legislature of the kingdom.
The Council retained the power to hear legal disputes, either in the first instance or on appeal. Furthermore, laws made by the sovereign on the advice of the Council, rather than on the advice of Parliament, were accepted as valid. Powerful sovereigns used the body to circumvent the Courts and Parliament. For example, a committee of the Council—which became the Court of the Star Chamber—was during the 15th century permitted to inflict any punishment except death, without being bound by normal court procedure. During Henry VIII's reign, the sovereign, on the advice of the Council, was allowed to enact laws by mere proclamation; the legislative pre-eminence of Parliament was not restored until after Henry VIII's death. Though the royal Council retained legislative and judicial responsibilities, it became a administrative body; the Council consisted of forty members in 1553, but the sovereign relied on a smaller committee, which evolved into the modern Cabinet. By the end of the English Civil War, the monarchy, House of Lords, Privy Council had been abolished.
The remaining parliamentary chamber, the House of Commons, instituted a Council of State to execute laws and to direct administrative policy. The forty-one members of the Council were elected by the House of Commons. In 1653, Cromwell became Lord Protector, the Council was reduced to between thirteen and twenty-one members, all elected by the Commons. In 1657, the Commons granted Cromwell greater powers, some of which were reminiscent of those enjoyed by monarchs; the Council became known as the Protector's Privy Council. In 1659, shortly before the restoration of the monarchy, the Protector's Council was abolished. Charles II restored the Royal Privy Council, but he, like previous Stuart monarchs, chose to rely on a small group of advisers. Under George I more power transferred to this committee, it now began to meet in the absence of the sovereign, communicating its decisions to him after the fact. Thus, the British Privy Council, as a whole, ceased to be a body of important confidential advisers to the sovereign.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the definition of the word privy in Privy Council is an obsolete meaning "of or pertaining to a particular person or persons, one's own". It is related to the word private, derives from the French word privé; the sovereign, when acting on the Council's advice, is known as the King-in-Council or Queen-in-Council. The members of the Council are collectively known as The Lords of Her Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council; the chief officer of the body is the Lord President of the Council, the fourth highest Great Officer of State, a Cabinet member and either the Leader of the House of Lords or of the House of Commons. Another important official is the Clerk, whose signature is appended to all orders made in the Council. Both Privy Counsellor and Privy Councillor may be used to refer to a member of the Council; the former, however, is preferred by the Privy Council Office, emphasising English usage of the term Counsellor a
Archibald Primrose, 5th Earl of Rosebery
Archibald Philip Primrose, 5th Earl of Rosebery, 1st Earl of Midlothian, was a British Liberal politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from March 1894 to June 1895. Between the death of his father, in 1851, the death of his grandfather, the 4th Earl of Rosebery, in 1868 he was known by the courtesy title of Lord Dalmeny. Rosebery first came to national attention in 1879 by sponsoring the successful Midlothian campaign of William Ewart Gladstone, he was in charge of Scottish affairs. His most successful performance in office came as chairman of the London County Council in 1889, he entered the cabinet in 1885 and served twice as foreign minister, paying special attention to French and German affairs. He succeeded Gladstone as prime minister and leader of the Liberal Party in 1894, he never again held political office. Rosebery was known as a brilliant orator, an outstanding sportsman and marksman, a writer and historian and collector. All of these activities attracted him more than politics.
Furthermore, he drifted to the right of the Liberal party and became a bitter critic of its policies. Winston Churchill, observing that he never adapted to democratic electoral competition, quipped: "He would not stoop. Historians judge him a failure as prime minister. Archibald Philip Primrose was born on 7 May 1847 in his parents' house in Charles Street, London, his father was Archibald Primrose, Lord Dalmeny and heir apparent to Archibald Primrose, 4th Earl of Rosebery, whom he predeceased. Lord Dalmeny was a courtesy title used by the Earl's eldest son and heir apparent, during the Earl's lifetime, was one of the Earl's lesser Scottish titles. Lord Dalmeny was MP for Stirling from 1832 to 1847 and served as First Lord of the Admiralty under Lord Melbourne. Rosebery's mother was Lady Wilhelmina Stanhope, a historian who wrote under her second married name "the Duchess of Cleveland", a daughter of Philip Stanhope, 4th Earl Stanhope. Lord Dalmeny died on 23 January 1851, having predeceased his father, when the courtesy title passed to his son, the future Rosebery, as the new heir to the earldom.
