France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of 105 square kilometres and an official estimated population of 2,140,526 residents as of 1 January 2019. Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, commerce, fashion and the arts; the City of Paris is the centre and seat of government of the Île-de-France, or Paris Region, which has an estimated official 2019 population of 12,213,364, or about 18 percent of the population of France. The Paris Region had a GDP of €681 billion in 2016, accounting for 31 percent of the GDP of France, was the 5th largest region by GDP in the world. According to the Economist Intelligence Unit Worldwide Cost of Living Survey in 2018, Paris was the second most expensive city in the world, after Singapore, ahead of Zurich, Hong Kong and Geneva. Another source ranked Paris as most expensive, on a par with Singapore and Hong-Kong, in 2018; the city is a major rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports: Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the city's subway system, the Paris Métro, serves 5.23 million passengers daily, is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro. Gare du Nord is the 24th busiest railway station in the world, the first located outside Japan, with 262 million passengers in 2015. Paris is known for its museums and architectural landmarks: the Louvre was the most visited art museum in the world in 2018, with 10.2 million visitors. The Musée d'Orsay and Musée de l'Orangerie are noted for their collections of French Impressionist art, the Pompidou Centre Musée National d'Art Moderne has the largest collection of modern and contemporary art in Europe; the historical district along the Seine in the city centre is classified as a UNESCO Heritage Site. Popular landmarks in the centre of the city include the Cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris and the Gothic royal chapel of Sainte-Chapelle, both on the Île de la Cité. Paris received 23 million visitors in 2017, measured by hotel stays, with the largest numbers of foreign visitors coming from the United States, the UK, Germany and China.
It was ranked as the third most visited travel destination in the world in 2017, after Bangkok and London. The football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris; the 80,000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros. Paris will host the 2024 Summer Olympics; the 1938 and 1998 FIFA World Cups, the 2007 Rugby World Cup, the 1960, 1984, 2016 UEFA European Championships were held in the city and, every July, the Tour de France bicycle race finishes there. The name "Paris" is derived from the Celtic Parisii tribe; the city's name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. Paris is referred to as the City of Light, both because of its leading role during the Age of Enlightenment and more because Paris was one of the first large European cities to use gas street lighting on a grand scale on its boulevards and monuments.
Gas lights were installed on the Place du Carousel, Rue de Rivoli and Place Vendome in 1829. By 1857, the Grand boulevards were lit. By the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps. Since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang. Inhabitants are known in French as Parisiens, they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the area's major north–south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité; the Parisii minted their own coins for that purpose. The Romans began their settlement on Paris' Left Bank; the Roman town was called Lutetia. It became a prosperous city with a forum, temples, an amphitheatre. By the end of the Western Roman Empire, the town was known as Parisius, a Latin name that would become Paris in French. Christianity was introduced in the middle of the 3rd century AD by Saint Denis, the first Bishop of Paris: according to legend, when he refused to renounce his faith before the Roman occupiers, he was beheaded on the hill which became known as Mons Martyrum "Montmartre", from where he walked headless to the north of the city.
Clovis the Frank, the first king of the Merovingian dynasty, made the city his capital from 508. As the Frankish domination of Gaul began, there was a gradual immigration by the Franks to Paris and the Parisian Francien dialects were born. Fortification of the Île-de-la-Citie failed to avert sacking by Vikings in 845, but Paris' strategic importance—with its bridges prevent
Balthasar Klossowski de Rola, known as Balthus, was a Polish-French modern artist. He is known for his erotically charged images of pubescent girls, but for the refined, dreamlike quality of his imagery. Throughout his career, Balthus rejected the usual conventions of the art world, he insisted that his paintings should be seen and not read about, he resisted any attempts made to build a biographical profile. A telegram sent to the Tate Gallery as it prepared for its 1968 retrospective of his works read: "NO BIOGRAPHICAL DETAILS. BEGIN: BALTHUS IS A PAINTER OF WHOM NOTHING IS KNOWN. NOW LET US LOOK AT THE PICTURES. REGARDS B." Balthus was born in 1908, to Polish expatriate parents. His given name was Balthasar Klossowski – his sobriquet "Balthus" was based on his childhood nickname, alternately spelled Baltus, Balthusz or Balthus, his father, Erich Klossowski, was an art historian. Erich grew up in the town of Ragnit in East Prussia, now part of Russia but in the German Empire. According to Balthus he belonged to the former Polish petty nobility and his family bore the Rola coat of arms.
