Albert Spencer, 7th Earl Spencer
Albert Edward John Spencer, 7th Earl Spencer, styled The Honourable Albert Spencer until 1910 and as Viscount Althorp from 1910 to 1922, known less formally as "Jack" Spencer, was a British peer. He was the paternal grandfather of Diana Spencer, just under 14 years old at the time of his death. Diana would go on to marry Prince of Wales, heir to the British throne, six years later. Lord Spencer was born in London, the son of Charles Spencer, 6th Earl Spencer, his wife, the former Margaret Baring, second daughter of Edward Baring, 1st Baron Revelstoke, his godparents included King Edward VII. He was educated at Harrow School and Trinity College, where he was a friend of Lionel Lupton, who studied the same subject at Trinity, they signed up together to fight in World War I. Lupton's sister Olive Middleton was the great grandmother of Kate Middleton who married the great-grandson of Lord Spencer, Prince William, in April 2011. On 5 August 1914, Spencer was commissioned as a second lieutenant in the 1st Regiment of Life Guards, was promoted to lieutenant on 21 October 1914, appointed an aide-de-camp on 9 May 1917, promoted to captain on 15 June 1917.
When 1st Life Guards merged with the 2nd Life Guards on 18 November 1922, Spencer was appointed a captain in the new regiment. He retired from the army on 20 September 1924, but remained a member of the Regular Army Reserve of Officers until reaching the mandatory retirement age on 2 June 1943. On 27 August 1924, Lord Spencer was appointed the Honorary Colonel of the 4th Battalion, Northamptonshire Regiment, remaining in that role when it was renamed 50th Anti-Aircraft Battalion on 1 October 1937, throughout its various post-war incarnations until relinquishing his appointment on 1 April 1967, he was awarded the Territorial Efficiency Decoration on 12 September 1944, with two clasps on 20 November 1953. On 9 April 1935, Lord Spencer was appointed a Deputy Lieutenant of Northamptonshire, became Lord Lieutenant of Northamptonshire on 11 March 1952, serving until 31 July 1967, he was made a knight of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem on 1 July 1955. Lord Spencer was active in the local politics of Northamptonshire as a Conservative councillor.
He opened his ancestral home, Althorp, to the public and was a well-known art connoisseur, being a trustee of the Wallace Collection and chairman of the Royal School of Needlework. He was a Fellow of both the Society of Antiquaries of London and the Royal Society of Arts, for eight years in the 1960s he was Chair of the Advisory Council of the Victoria and Albert Museum, he was Chairman of the Governors at Wellingborough School from 1946 to 1972. Lord Spencer married Lady Cynthia Hamilton, second daughter of the 3rd Duke of Abercorn, on 26 February 1919 at St. James's Church in Piccadilly and they had two children: Lady Anne Spencer married in 1944 to Captain Christopher Wake-Walker, son of Sir Admiral Frederic Wake-Walker, had issue. John Spencer, 8th Earl Spencer. Lord Spencer died at St Matthews Nursing Home, after a short illness, was succeeded by his son, the father of Diana, Princess of Wales. Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Albert Spencer, 7th Earl Spencer
Alexander Boris de Pfeffel Johnson, better known as Boris Johnson, is a British politician and popular historian. He has been the Member of Parliament for Uxbridge and South Ruislip since 2015, he had been the MP for Henley from 2001 to 2008. He was Mayor of London from 2008 to 2016, from 2016 to 2018 he served as Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs. A member of the Conservative Party, Johnson identifies as a one-nation conservative and has been associated with both economically and liberal policies. Born in New York City to wealthy upper-middle class English parents, Johnson was educated at the European School of Brussels, Ashdown House School, Eton College, he studied Classics at Balliol College, where he was elected president of the Oxford Union in 1986. He was sacked for falsifying a quotation, he became The Daily Telegraph's Brussels correspondent, with his articles exerting a strong influence on growing Eurosceptic sentiment among the British right-wing. He was assistant editor from 1994 to 1999 before taking the editorship of The Spectator from 1999 to 2005.
