Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force
Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force was the headquarters of the Commander of Allied forces in north west Europe, from late 1943 until the end of World War II. U. S. General Dwight D. Eisenhower was the commander in SHAEF throughout its existence; the position itself shares a common lineage with Supreme Allied Commander Europe and Atlantic, but they are different titles. Eisenhower transferred from command of the Mediterranean Theater of Operations to command SHAEF, formed in Camp Griffiss, Bushy Park, London, from December 1943. Southwick House was used as an alternative headquarters near Portsmouth, its staff took the outline plan for Operation Overlord created by Lieutenant General Sir Frederick E. Morgan, Chief of Staff to the Supreme Allied Commander, Major General Ray Barker. Morgan, appointed chief of staff to the Supreme Allied Commander in mid-March 1943 began planning for the invasion of Europe before Eisenhower's appointment, and moulded the plan into the final version, executed on 6 June 1944.
That process was shaped by Eisenhower and the land forces commander for the initial part of the invasion, General Sir Bernard Law Montgomery. SHAEF remained in the United Kingdom until sufficient forces were ashore to justify its transfer to France. At that point, Montgomery ceased to command all land forces but continued as Commander in Chief of the British 21st Army Group on the eastern wing of the Normandy bridgehead; the American 12th Army Group commanded by Lieutenant General Omar Bradley was created as the western wing of the bridgehead. As the breakout from Normandy took place, the Allies launched the invasion of southern France on 15 August 1944 with the American 6th Army Group under the command of Lieutenant General Jacob L. Devers. During the invasion of southern France, the 6 AG was under the command of the Allied Forces Headquarters of the Mediterranean Theatre of Operations, but after one month command passed to SHAEF. By this time, the three Army Groups had taken up the positions on the Western Front in which they would remain until the end of the war—the British 21 AG to the North, the American 12 AG in the middle and the 6 AG to the South.
By December 1944, SHAEF had established itself in the Trianon Palace Hotel in France. In February 1945, it moved to Rheims and on 26 April 1945, SHAEF moved to Frankfurt. SHAEF commanded the largest number of formations committed to one operation on the Western Front, with American, French army of liberation and Canadian Army forces, it commanded all Allied airborne forces as an Airborne Army, as well as three Army Groups that controlled a total of eight field armies. Allied strategic bomber forces in the UK came under its command during Operation Neptune. After the surrender of Germany, SHAEF was dissolved on 14 July 1945 and, with respect to the US forces, was replaced by US Forces, European Theater. USFET was reorganized as EUCOM on 15 March 1947. Starting in April 1951 when NATO was formed under General Dwight D. Eisenhower in what was called Allied Command Europe, comprising many of the same allies that were part of SHAEF; this new command is in many respects the successor to SHAEF. Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe is the headquarters of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization's Allied Command Operations.
Since 1967 it has been located at Casteau, north of the Belgian city of Mons, but it had been located, from 1953, at Rocquencourt, next to Versailles, France. From 1951 to 2003, SHAPE was the headquarters of Allied Command Europe. Since 2003 it has been the headquarters of Allied Command Operations, controlling all NATO operations worldwide. Winters, Major Dick, with Cole C. Kingseed. Beyond Band of Brothers: The War Memoirs of Major Dick Winters. Berkley Hardcover. ISBN 978-0-425-20813-7. Page 210. Records of Supreme Headquarters, Allied Expeditionary Force, Dwight D. Eisenhower Presidential Library Papers of Ernest R. "Tex" Lee, military aide to General Eisenhower, 1942–1945, Dwight D. Eisenhower Presidential Library Papers of Thor Smith, Public Relations Division, SHAEF, Dwight D. Eisenhower Presidential Library Daily Battle Communiques, SHAEF, June 6, 1944 – May 7, 1945, L. Tom Perry Special Collections, Harold B. Lee Library, Brigham Young University United States Army in World War II European Theater of Operations The Supreme Command By Forrest C.
Pogue. Office of the Chief of Military History, Department of the Army, Washington, D. C. 1954. Library of Congress Catalog Number: 53-61717 BBC WW2 People's War article on Uxbridge SHAEF and London Bushey Directive to Supreme Commander, Allied Expeditionary Force Dwight D. Eisenhower at his nomination Original Document.