In 1854 his mother remarried to Lord Harry Vane. The relationship between mother and son was poor, his elder and favourite sister Lady Leconfield was the wife of 2nd Baron Leconfield. Dalmeny attended preparatory schools in Hertfordshire and Brighton and Eton which he attended between 1860 and 1863, his remarkable intellect, displayed in debates, attracted the attention of William Johnson Cory. Dalmeny proceeded to Christ Church, through the years 1865 until 1869. Remarkably the three Prime Ministers from 1880 to 1902, namely Gladstone and Rosebery, all attended both Eton and Christ Church. Whilst at Christ Church, in 1868 Dalmeny bought a horse named Ladas, although a rule banned undergraduates from owning horses; when he was found out, he was offered a choice: to give up his studies. He chose the latter, subsequently was a prominent figure in British horseracing for 40 years. Rosebery toured the United States in 1873, 1874 and 1876, he was pressed to marry Marie Fox, the sixteen-year-old adopted daughter of Henry Fox, 4th Baron Holland.
She declined him and married Prince Louis of Liechtenstein. When his grandfather died in 1868, Dalmeny became 5th Earl of Rosebery; the earldom did not however entitle Archibald Primrose to sit in the House of Lords, nor disqualify him from sitting in the House of Commons, as the title is part of the old Peerage of Scotland, from which 16 members were elected to sit in the Lords for each session of Parliament. However, in 1828, Rosebery's grandfather had been created 1st Baron Rosebery in the Peerage of the United Kingdom, which did entitle Rosebery to sit in the Lords like all peers of the United Kingdom, barred him from a career in the House of Commons. Rosebery is reputed to have said that he had three aims in life: to win the Derby, to marry an heiress, to become Prime Minister, he managed all three. At Eton, Rosebery notably attacked Charles I of England for his despotism, went on to praise his Whig forebears – his ancestor, James Stanhope, 1st Earl Stanhope, was a minister to George I of Great Britain.
Benjamin Disraeli met with Rosebery in the 1870s to try to recruit him for his party, but this proved futile. Disraeli's major rival, William Ewart Gladstone pursued Rosebery, with considerable success; as part of the Liberal plan to get Gladstone to be MP for Midlothian, Rosebery sponsored and ran the Midlothian Campaign of 1879. He based this on. Gladstone spoke from open-deck trains, gathered mass support. In 1880, he was duly returned to the premiership. Rosebery served as Foreign Secretary in Gladstone's brief third ministry in 1886, he served as the first chairman of the London County Council, set up by the Conservatives in 1889. Rosebery Avenue in Clerkenwell is named after him, he served as President of the first day of the 1890 Co-operative Congress. Rosebery's second period as Foreign Secretary, 1892–1894, predominantly involved quarrels with France over Uganda. To quote his hero Napoleon, Rosebery thought that "the Master of Egypt is the Master
Volunteer Officers' Decoration
The Volunteer Officers' Decoration, post-nominal letters VD, was instituted in 1892 as an award for long and meritorious service by officers of the United Kingdom's Volunteer Force. Award of the decoration was discontinued in the United Kingdom when it was superseded by the Territorial Decoration in 1908, but it continued to be awarded in some Crown Dependencies until 1930; the grant of the decoration was extended in 1894 by the institution of a separate new decoration, the Volunteer Officers' Decoration for India and the Colonies, that could be awarded to commissioned officers of all Volunteer Forces throughout the British Empire and India. The Volunteer Officers' Decoration, post-nominal letters VD and colloquially known as the Volunteer Decoration, was instituted by Queen Victoria's Royal Warrant on 25 July 1892; the decoration could be awarded to efficient and capable officers of proven capacity for long and meritorious service in the part-time Volunteer Force of the United Kingdom. The qualifying period of service was twenty years.