Joining the Conservatives, he was elected MP for Henley in 2001, under party leaders Michael Howard and David Cameron he was in the Shadow Cabinet. He adhered to the Conservatives' party line but adopted a more liberal stance on issues like LGBT rights in parliamentary votes. Making regular television appearances, writing books, remaining active in journalism, Johnson became one of the most conspicuous politicians in the United Kingdom. Selected as Conservative candidate for the London mayoral election of 2008, Johnson defeated Labour incumbent Ken Livingstone and resigned his seat in the House of Commons. During his first term as Mayor of London, he banned alcohol consumption on much of the capital's public transport, championed London's financial sector, introduced the New Routemaster buses, cycle hire scheme, Thames cable car. In 2012, he was reelected to the office. In 2015 he was elected MP for Uxbridge and South Ruislip, stepping down as Mayor of London the following year. In 2016, Johnson became a prominent figure in the successful Vote Leave campaign to withdraw the United Kingdom from the European Union.
He became Foreign Secretary under Theresa May's premiership, but resigned in criticism of May's approach to Brexit and the Chequers Agreement. Johnson is a controversial figure in British politics and journalism. Supporters have praised him as an entertaining and popular figure with appeal beyond traditional Conservative voters. Conversely, he has been criticised by figures on both the left and right, who accused him of elitism, dishonesty and using racist and homophobic language. Johnson is a number of fictionalised portrayals. Johnson was born to British parents on 19 June 1964 in Manhattan's Upper East Side in New York City, his birth was registered with both the US authorities and the city's British Consulate, thereby granting him both American and British citizenship. His father, Stanley Johnson, was studying economics at Columbia University. Stanley's paternal grandfather was Circassian-Turkish journalist Ali Kemal. Johnson's mother was Charlotte Fawcett. S. In reference to his varied ancestry, Johnson has described himself as a "one-man melting pot" – with a combination of Muslims and Christians as great-grandparents.
Johnson was given the middle name "Boris" after a Russian émigré. Johnson's parents lived opposite the Chelsea Hotel, although in September 1964 returned to Britain so Charlotte could study at the University of Oxford, she lived with her son in Summertown and gave birth to a daughter, Rachel, in 1965. In July 1965, the family moved to Crouch End in North London. C. where Stanley had gained employment with the World Bank. A third child, was born in September 1967. Stanley gained employment with a policy panel on population control, in June moving the family to Norwalk, Connecticut. In 1969, the family settled into Stanley's family farm near Winsford in Exmoor. There, Johnson gained his first experiences with fox hunting. Stanley was absent from Nethercote, leaving Johnson to be raised by his mother and au pairs; as a child, Johnson was quiet and studious, although he suffered from deafness, resulting in several operations to insert grommets into his ears. He and his siblings were encouraged to engage in high-brow activities from a young age, with high achievement being valued.
Having few or no friends other than their siblings, the children became close. In late 1969 the family relocated to Maida Vale, North London, where Stanley began post-doctoral research at the London School of Economics. In 1970, Charlotte and the children returned to Nethercote, where Johnson was schooled at the Winsford Village School, before returning to London to settle in Primrose Hill, there being educated at Primrose Hill Primary School. In late 1971 another son, was born to the family. After Stanley secured employment at the European Commission, he moved his family to Uccle, Brussels in April 1973, where Johnson became fluent in French. Charlotte had a nervous breakdown and was hospitalised with clinical depression, with Johnson and his s
Prince Harry, Duke of Sussex
Prince Harry, Duke of Sussex, is a member of the British royal family. He is the younger son of Charles, Prince of Wales, Diana, Princess of Wales, is sixth in the line of succession to the British throne, he was styled Prince Henry of Wales from birth until his marriage, but is known as Prince Harry. Harry was educated at schools in the United Kingdom and spent parts of his gap year in Australia and Lesotho, he underwent officer training at the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst. He was commissioned as a cornet into the Blues and Royals, serving temporarily with his brother, Prince William, completed his training as a troop leader. In 2007–08, he served for over ten weeks in Helmand, but was pulled out after an Australian magazine revealed his presence there, he returned to Afghanistan for a 20-week deployment in 2012–13 with the Army Air Corps. He left the army in June 2015. Harry remains patron of its foundation, he gives patronage to several other organisations, including the HALO Trust, the London Marathon Charitable Trust, Walking With The Wounded.