RMS Lusitania was a British ocean liner and the world's largest passenger ship. The ship was sunk on 7 May 1915 by a German U-boat 11 mi off the southern coast of Ireland; the sinking presaged the United States declaration of war on Germany. Lusitania was a holder of the Blue Riband appellation for the fastest Atlantic crossing, was the world's largest passenger ship until the completion of her sister ship Mauretania, three months later; the Cunard Line launched Lusitania in 1906, at a time of fierce competition for the North Atlantic trade. She sank on her 202nd trans-Atlantic crossing. German shipping lines were aggressive competitors for the custom of transatlantic passengers in the early 20th century. In the face of the competition, Cunard responded by trying to outdo them in speed and luxury. Cunard used assistance from the British Admiralty to build Lusitania, on the understanding that the ship would be available as a light merchant cruiser in time of war. Lusitania had gun mounts for deck cannons, but no guns were installed.
Both Lusitania and Mauretania were fitted with revolutionary new turbine engines that enabled them to maintain a service speed of 25 knots. They were equipped with lifts, wireless telegraph and electric light, provided 50% more passenger space than any other ship; the Royal Navy had blockaded Germany at the start of the First World War. The UK declared the entire North Sea a war zone in the autumn of 1914, mined the approaches; when RMS Lusitania left New York for Britain on 1 May 1915, German submarine warfare was intensifying in the Atlantic. Germany had declared the seas around the United Kingdom a war zone, the German embassy in the United States had placed newspaper advertisements warning people of the dangers of sailing on Lusitania. On the afternoon of 7 May, a German U-boat torpedoed Lusitania 11 mi off the southern coast of Ireland and inside the declared war zone. A second, internal explosion that of munitions she was carrying, sent her to the seabed in 18 minutes, with the deaths of 1,198 passengers and crew.
The Germans justified treating Lusitania as a naval vessel because she was carrying hundreds of tons of war munitions, therefore making her a legitimate military target, argued that British merchant ships had violated the Cruiser Rules from the beginning of the war. The internationally recognized Cruiser Rules were obsolete by 1915 - with the British introduction of Q-ships in 1915 with concealed deck guns, it had become more dangerous for submarines to surface and give warning. RMS Lusitania was transporting war munitions, she operated under the control of the Admiralty, she could be converted into an armed auxiliary cruiser to join the war, her identity had been disguised, she flew no flags, she was a non-neutral vessel in a declared war zone, with orders to evade capture and ram challenging submarines. However the ship was technically unarmed and was carrying thousands of civilian passengers, so the British government accused the Germans of breaching the Cruiser Rules; the sinking caused a storm of protest in the United States because 128 American citizens were among the dead.
The sinking helped shift public opinion in the United States against Germany and was one of the factors in the United States' declaration of war nearly two years later. After the First World War, successive British governments maintained that there were no munitions on board Lusitania, the Germans were not justified in treating the ship as a naval vessel. In 1982, the head of the British Foreign Office's North America department admitted that there is a large amount of ammunition in the wreck, some of, dangerous and poses a safety risk to salvage teams. Lusitania and Mauretania were commissioned by Cunard, responding to increasing competition from rival transatlantic passenger companies the German Norddeutscher Lloyd and Hamburg America Line, they had larger, more modern and more luxurious ships than Cunard, were better placed, starting from German ports, to capture the lucrative trade in emigrants leaving Europe for North America. The NDL liner Kaiser Wilhelm der Grosse captured the Blue Riband from Cunard's Campania in 1897, before the prize was taken in 1900 by the HAPAG ship Deutschland.
NDL soon wrested the prize back in 1903 with the new Kaiser Wilhelm Kronprinz Wilhelm. Cunard saw its passenger numbers affected as a result of the so-called "Kaiser-class ocean liners". American millionaire businessman J. P. Morgan had decided to invest in transatlantic shipping by creating a new company, International Mercantile Marine, and, in 1901, purchased the British freight shipper Frederick Leyland & Co. and a controlling interest in the British passenger White Star Line and folded them into IMM. In 1902, IMM, NDL and HAPAG entered into a "Community of Interest" to fix prices and divide among them the transatlantic trade; the partners acquired a 51% stake in the Dutch Holland America Line. IMM made offers to purchase Cunard. Cunard chairman Lord Inverclyde thus approached the British government for assistance. Faced with the impending collapse of the British liner fleet and the consequent loss of national prestige, as well as the reserve of shipping for war purposes which it represented, they agreed to help.