Half of any previous service in the Regular Army counted towards qualification. The award did not confer any individual precedence, but entitled the recipient to use the post-nominal letters VD. Recipients had to have been recommended for the award by the Commanding Officer of their Corps, duly certified by the District Military Authorities in which the Corps was located as having been efficient and capable officers, in every way deserving of such a decoration. In order to preserve the purity of the decoration, the name of any person on whom it had been conferred, subsequently convicted of any act derogatory to his honour as an officer and gentleman, was erased from the registry of individuals upon whom the decoration had been conferred; the Volunteer Officers' Decoration could be conferred upon any of the Princes of the Royal Family of Great Britain and Ireland. On 24 May 1894 the grant of the decoration was extended by Royal Warrant to commissioned officers of Volunteer Forces throughout the British Empire, defined as being India, the Dominion of Canada, the Crown Colonies and the Crown Dependencies.
A separate new decoration was instituted, the Volunteer Officers' Decoration for India and the Colonies. This decoration was similar in design to the Volunteer Officers' Decoration, but bore the Royal Cypher "VRI" instead of "VR". So, some Crown Dependencies awarded the Volunteer Officers' Decoration instead of the Colonial version, until the Efficiency Decoration was instituted in September 1930. In the order of wear prescribed by the British Central Chancery of the Orders of Knighthood, the Volunteer Officers' Decoration takes precedence after the Army Emergency Reserve Decoration and before the Volunteer Long Service Medal; the decoration is an oval skeletal design and was struck in silver, with parts of the obverse in silver-gilt. It is 35.5 millimetres wide with a ring suspender formed of silver wire. ObverseThe obverse is an oak leaf wreath in silver, tied with gold, with the Royal Cypher below the Royal Crown, both in gold, in the centre. ReverseThe reverse is plain with the hallmarks impressed at the bottom.
The decoration was awarded unnamed, but was unofficially engraved in various styles. RibbonThe ribbon is dark green and 1 1⁄2 inches in width and is suspended from a silver bar-brooch decorated with an oak leaf pattern. Three versions of the decoration were struck; the original version of 1892 had the Royal Cypher "VR" of Queen Victoria below the Royal Crown in the centre. The King Edward VII version, with his Royal Cypher "ER VII", was introduced after his succession to the throne in 1901 and ceased to be awarded to officers of the United Kingdom's Volunteer Force when it was superseded by the Territorial Decoration in 1908, it appears to have continued to be awarded in some Crown Dependencies until 1910. The King George V version, with his Royal Cypher "GVR", was introduced after his succession to the throne in 1910; this version appears to have only been awarded in some Crown Dependencies, instead of the Volunteer Officers' Decoration for India and the Colonies. The Volunteer Force was the precursor of the Territorial Force, established in the United Kingdom in 1908.
At the same time, award of the Volunteer Officers' Decoration was discontinued in the United Kingdom and superseded by the new Territorial Decoration. The Volunteer Officers' Decoration continued to be awarded in some Crown Dependencies until the Efficiency Decoration was instituted in September 1930. Bermuda was the last Dependency to award the decoration in 1930
Victoria was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. On 1 May 1876, she adopted the additional title of Empress of India. Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke and the King died in 1820, Victoria was raised under close supervision by her mother, Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, she inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died, leaving no surviving legitimate children. The United Kingdom was an established constitutional monarchy, in which the sovereign held little direct political power. Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Victoria married her first cousin Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha in 1840, their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the sobriquet "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria avoided public appearances.
As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration, her reign of 63 years and seven months was longer than that of any of her predecessors and is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, political and military change within the United Kingdom, was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire, she was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, initiated the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father. Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III; until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children.