On 19 May 2018, he married the American actress Meghan Markle. Hours before the wedding, his grandmother Queen Elizabeth II conferred on him the titles Duke of Sussex, Earl of Dumbarton and Baron Kilkeel. Harry was born in the Lindo Wing of St Mary's Hospital in Paddington, London, on 15 September 1984 at 4:20 pm as the second child of Charles, Prince of Wales, heir apparent to Queen Elizabeth II, Diana, Princess of Wales, he was baptised with the names Henry Charles Albert David, on 21 December 1984, at St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle, by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Robert Runcie. His parents announced their second son's name would be Prince Henry Charles Albert David, but that he would be known as Harry to his family and friends; as the prince grew up, he was referred to by Kensington Palace, therefore the Press and the public at large, as Prince Harry. As a son of the Prince of Wales, he was called Prince Henry of Wales. Diana wanted Harry and his older brother, William, to have a broader range of experiences than previous royal children.
She took them to venues that ranged from Disney World and McDonald's to AIDS clinics and homeless shelters. Harry began accompanying his parents on official visits at an early age. Harry's parents divorced in 1996, his mother died in a car crash in Paris the following year. Harry and William were staying with their father at Balmoral at the time, the Prince of Wales told his sons about their mother's death. At his mother's funeral, Harry 12, accompanied his father, paternal grandfather, maternal uncle, Earl Spencer, in walking behind the funeral cortège from Kensington Palace to Westminster Abbey. In a 2017 interview with The Daily Telegraph, the prince acknowledged that he sought counselling after two years of "total chaos" while struggling to come to terms with the death of his mother. Like his father and brother, Harry was educated at independent schools, he started at the pre-preparatory Wetherby School. Following this, he attended Ludgrove School in Berkshire. After passing the entrance exams, he was admitted to Eton College.
The decision to place Harry at Eton went against the Windsor family convention of sending children to Gordonstoun, which Harry's grandfather, two uncles, two cousins had attended. It did, see Harry follow in the Spencer family footsteps, as both Diana's father and brother attended Eton. In June 2003, Harry completed his education at Eton with two A-Levels, achieving a grade B in art and D in geography, having decided to drop history of art after AS level, he excelled in sports polo and rugby union. One of Harry's former teachers, Sarah Forsyth, has asserted that Harry was a "weak student" and that staff at Eton conspired to help him cheat on examinations. Both Eton and Harry denied the claims. While a tribunal made no ruling on the cheating claim, it "accepted the prince had received help in preparing his A-level'expressive' project, which he needed to pass to secure his place at Sandhurst."After school, Harry took a gap year, during which he spent time in Australia working on a cattle station, participating in the Young England vs Young Australia Polo Test match.
He travelled to Lesotho, where he worked with orphaned children and produced the documentary film The Forgotten Kingdom. Harry entered the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst on 8 May 2005, where he was known as Officer Cadet Wales, joined the Alamein Company. In April 2006, Harry completed his officer training and was commissioned as a Cornet in the Blues and Royals, a regiment of the Household Cavalry in the British Army. On 13 April 2008, when he reached two years' seniority, Harry was promoted to lieutenant. In 2006, it was announced. A public debate ensued as to. Defence Secretary John Reid said that he should be allowed to serve on the front line of battle zones. Harry agreed saying, "If they said'no, you can't go front line' I wouldn't drag my sorry ass through Sandhurst and I wouldn't be where I am now." The Ministry of Defence and Clarence House made a joint announcement on 22 February 2007 that Harry would be deployed with his regiment to Iraq, as part of the 1st Mechanised Brigade of the 3rd Mechanised Division – a move supported by Harry, who had stated that he would leave the army if he was told to remain in safety while his regiment went to war.
He said: "There's no way I'm going to
Princess of Wales
Princess of Wales is a British courtesy title held by the wife of the Prince of Wales, who is, since the 14th century, the heir apparent of the English or British monarch. The first acknowledged title holder was wife of Llywelyn ap Gruffudd, it has subsequently been used by wives of post-conquest princes of Wales. The title is held by Camilla, Duchess of Cornwall, second wife of Charles, Prince of Wales, since their marriage on 9 April 2005, she does not, use the title, because of its association with the previous holder, Princess of Wales, who died in 1997. Instead, she uses the title of Duchess of Cornwall, the feminine form of her husband's highest-ranking subsidiary title; the Princess of Wales is not a princess in her own right. There have been some Princesses of Wales who were addressed as such: for example, Alexandra of Denmark and Mary of Teck were called "Princess Alexandra" and "Princess Victoria Mary", respectively. However, because they were princesses when they married. Diana, Princess of Wales, was called "Princess Diana" following her marriage to the Prince of Wales, but this was incorrect because she was not a princess in her own right.