This undocumented family background would be appropriated by Balthus when he decided to use the surname "Klossowski de Rola".. Balthus had the Rola arms embroidered onto many of his kimonos, in the style of a Japanese kamon. Balthus's mother Elisabeth Dorothée Spiro Klossowska was descended from Russian Jews who had emigrated to East Prussia. In the catalogue of the Metropolitan Museum of Art's 1984 Balthus exhibition, she was described as the daughter of a cantor from Kovelitz in Novgorod in the Russian Empire. However, Balthus told his biographer Nicholas Fox Weber that this was erroneous, that his mother came "apparently from a Protestant family in the south of France", but according to Weber, this was a confabulation on Balthus's part. In fact, Balthus would embroider upon his story of his mother's ancestry, saying that she was related to the Romanovs and the Narischkins, powerful aristocratic families of Russia. In another confabulatory twist, Weber reports that Baladine's lover, the poet Rainer Maria Rilke, had said that the Spiros were descended from one of the richest families of Sephardic Jews, i.e. that they were of Spanish, not East-European origin.
Weber doubted this story too, since Balthus's son Fumio, born in the late 1960s, had Tay–Sachs disease, a genetic disorder associated with East-European Jews. Balthus's older brother Pierre Klossowski became a noted writer and philosopher; the Klossowski children grew up in an art-world environment, with frequent visits to their household by famous artists and writers, including Rilke, André Gide, Jean Cocteau. The artists Maurice Denis and Pierre Bonnard were visitors, as was the art dealer Pierre Matisse; the children had a Scottish nanny, Balthus would say that his first language was English, although his parents spoke German to one another. Overall, Balthus had an idyllic memory of these early childhood years, which were disrupted when the first world war forced the family to leave Paris in 1914, shortly after the war began, in order to avoid deportation due to their German citizenship, they settled near Geneva. In 1917 his parents separated, his mother moved with the two boys to Geneva, they lived in a comfortable neighborhood.
About a year his mother became the lover of Rilke. Balthus undoubtedly experienced this replacement of his father as a traumatic event given the romantic ecstasies and agonies of his mother's relationship with Rilke, which made him feel jealous and abandoned. However, Rilke was impressed with the young "Baltusz"'s artistic talent, helped him to publish his first work in 1921, at the age of 13; this was a book titled Mitsou which included forty drawings by a preface by Rilke. The comic-book-style pictures depicted the story of a young boy; the themes of the story foreshadowed Balthus's lifelong fascination with cats, along with a feeling of loss or disappearance. At Christmas of 1921, financially destitute, moved to Berlin with her children in order to live with her brother. In 1926 Balthus visited Florence, where he copied many frescos by the Renaissance master Piero della Francesca; this inspired an early ambitious work of his: the tempera wall paintings of the Protestant church of the Swiss village of Beatenberg which he executed in 1927.
From 1930 to 1932 Balthus lived in Morocco. He was drafted into the Moroccan infantry in Kenitra and Fes, worked as a secretary, sketched his painting La Caserne. In 1933 he moved to Paris, he would move to another studio at the nearby Cour de Rohan. Balthus showed no interest in modernist styles such as Cubism, his paintings were realistic but introverted, in the manner of the second generation of Surrealist painters such as Salvador Dali, who used realistic techniques to depict psychological motifs or dream images. Balthus depicted pubescent girls in erotic and voyeuristic poses. One of the most notorious works from his first exhibition in Paris was The Guitar Lesson, which caused controversy due to its sadistic and sexually explicit imagery, it depicts a young girl arched on her back over the lap of her female teacher, whose hands are positioned on the girl as if to play her like a guitar: one hand near her expo
Denys Puech was a French sculptor. From a family of farmers, he began as an apprentice in the marble workshop of François Mahoux in Rodez. In 1872, after two years training, he pursued an apprenticeship in Paris in the workshop of François Jouffroy of Alexandre Falguière and Henri Chapu, at the same time following an evening course at the Beaux-Arts. 1881 and 1883 saw his first successes, when he twice won the second prize in the prix de Rome contest, for his Tyrtaeus singing the Messanians and Diagoras dying for joy on learning of his two victorious children's triumph at the Olympic Games respectively. He at last won first prize with Wounded Mezentius. From on he received several official commissions from the French Third Republic, sculpting busts of Jules Ferry, Charles Augustin Sainte-Beuve, Émile Loubet and Benito Mussolini. In all, 573 works are inventoried, he founded a museum of fine art in Rodez in 1903. The building, inaugurated in 1910, was designed by him in conjunction with the architect Boyer to best show off his sculptures.