In 1818 he married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a widowed German princess with two children—Carl and Feodora —by her first marriage to the Prince of Leiningen. Her brother Leopold was Princess Charlotte's widower; the Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London. Victoria was christened by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace, she was baptised Alexandrina after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, Victoria, after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parents—Georgina and Augusta—were dropped on the instructions of Kent's eldest brother, the Prince Regent. At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after the four eldest sons of George III: George, the Prince Regent; the Prince Regent had no surviving children, the Duke of York had no children. The Duke of Clarence and the Duke of Kent married on the same day in 1818, but both of Clarence's legitimate daughters died as infants.
The first of these was Princess Charlotte, born and died on 27 March 1819, two months before Victoria was born. Victoria's father died in January 1820. A week her grandfather died and was succeeded by his eldest son as George IV. Victoria was third in line to the throne after York and Clarence. Clarence's second daughter was Princess Elizabeth of Clarence who lived for twelve weeks from 10 December 1820 to 4 March 1821 and, while Elizabeth lived, Victoria was fourth in line; the Duke of York died in 1827. When George IV died in 1830, he was succeeded by his next surviving brother, Clarence, as William IV, Victoria became heir presumptive; the Regency Act 1830 made special provision for Victoria's mother to act as regent in case William died while Victoria was still a minor. King William distrusted the Duchess's capacity to be regent, in 1836 he declared in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided. Victoria described her childhood as "rather melancholy".
Her mother was protective, Victoria was raised isolated from other children under the so-called "Kensington System", an elaborate set of rules and protocols devised by the Duchess and her ambitious and domineering comptroller, Sir John Conroy, rumoured to be the Duchess's lover. The system prevented the princess from meeting people whom her mother and Conroy deemed undesirable, was designed to render her weak and dependent upon them; the Duchess avoided the court because she was scandalised by the presence of King William's illegitimate children. Victoria shared a bedroom with her mother every night, studied with private tutors to a regular timetable, spent her play-hours with her dolls and her King Charles Spaniel, Dash, her lessons included French, German and Latin, but she spoke only English at home. In 1830, the Duchess of Kent and Conroy took Victoria across the centre of England to visit the Malvern Hills, stopping at towns and great country houses along the way. Similar journeys to oth
Order of St. Olav
The Royal Norwegian Order of Saint Olav is a Norwegian order of chivalry instituted by King Oscar I on August 21, 1847. It is named after King Olav II, known to posterity as St. Olav. Just before the union with Sweden was dissolved in 1905, the Order of the Norwegian Lion was instituted in 1904 by King Oscar II, but no appointments were awarded by his successor, King Haakon VII; the Order of St. Olav thus became the kingdom's only order of chivalry for the next 80 years; the Grand Master of the order is the reigning monarch of Norway. It is used to reward individuals for remarkable accomplishments on behalf of the country and humanity. Since 1985, appointments to the order has only been conferred upon Norwegian citizens, though foreign heads of state and royalty may be appointed as a matter of courtesy; the reigning monarch of Norway is the order's Grand Master. The order consists of three grades, of which two are divided into two classes, may be awarded for either civilian or military contributions, in descending order of distinction.
The collar is awarded as a separate distinction of the Grand Cross to those recipients deemed exceptionally worthy. Grand Cross -- awarded in rare cases to individuals for merit. If the collar is not worn the badge may be worn on a sash on the right shoulder; the collar of the Order is in gold, with five enamelled and crowned monograms "O", five enamelled and crowned coat-of-arms of Norway, 10 gold crosses bottony each flanked by two battle axes with silver blades and golden shafts. The badge of the Order is a white enamelled Maltese Cross, in silver for the knight class and in gilt of the higher classes; the obverse central disc is red with the golden Norwegian lion rampart bearing a battle axe. The cross is topped by a crown; the star of the Order for the Grand Cross is an eight-pointed silver star with faceted rays, bearing the obverse of the badge of the Order. The star for Commander with Star is a silver faceted Maltese Cross, with gilt crowned monograms "O" between the arms of the cross.