Although not granted the title in her own right, the future Queen Mary I was, during her youth, invested by her father, King Henry VIII, with many of the rights and properties traditionally given to the Prince of Wales, including use of the official seal of Wales for correspondence. For most of her childhood, Mary was her father's only legitimate heir, for this reason, she was referred to as "the Princess of Wales", although Henry never formally created her as such. For example, Spanish scholar Juan Luis Vives dedicated his Satellitium Animi to "Dominæ Mariæ Cambriæ Principi, Henrici Octavi Angliæ Regis Filiæ"; the Princess of Wales, by virtue of her marriage to the Prince of Wales, takes on the feminine equivalent of her husband's titles. Thus, upon marriage, the wife of the Prince of Wales assumes the styles and titles of Princess of Wales, Duchess of Cornwall, Duchess of Rothesay, Countess of Chester; the Princess of Wales is known as the Duchess of Rothesay in Scotland, the Prince of Wales is known as the Duke of Rothesay there, the dukedom being the title associated with the heir to the Scottish throne.
She is known as the Duchess of Cornwall in the far south west of England, as the Countess of Chester in Cheshire. Several consorts of Welsh princes of Wales were theoretically princesses of Wales while their husbands were in power. Llywelyn ab Iorwerth's consort, Lady of Wales, used that title in the 1230s; the only consort of a Welsh prince definitively shown to have used the title was Eleanor de Montfort, the English bride of Llywelyn ap Gruffudd, the last native Prince of Wales. Their only child was Gwenllian, taken prisoner as an infant following her father's death. Gwenllian was the last native Welsh princess to be described as Princess of Wales, not an official title; this is a list of Princesses of Wales. The Green Howards The Princess of Wales' Own Regiment Princesses of Wales by Deborah Fisher. University of Wales Press, 2005.'Tystiolaeth Garth Celyn' Y Traethodydd 1998 ISSN 0969-8930 Fryer, M.. Lives of the Princesses of Wales. Toronto: Dundern Press Limited. ISBN 978-0-919670-69-3
British royal family
The British royal family comprises Queen Elizabeth II and her close relations. There is no strict legal or formal definition of, or is not a member of the British royal family; those who at the time are entitled to the style His or Her Royal Highness, any styled His or Her Majesty, are considered members, including those so styled before the beginning of the current monarch's reign. By this criterion, a list of the current royal family will include the monarch, the children and male-line grandchildren of the monarch and previous monarchs, the children of the eldest son of the Prince of Wales, all their current or widowed spouses; some members of the royal family have official residences named as the places from which announcements are made in the Court Circular about official engagements they have carried out. The state duties and staff of some members of the royal family are funded from a parliamentary annuity, the amount of, refunded by the Queen to the Treasury. Since 1917, when King George V changed the name of the royal house from Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, members of the royal family have belonged, either by birth or by marriage, to the House of Windsor.
Senior titled members of the royal family do not use a surname, although since 1960 Mountbatten-Windsor, incorporating Prince Philip's adopted surname of Mountbatten, has been prescribed as a surname for Elizabeth II's direct descendants who do not have royal styles and titles, it has sometimes been used when required for those who do have such titles. The royal family are regarded as British cultural icons, with young adults from abroad naming the family among a group of people that they most associated with UK culture. On 30 November 1917, King George V issued letters patent defining the styles and titles of members of the royal family; the KING has been pleased by Letters Patent under the Great Seal of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, bearing date the 30th ultimo, to define the styles and titles to be borne henceforth by members of the royal family. It is declared by the Letters Patent that the children of any Sovereign of the United Kingdom and the children of the sons of any such Sovereign and the eldest living son of the eldest son of the Prince of Wales shall have and at all times hold and enjoy the style, title or attribute of Royal Highness with their titular dignity of Prince or Princess prefixed to their respective Christian names or with their other titles of honour.
In 1996, Queen Elizabeth II modified these letters patent, this Notice appeared in the London Gazette: The QUEEN has been pleased by Letters Patent under the Great Seal of the Realm dated 21st August 1996, to declare that a former wife of a son of a Sovereign of these Realms, of a son of a son of a Sovereign and of the eldest living son of the eldest son of The Prince of Wales shall not be entitled to hold and enjoy the style, title or attribute of Royal Highness. On 31 December 2012, letters patent were issued to extend a title and a style borne by members of the royal family to additional persons to be born, this Notice appeared in the London Gazette: The QUEEN has been pleased by Letters Patent under the Great Seal of the Realm dated 31 December 2012 to declare that all the children of the eldest son of The Prince of Wales should have and enjoy the style and attribute of Royal Highness with the titular dignity of Prince or Princess prefixed to their Christian names or with such other titles of honour.