By an agreement signed in June 1903, Cunard was given a loan of £2.6 million to finance two ships, repayable over 20 years at a favourabl
Thomas B. Jeffery Company
The Thomas B. Jeffery Company was an American automobile manufacturer in Kenosha, Wisconsin from 1902 until 1916; the company manufactured the Jeffery brand motorcars. It was preceded by the Jeffery Manufacturing Company, a bicycle manufacturer, it was the parent company to Nash Motors, thus one of the parent companies of American Motors and Chrysler. Thomas B. Jeffery was an industrialist, he was one of America's first entrepreneurs interested in automobiles in the late 19th century. In 1897, he built his first prototype motorcar. Thomas B. Jeffery was serious enough about automobiles to sell his stake in Gormully & Jeffery to the American Bicycle Company to finance the new car company. Charles T. Jeffery's experimental prototypes of 1901 used at least two radical innovations – steering wheels and front-mounted engines. By the time Charles was ready for production in 1902, his father had talked him out of these wild dreams and convinced him to stick with tillers and engines under the seat. From 1902 until 1908, Jeffery moved to bigger, more reliable models starting with the 1902 Model C.
Jeffery cars were built on assembly lines, in 1903 Jeffery sold 1,350 Ramblers. By 1905, Jeffery more than doubled this number. One reason may have been because Charles went back to the steering wheel before 1904. In 1907, Jeffery was building a large variety of different body sizes. Among them was a five-passenger, US$2,500 Rambler weighing 2,600 pounds and powered by a 40-horsepower engine. In April, 1910, Thomas B. Jeffery, died in Pompeii, Italy and in June of that year the business was incorporated under the name of the Thomas B. Jeffery Company, with Charles T. Jeffery as the president and general manager, H. W. Jeffery, vice president and treasurer. In 1915, Charles T. Jeffery, changed the automotive branding from Rambler to Jeffery to honor the founder, his father, Thomas B. Jeffery; as of 1916, G. H. Eddy replaced H. W. Jeffery as the treasurer so H. W. Jeffery could focus on the position of vice president. G. W. Greiner was the secretary, L. H. Bill the general manager, J. W. DeCou the factory manager, Al Recke was the sales manager.
Charles T. Jeffery survived the sinking of the RMS Lusitania in 1915 and decided to spend the rest of his life in a more enjoyable manner. Charles W. Nash, no longer at General Motors, saw an opportunity and bought the Thomas B. Jeffery Company in August 1916. Jeffery, with the money from his sale of Gormully & Jeffery, bought the old Sterling Bicycle Company's factory in Kenosha, Wisconsin; the original factory building was only 600 x 100 feet in size. However, by 1916, the company's buildings expanded over 20 acres under roof and the facilities had grown to over 100 acres including a test track; the Jeffery Quad known as the Nash Quad or Quad is a four-wheel drive truck, developed and built in Kenosha from 1913, after 1916, by Nash Motors, as well as under license by other truck makers.. The Quad introduced numerous engineering innovations, its design and durability proved effective in traversing the muddy and unpaved roads of the times. The Quad became one of the effective work vehicles in World War I.
The Quad was one of the first successful four-wheel drive vehicles to be made, its production continued unchanged through 1928, or 15 years, with a total of 41,674 units made. 1897 – Jeffery builds a rear-engine Rambler prototype using the Rambler name used on a successful line of bicycles made by Gormully & Jeffery. 1899 – Positive reviews at the 1899 Chicago International Exhibition & Tournament and the first National Automobile Show in New York City prompt the Jefferys to enter the automobile business. 1900 – Thomas B. Jeffery finalizes a US$65,000 deal to buy the Kenosha, factory of the defunct Sterling Bicycle with money from the sale of his interest in Gormully & Jeffery.1901 – Two more prototypes, Models A and B, are made. 1902 – First production Ramblers – the US$750 Model C open runabout and the $850 Model D. Both are powered by an 8-horsepower, 98-cubic-inch one-cylinder engine mounted beneath the seat, are steered by a right-side tiller. First-year production totals 1,500 units making Jeffery the second-largest car maker behind Oldsmobile.1910 – Thomas B.