The central disc is red with the golden Norwegian lion rampart bearing a battle axe, surrounded by a white-blue-white ring. The ribbon of the Order is red with white-blue-white edge stripes. In exceptional circumstances the Order may be awarded'with diamonds', in which case a ring of diamonds replaces the white-blue-white enamel ring surrounding the central disc on the front of the badge; the insignia are expected to be returned either upon the receiver's advancement to a higher level of the order or upon his or her death. The insignia are produced in Norway by craftsmen; the King makes appointments upon the recommendation of a six-member commission, none of whom may be a member of the government, consisting of a chancellor, vice chancellor, the Lord Chamberlain, three other representatives. The Lord Chamberlain nominates the members of the commission, the monarch approves them. Nominations to the order are directed at the commission through the county governor. Princes and Princesses with succession rights to the throne are appointed to the highest degree upon reaching their age of majority.
The Order of St. Olav is the highest civilian honour conferred by Norway and only ranks after the military War Cross among all Norwegian decorations still awarded in the general ranking. In the order of precedence used at the royal court of Norway, bearers of the Royal Norwegian Order of St. Olav with collar are ranked 15th in the order of precedence, directly after the Mistress of the Robes and generals and directly before recipients of the War Cross with Sword. Bearers of the Grand Cross of the Royal Norwegian Order of St. Olav are ranked 16th; this list contains holders of the Grand Cross, some of whom have been awarded the Collar and gives the year of their appointment. The list is collated alphabetically by the last name. Six of the listed are not heads of royals. Before the Royal Norwegian Order of Merit was created in 1985, appointments to the Order of St Olav was awarded to members of a foreign delegation during state visits. Many holders of the Grand Cross who are not heads of state are not listed here.
Orders and medals of Norway St Olav's medal The Order of St. Olav Website of the Royal Court Statues of the Order of St. Olav Website of the Royal Court
Order of the Rising Sun
The Order of the Rising Sun is a Japanese order, established in 1875 by Emperor Meiji. The Order was the first national decoration awarded by the Japanese government, created on 10 April 1875 by decree of the Council of State; the badge features rays of sunlight from the rising sun. The design of the Rising Sun symbolizes energy as powerful as the rising sun in parallel with the "rising sun" concept of Japan; the order is awarded to those who have made distinguished achievements in international relations, promotion of Japanese culture, advancements in their field, development in welfare or preservation of the environment. Prior to the end of World War II, it was awarded for exemplary military service. Beginning in 2003, the two lowest rankings for the Order of the Rising Sun were abolished, with the highest degree becoming a separate order known as the Order of the Paulownia Flowers, with the single rank of Grand Cordon. While it is the third highest order bestowed by the Japanese government, it is however the highest ordinarily conferred order.
The highest Japanese order, the Order of the Chrysanthemum, is reserved for heads of state or royalty, while the second highest order, the Order of the Paulownia Flowers, is reserved for politicians. The modern version of this honour has been conferred on non-Japanese recipients beginning in 1981; the awarding of the Order is administered by the Decoration Bureau of the Cabinet Office headed by the Japanese Prime Minister. It can be awarded posthumously; the Order was awarded in nine classes until 2003, when the Grand Cordon with Paulownia Flowers was made a separate order, the lowest two classes were abolished. Since it has been awarded in six classes. Conventionally, a diploma is prepared to accompany the insignia of the order, in some rare instances, the personal signature of the Emperor will have been added; as an illustration of the wording of the text, a translation of a representative 1929 diploma says: By the grace of Heaven, Emperor of Japan, seated on the throne occupied by the same dynasty from time immemorial, We confer the Second Class of the Imperial Order of Meiji upon Henry Waters Taft, a citizen of the United States of America and a director of the Japan Society of New York, invest him with the insignia of the same class of the Order of the Double Rays of the Rising Sun, in expression of the good will which we entertain towards him.