Members and relatives of the British royal family represented the monarch in various places throughout the British Empire, sometimes for extended periods as viceroys, or for specific ceremonies or events. Today, they perform ceremonial and social duties throughout the United Kingdom and abroad on behalf of the United Kingdom. Aside from the monarch, their only constitutional role in the affairs of government is to serve, if eligible and when appointed by letters patent, as a Counsellor of State, two or more of whom exercise the authority of the Crown if the monarch is indisposed or abroad. In the other countries of the Commonwealth royalty do not serve as Counsellors of State, although they may perform ceremonial and social duties on behalf of individual states or the organisation; the Queen, her consort, her children and grandchildren, as well as all former sovereigns' children and grandchildren, hold places in the first sections of the official orders of precedence in England and Wales and Northern Ireland.
Wives of the said enjoy their husbands' precedence, husbands of princesses are unofficially but habitually placed with their wives as well. However, the Queen changed the private order of precedence in the royal family in favour of Princesses Anne and Alexandra, who henceforth take private precedence over the Duchess of Cornwall, otherwise the realm's highest ranking woman after the Queen herself, she did not alter the relative precedence of other born-princesses, such as the daughters of her younger sons. As of 2019, members of the royal family are: The Queen and the Duke of Edinburgh The Prince of Wales and the Duchess of Cornwall The Duke and Duchess of Cambridge (the Queen's gra
John Spencer, 8th Earl Spencer
Edward John "Johnnie" Spencer, 8th Earl Spencer, styled Viscount Althorp until June 1975, was a British peer and nobleman. He was the father of Diana, Princess of Wales, which makes him the maternal grandfather of Prince William, Duke of Cambridge and Prince Harry, Duke of Sussex second and sixth in the line of succession to the British throne. Lord Spencer was born Edward John Spencer, Viscount Althorp, the only son and younger child of Albert Spencer, 7th Earl Spencer, on 24 January 1924, he was educated at Eton, the Royal Military College at Sandhurst, the Royal Agricultural College. Popularly known to his family and friends as Johnnie Althorp, he served as a Captain in the Royal Scots Greys from 1944 to 1945, was Mentioned in Despatches. From 1947 to 1950, he served as Aide-de-Camp to His Excellency Lieutenant-General Sir Willoughby Norrie Governor of South Australia. Spencer held the offices of County Councillor for Northamptonshire, High Sheriff of Northamptonshire and Justice of the Peace for Norfolk.
He served as Equerry to King George VI and to Queen Elizabeth II, was invested as a member of the Royal Victorian Order in 1954. He was known by the courtesy title Viscount Althorp until 1975 when he became the 8th Earl Spencer upon his father's death, he was Member of the House of Lords from 9 June 1975 until his own death. On 1 June 1954 Spencer and Frances Ruth Roche, the younger daughter of the 4th Baron Fermoy, were married in Westminster Abbey by Percy Herbert, Bishop of Norwich; the Queen and other members of the Royal Family attended the wedding ceremony. They had five children: Lady Sarah McCorquodale, married Neil Edmund McCorquodale on 17 May 1980 and had issue. Jane Fellowes, Baroness Fellowes, married Robert Fellowes, Baron Fellowes in March 1978 and had issue; the Honourable John Spencer, died within ten hours of his birth on 12 January 1960. Diana, Princess of Wales, had issue. Charles Spencer, 9th Earl Spencer, married first Victoria Lockwood from 1989 to 1997 and had issue, married second Caroline Hutton from 2001 to 2007 and had issue, married third Karen Villeneuve on 18 June 2011 and had issue.
John and Frances Spencer divorced in 1969. Frances married Peter Shand Kydd and in 1976, Lord Spencer married Raine, Countess of Dartmouth, the former wife of the 9th Earl of Dartmouth, the daughter and only child of the romantic novelist Barbara Cartland and Alexander McCorquodale. In 1978, Spencer suffered a severe stroke, from which, at one stage, he was not expected to recover, which kept him in hospital for eight months, he died of a heart attack on 29 March 1992, was succeeded by his son Charles, the brother of Diana, Princess of Wales. John Spencer, 8th Earl Spencer at Find a Grave Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by John Spencer, 8th Earl Spencer