Jeffery dies while on vacation in Italy. 1910 – Charles incorporates the firm as a $3 million public stock company.1914 – The Rambler name is replaced with the Jeffery moniker in honor of the founder. 1916 – Charles Jeffery sells the company to former General Motors Corp. President Charles W. Nash. 1917 – Charles Nash renames the Jeffery Motor Company, Nash Motors after himself. 1916 advertisement for Jeffery Quad, p. 481 Schematic drawing of Jeffery Quad chassis Data sheet for Armored Car #1, build on Jeffery Quad chassis at Rock Island Arsenal, 1916 Photo of armored rear-drive Jeffery truck
A truck or lorry is a motor vehicle designed to transport cargo. Trucks vary in size and configuration. Commercial trucks can be large and powerful, may be configured to mount specialized equipment, such as in the case of fire trucks, concrete mixers, suction excavators. Modern trucks are powered by diesel engines, although small to medium size trucks with gasoline engines exist in the US, Mexico. In the European Union, vehicles with a gross combination mass of up to 3.5 t are known as light commercial vehicles, those over as large goods vehicles. Trucks and cars have a common ancestor: the steam-powered fardier Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot built in 1769. However, steam wagons were not common until the mid-1800s; the roads of the time, built for horse and carriages, limited these vehicles to short hauls from a factory to the nearest railway station. The first semi-trailer appeared in 1881, towed by a steam tractor manufactured by De Dion-Bouton. Steam-powered wagons were sold in France and the United States until the eve of World War I, 1935 in the United Kingdom, when a change in road tax rules made them uneconomic against the new diesel lorries.
In 1895 Karl Benz designed and built the first truck in history using the internal combustion engine. That year some of Benz's trucks were modified to become the first bus by the Netphener, the first motorbus company in history. A year in 1896, another internal combustion engine truck was built by Gottlieb Daimler. Other companies, such as Peugeot, Renault and Büssing built their own versions; the first truck in the United States was built by Autocar in 1899 and was available with optional 5 or 8 horsepower motors. Trucks of the era used two-cylinder engines and had a carrying capacity of 3,300 to 4,400 lb. In 1904, 700 heavy trucks were built in the United States, 1000 in 1907, 6000 in 1910, 25000 in 1914. After World War I, several advances were made: pneumatic tires replaced the common full rubber versions. Electric starters, power brakes, 4, 6, 8 cylinder engines, closed cabs, electric lighting followed; the first modern semi-trailer trucks appeared. Touring car builders such as Ford and Renault entered the heavy truck market.
Although it had been invented in 1897, the diesel engine did not appear in production trucks until Benz introduced it in 1923. The diesel engine was not common in trucks in Europe until the 1930s. In the United States, Autocar introduced engines for heavy applications in the mid-1930s. Demand was high enough Autocar launched the "DC" model in 1939. However, it took much longer for diesel engines to be broadly accepted in the US: gasoline engines were still in use on heavy trucks in the 1970s. Truck is used in American English, is common in Canada, New Zealand, Puerto Rico and South Africa, while lorry is the equivalent in British English, is the usual term in countries like the United Kingdom, Malaysia and India; the word "truck" might come from a back-formation of "truckle", meaning "small wheel" or "pulley", from Middle English trokell, in turn from Latin trochlea. Another possible source is the Latin trochus, meaning "iron hoop". In turn, both sources emanate from trekhein; the first known usage of "truck" was in 1611, when it referred to the small strong wheels on ships' cannon carriages.
In its extended usage it came to refer to carts for carrying heavy loads, a meaning known since 1771. Its expanded application to "motor-powered load carrier" has been in usage since 1930, shortened from "motor truck", which dates back to 1901."Lorry" has a more uncertain origin, but has its roots in the rail transport industry, where the word is known to have been used in 1838 to refer to a type of truck a large flat wagon. It derives from the verb lurry of uncertain origin, its expanded meaning, "self-propelled vehicle for carrying goods", has been in usage since 1911. Before that, the word "lorry" was used for a sort of big horse-drawn goods wagon. In the United States and the Philippines "truck" is reserved for commercial vehicles larger than normal cars, includes pickups and other vehicles having an open load bed. In Australia, New Zealand and South Africa, the word "truck" is reserved for larger vehicles. In the United Kingdom, Malaysia, Singapore and Hong Kong lorry is used instead of truck, but only for the medium and heavy types.