In witness whereof, we have hereunto set our hand and caused the Grand Seal of State to be affixed at the Imperial Palace, this thirteenth day of the fifth month of the fourth year of Shōwa, corresponding to the 2,589th year from the accession to the throne of Emperor Jimmu." The star for the Grand Cordon and Second Class is a silver star of eight points, each point having three alternating silver rays. It is worn on the right chest for the 2nd Class; the badge for the Grand Cordon to Sixth Classes is an eight-pointed badge bearing a central red enamelled sun disc, with gilt points, with four gilt and four silver points, or with silver points. It is suspended from three enamelled paulownia leaves on a ribbon in white with red border stripes, worn as a sash from the right shoulder for the Grand Cordon, as a necklet for the 2nd and 3rd Classes and on the left chest for the 4th to 6th Classes; the badge for the Seventh and Eighth Classes consisted of a silver medal in the shape of three paulownia leaves, enamelled for the 7th Class and plain for the 8th Class.
Both were suspended on a ribbon, again in white with red border stripes, worn on the left chest. Both classes were abolished in 2003 and replaced by the Order of the Paulownia Flowers, a single-class order that now ranks above the Order of the Rising Sun. Henry Hajimu Fujii, 1971 Bolesław Orliński, 1926 Fudeko Reekie, 2013 John Wilson, 1895 In 2003, the 7th and 8th levels – named for leaves of the Paulownia tree, long used as a mon for the highest levels of Japanese society – were moved to a new and distinct order, the single-class Order of the Paulownia Flowers. Tetsuzō Iwamoto 1942 Leonard Kubiak 1926 In 2003, the 7th and 8th levels – named for leaves of the Paulownia tree, long used as a mon for the highest levels of Japanese society – were moved to a new and distinct order, the single-class Order of the Paulownia Flowers. Order of Civil Merit Order of Chula Chom Klao and Order of the White Elephant Order of St. Michael and St. George Legion of Honour Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany Order "For Merit to the Fatherland" Order of Isabella the Catholic Order of Merit of the Italian Republic Decoration of Honour for Services to the Republic of Austria Order of Prince Henry Peterson, James W. Barry C. Weaver and Michael A. Quigley.
Orders and Medals of Japan and Associated States. San Ramon, California: Orders and Medals Society of America. ISBN 1-890974-09-9. Japan, Cabinet Office: Decorations and Medals Decoration Bureau: Order of the Rising Sun Japan Mint: Production Process
William Mansfield, 1st Viscount Sandhurst
William Mansfield, 1st Viscount Sandhurst was a British Liberal politician and colonial governor. He was Governor of Bombay between 1895 and 1900 and Lord Chamberlain of the Household between 1912 and 1921. Mansfield was the son of William Mansfield, 1st Baron Sandhurst, Margaret, daughter of Robert Fellowes, a noted suffragist, he served in the Coldstream Guards. Mansfield succeeded his father as Baron Sandhurst in 1876, aged 20, was entitled to a seat in the House of Lords from his 21st birthday a few months later; when the Liberals came to power under William Ewart Gladstone in 1880, he was appointed a Lord-in-waiting, a post he held until 1885 when the Liberals left office. He was Under-Secretary of State for War in Gladstone's brief 1886 administration and again from 1892 to 1895 under Gladstone and Lord Rosebery. In 1895 he was made Governor of Bombay, a post he held until February 1900. After he had stepped down, he was appointed an extra Knight Grand Commander of the Order of the Star of India on 9 March 1900.
Lord Sandhurst did not serve in the Liberal administrations headed by Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman and H. H. Asquith but was sworn of the Privy Council in 1907, he did return to ministerial office in 1912 when Asquith appointed him Lord Chamberlain of the Household. He continued in this post until his death in 1921, the last five years under the premiership of David Lloyd George. In 1917 he was made Viscount Sandhurst, of Sandhurst in the County of Berkshire. Lord Sandhurst married, Lady Victoria, daughter of Frederick Spencer, 4th Earl Spencer, on 20 July 1881, they had two children, who both died in infancy: The Honourable John Robert Mansfield and the Honourable Elizabeth Mansfield. After his first wife's death in March 1906 he married secondly Eleanor, younger daughter of Matthew Arnold and widow of Armine Wodehouse, on 5 July 1909. There were no children from this marriage. Lord Sandhurst died in 1921, aged 66; the viscountcy became extinct on his death while the barony was inherited by his brother, John Mansfield.
Lady Sandhurst died in December 1934