Produced as variations of golf cars, with internal combustion or battery electric drive, these are used for off-highway use on estates, golf courses, parks. While not suitable for highway use some variations may be licensed as slow speed vehicles for operation on streets as a body variation of a neighborhood electric vehicle. A few manufactures produce specialized chassis for this type of vehicle, while Zap Motors markets a version of their xebra electric tricycle. Popular in Europe and Asia, many mini trucks are factory redesigns of light automobiles with monocoque bodies. Specialized designs with substantial frames such as the Italian Piaggio shown here are based upon Japanese designs and are popular for use in "old town" sections of European cities that have narrow alleyways. Regardless of name, these smal
World War I
World War I known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously described as "the war to end all wars", it led to the mobilisation of more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, making it one of the largest wars in history, it is one of the deadliest conflicts in history, with an estimated nine million combatants and seven million civilian deaths as a direct result of the war, while resulting genocides and the 1918 influenza pandemic caused another 50 to 100 million deaths worldwide. On 28 June 1914, Gavrilo Princip, a Bosnian Serb Yugoslav nationalist, assassinated the Austro-Hungarian heir Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo, leading to the July Crisis. In response, on 23 July Austria-Hungary issued an ultimatum to Serbia. Serbia's reply failed to satisfy the Austrians, the two moved to a war footing. A network of interlocking alliances enlarged the crisis from a bilateral issue in the Balkans to one involving most of Europe.
By July 1914, the great powers of Europe were divided into two coalitions: the Triple Entente—consisting of France and Britain—and the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy. Russia felt it necessary to back Serbia and, after Austria-Hungary shelled the Serbian capital of Belgrade on the 28th, partial mobilisation was approved. General Russian mobilisation was announced on the evening of 30 July; when Russia failed to comply, Germany declared war on 1 August in support of Austria-Hungary, with Austria-Hungary following suit on 6th. German strategy for a war on two fronts against France and Russia was to concentrate the bulk of its army in the West to defeat France within four weeks shift forces to the East before Russia could mobilise. On 2 August, Germany demanded free passage through Belgium, an essential element in achieving a quick victory over France; when this was refused, German forces invaded Belgium on 3 August and declared war on France the same day. On 12 August and France declared war on Austria-Hungary.
In November 1914, the Ottoman Empire entered the war on the side of the Alliance, opening fronts in the Caucasus and the Sinai Peninsula. The war was fought in and drew upon each power's colonial empire as well, spreading the conflict to Africa and across the globe; the Entente and its allies would become known as the Allied Powers, while the grouping of Austria-Hungary and their allies would become known as the Central Powers. The German advance into France was halted at the Battle of the Marne and by the end of 1914, the Western Front settled into a battle of attrition, marked by a long series of trench lines that changed little until 1917. In 1915, Italy opened a front in the Alps. Bulgaria joined the Central Powers in 1915 and Greece joined the Allies in 1917, expanding the war in the Balkans; the United States remained neutral, although by doing nothing to prevent the Allies from procuring American supplies whilst the Allied blockade prevented the Germans from doing the same the U. S. became an important supplier of war material to the Allies.
After the sinking of American merchant ships by German submarines, the revelation that the Germans were trying to incite Mexico to make war on the United States, the U. S. declared war on Germany on 6 April 1917. Trained American forces would not begin arriving at the front in large numbers until mid-1918, but the American Expeditionary Force would reach some two million troops. Though Serbia was defeated in 1915, Romania joined the Allied Powers in 1916 only to be defeated in 1917, none of the great powers were knocked out of the war until 1918; the 1917 February Revolution in Russia replaced the Tsarist autocracy with the Provisional Government, but continuing discontent at the cost of the war led to the October Revolution, the creation of the Soviet Socialist Republic, the signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk by the new government in March 1918, ending Russia's involvement in the war. This allowed the transfer of large numbers of German troops from the East to the Western Front, resulting in the German March 1918 Offensive.
This offensive was successful, but the Allies rallied and drove the Germans back in their Hundred Days Offensive. Bulgaria was the first Central Power to sign an armistice—the Armistice of Salonica on 29 September 1918. On 30 October, the Ottoman Empire capitulated. On 4 November, the Austro-Hungarian empire agreed to the Armistice of Villa Giusti after being decisively defeated by Italy in the Battle of Vittorio Veneto. With its allies defeated, revolution at home, the military no longer willing to fight, Kaiser Wilhelm abdicated on 9 November and Germany signed an armistice on 11 November 1918. World War I was a significant turning point in the political, cultural and social climate of the world; the war and its immediate aftermath sparked numerous uprisings. The Big Four (Britain, the United States, It
U-boat is an anglicised version of the German word U-Boot, a shortening of Unterseeboot "underseaboat." While the German term refers to any submarine, the English one refers to military submarines operated by Germany in the First and Second World Wars. Although at times they were efficient fleet weapons against enemy naval warships, they were most used in an economic warfare role and enforcing a naval blockade against enemy shipping; the primary targets of the U-boat campaigns in both wars were the merchant convoys bringing supplies from Canada and other parts of the British Empire, from the United States to the United Kingdom and to the Soviet Union and the Allied territories in the Mediterranean. German submarines destroyed Brazilian merchant ships during World War II, causing Brazil to declare war on the Axis powers in 1944. Austro-Hungarian Navy submarines were known as U-boats; the first submarine built in Germany, the three-man Brandtaucher, sank to the bottom of Kiel harbor on 1 February 1851 during a test dive.
The inventor and engineer Wilhelm Bauer had designed this vessel in 1850, Schweffel & Howaldt constructed it in Kiel. Dredging operations in 1887 rediscovered Brandtaucher. There followed in 1890 the boats WW2, built to a Nordenfelt design. In 1903 the Friedrich Krupp Germaniawerft dockyard in Kiel completed the first functional German-built submarine, which Krupp sold to Russia during the Russo-Japanese War in April 1904; the SM U-1 was a redesigned Karp-class submarine and only one was built. The Imperial German Navy commissioned it on 14 December 1906, it had a double hull, a Körting kerosene engine, a single torpedo tube. The 50%-larger SM U-2 had two torpedo tubes; the U-19 class of 1912–13 saw the first diesel engine installed in a German navy boat. At the start of World War I in 1914, Germany had 48 submarines of 13 classes in service or under construction. During that war the Imperial German Navy used SM U-1 for training. Retired in 1919, it remains on display at the Deutsches Museum in Munich.
On 5 September 1914, HMS Pathfinder was sunk by SM U-21, the first ship to have been sunk by a submarine using a self-propelled torpedo. On 22 September, U-9 under the command of Otto Weddigen sank the obsolete British warships HMS Aboukir, HMS Cressy and HMS Hogue in a single hour. In the Gallipoli Campaign in early 1915 in the eastern Mediterranean, German U-boats, notably the U-21, prevented close support of allied troops by 18 pre-Dreadnought battleships by sinking two of them. For the first few months of the war, U-boat anticommerce actions observed the "prize rules" of the time, which governed the treatment of enemy civilian ships and their occupants. On 20 October 1914, SM U-17 sank the SS Glitra, off Norway. Surface commerce raiders were proving to be ineffective, on 4 February 1915, the Kaiser assented to the declaration of a war zone in the waters around the British Isles; this was cited as a retaliation for British minefields and shipping blockades. Under the instructions given to U-boat captains, they could sink merchant ships potentially neutral ones, without warning.
In February 1915, a submarine U-6 was rammed and both periscopes were destroyed off Beachy Head by the collier SS Thordis commanded by Captain John Bell RNR after firing a torpedo. On 7 May 1915, SM U-20 sank the liner RMS Lusitania; the sinking claimed 1,198 lives, 128 of them American civilians, the attack of this unarmed civilian ship shocked the Allies. According to the ship's manifest, Lusitania was carrying military cargo, though none of this information was relayed to the citizens of Britain and the United States who thought that the ship contained no ammunition or military weaponry whatsoever and it was an act of brutal murder. Munitions that it carried were thousands of crates full of ammunition for rifles, 3-inch artillery shells, various other standard ammunition used by infantry; the sinking of the Lusitania was used as propaganda against the German Empire and caused greater support for the war effort. A widespread reaction in the U. S was not seen until the sinking of the ferry SS Sussex.
The sinking occurred in 1915 and the United States entered the war in 1917. The initial U. S. response was to threaten to sever diplomatic ties, which persuaded the Germans to issue the Sussex pledge that reimposed restrictions on U-boat activity. The U. S. reiterated its objections to German submarine warfare whenever U. S. civilians died as a result of German attacks, which prompted the Germans to reapply prize rules. This, removed the effectiveness of the U-boat fleet, the Germans sought a decisive surface action, a strategy that culminated in the Battle of Jutland. Although the Germans claimed victory at Jutland, the British Grand Fleet remained in control at sea, it was necessary to return to effective anticommerce warfare by U-boats. Vice-Admiral Reinhard Scheer, Commander in Chief of the High Seas Fleet, pressed for all-out U-boat war, convinced that a high rate of shipping losses would force Britain to seek an early peace before the United States could react effectively; the renewed German campaign was effective, sinking 1.4 million tons of shipping between October 1916 and January 1917.
Despite this, the political situation demanded greater pressure, on 31 January 1917, Germany announced that its U-boats would engage in unrestricted submarine warfare beginning 1 February. On 17 March, German submarines sank three American merchant vessels, the U. S. declared wa
The Jeffery Quad known as the Nash Quad or Quad is a four-wheel drive, 11⁄2-ton rated truck, developed and built by the Thomas B. Jeffery Company from 1913 in Kenosha and after 1916 by Nash Motors, which acquired the Jeffery Company. Production of the Quad continued unchanged through 1928; the Quad introduced numerous engineering innovations. Its design and durability proved effective in traversing the muddy and unpaved roads of the times; the Quad became one of the most successful vehicles in World War I. The Quad was produced in large numbers by Jeffery and Nash, as well as under license by other truck makers; the United States Army needed to replace the four-mule teams used to haul standard one-and-a-half-ton loads with a truck and requested proposals in late 1912. The company began development by purchasing a new Four Wheel Drive Auto Company, but found it to be unacceptable and sold the vehicle to begin its own design from scratch. By July 1913, the 3,000 lb capacity truck was ready for public demonstration of its capabilities.
The Jeffery designed a four-wheel-drive truck, known as the "Quad" or "Jeffery Quad" subsequently assisted the subsequent efforts during World War I by several Allied nations the French. The Jeffery Quad became the workhorse of the Allied Expeditionary Force; these unique vehicles saw heavy service under General John J. "Blackjack" Pershing as both the Jeffery armored car and as regular transports during the Army's 1916 Punitive Expedition through Mexico. The United States Marine Corps adopted the Jeffery Quad, using it in the Haiti and Dominican Republic conflicts from 1915 through 1917. 11,500 Jeffery and Nash Quads were built between 1913 and 1919. "Four-wheel drive trucks had been built before... but aside from the Jeffery Quad earlier designs were inefficient and flimsy." Called the Rambler Quadruple for its car-derived 281.4 cu in Rambler four-cylinder that produced 21 hp. Development called for a switch to a Buda manufactured 312 cu in side-valve four-cylinder engine, rated at 28 hp, but producing 52 hp at 1,800 rpm.
The Quad had four-wheel drive and four-wheel brakes, as well as an innovative four-wheel steering system. This novel approach to steering allowed the rear wheels to track the front wheels around turns, such that the rear wheels did not have to dig new "ruts" on muddy curves because most roads of the day were unpaved and badly rutted; this four-wheel steering mechanism was integrated with Muehl limited-slip differentials on both the front and rear axles. From the transfer case, shafts led to the top of both the front and rear solid portal axles giving the trucks a high ground clearance allowing it to drive through mud up to its hubcaps. Engine power was transmitted by half-shafts with a u-joint and bearing, connected by a pinion gear to each of the four wheels from the dual differentials that positioned parallel to but above the load-bearing "dead" axles; this pinion gear drove an internal toothed ring gear at each of the four wheels. The Quad's combination of innovative features constituted a revolutionary approach to four-wheel drive and allowed the truck to traverse soft and poor conditions with unprecedented effectiveness.
The Quad was one of the first successful four-wheel drive vehicles to be made, its production continued for 15 years with a total of 41,674 units made. Concurrently with the Quad's production, the company expanded its truck line by building conventional 1.5 ton trucks with double chain rear-wheel drive. The Quads ability to traverse terrain across the globe that challenged modern trucks meant civilians used their slow, but unstoppable work at least until the 1950s. In 1954, Nash Motors merged with Hudson Motor Car Company to form American Motors Corporation, which acquired the vehicle operations of Kaiser Jeep in 1974 to complement its passenger car lines; the combined automaker's ancestry reached back to the famed World War I "Quad". "Jeffrey Quad Lorry". Landships. Retrieved 6 December 2014. "Jeffrey Quad". 4wdonline. Retrieved 6 December 2014. Nash Quad at the Internet Movie Cars Database