He was elected a member of the Académie des Beaux-Arts in 1905, made a knight of the Légion d'honneur on 17 January 1908. On 13 May 1908, he married princess Anina Gagarine Stourdza, a painter herself, of whom he sculpted a statue holding a painter's palette in 1914, he was Director of the French Academy in Rome from 1921 to 1933. Among those who studied with him were the American sculptors Clara Hill, Ernest Keyser and Helen Farnsworth Mears. Aurora, 1900, Musée d'Orsay. La Pensée, 1902, polychrome marble, Petit-Palais. Nymph of Night, 1904. « Denys Puech » on Joconde database La Sirène Bronze version. Barbedien foundry Denys Pierre PUECH Biography & Photos <<Denys Puech et Son Oeuvre>> Denys Pierre PUECH Grave site memorial Denys Puech in American public collections, on the French Sculpture Census website
Louis-Jean-François Lagrenée was a French rococo painter and student of Carle van Loo. He won the Grand Prix de Rome for painting in 1749 and was elected a member of the Académie royale de peinture et de sculpture in 1755, his younger brother Jean-Jacques Lagrenée was a painter. Lagrenée's notable career appointments included: Court painter to Empress of Russia. Director of the Academy of Arts in Saint Petersburg. Director of the French Academy in Rome. Professor-rector of the Académie royale de peinture et de sculpture. Honorary director-curator of the Louvre museum. In July 1804, Napoleon I conferred upon Lagrenée the rank of chevalier of the Legion d'Honneur. Lagrenée died in June 1805, aged 6 months. Lagrenée was born in Paris on 30 December 1724 and from an early age he showed promise in drawing and painting. During his youth, master painter members of the French Royal Academy offered a rolling programme of courses, open to the public, in life drawing and the principles and techniques of art.
These courses gave academy members a chance to identify and nurture six of the most gifted young students in any given year and offer them a place on a scheme known as the École royale des élèves protégés, a scheme which offered free tuition with a small stipend, for three years, preparing students for Prix de Rome competitions. After being selected for and completing this three-year programme, under the tutelage of Carle van Loo, Lagrenée won the Grand Prix de Rome on his first attempt in 1749, with the painting Joseph interpreting the dreams of Pharaoh; as a student at the French Academy in Rome, Lagrenée developed a "Formative if youthful fixation with Baroque painting". Above all, Lagrenée was inspired by the Bolognese School by the work of Guido Reni and Francesco Albani. In his career, Lagrenée acquired the epithet'the French Albani'. After returning from Rome in 1753, Lagrenée set to work on a large painting - The abduction of Dejaneira by the centaur Nessus - which, when finished in 1755, was the reception piece which earned him membership of the Académie de peinture et de sculpture, by a unanimous vote.
By this time, Lagrenée was considered something of a celebrity. Lagrenée's career blossomed in Paris, by completing many commissions for eminent patrons and members of a flourishing new financial community as well as submitting regular entries to Paris salon exhibitions, his reputation caught the attention of Elizabeth Petrovna, Empress of Russia, who, in 1760, appointed him to the office of the director of the Academy at St. Petersburg and that of her principle painter. After only two years in Russia, Lagrenée returned to Paris to take up the appointment of professor-rector of the Académie royale de peinture et de sculpture. Lagrenée spent the years between 1781 and 1787 at the Villa Medici in Rome, in his capacity as director of the French Academy. A final return to Paris saw Lagrenée appointed to the position of honorary curator-director of the Louvre museum, a position which he held until his death in 1805. Lagrenée was made a Knight of the Legion of Honour on 15 July 1804 by Napoleon I.
On Monday 10 July 1758, at the age of 33, Lagrenée married 16-year-old Anne-Agathe Isnard. Fifty-five years on 19 June 1805, Lagrenée's death certificate recorded that they were still married. Paris, musée du Louvre: L'Enlèvement de Déjanire par le centaure Nessus, Aglaure et Hersé, Psyché surprend l'Amour endormi, La Mort de la Femme de Darius, L'Amour des Arts console la Peinture des écrits ridicules et envenimés de ses ennemis Stockholm, Nationalmuseum: Mars et Vénus surpris par Vulcain Musée national des châteaux de Versailles et de Trianon: La Moisson - Cérès et l'Agriculture Los Angeles, Getty Center: Vénus et Mars, une allégorie de la Paix Musée des beaux-arts de Quimper: Esther et Assuérus Musée des arts décoratifs de Paris: Jupiter transformé en taureau enlève Europe, Thétys reçoit Apollon Detroit Institute of Arts: Pygmalion and Galatea, Palace of Fontainebleau: The death of the Dauphin, surrounded by his family, Collection of mythological subjects, after six paintings, acquired by the administration royale for the manufacture d'Aubusson, 1759:Aurore enlève Céphale, whereabouts of cartoon unknown.
Jupiter transformé en taureau enlève Europe, carton conserved at the musée des Arts décoratifs de Paris Vénus aux forges de Lemnos, cartoon described by Denis Diderot after the salon of 1759, tapestry conserved at the musée départemental de la tapisserie d'Aubusson Borée enlève Orythie, whereabouts unknown. Thétys reçoit Apollon, cartoon conserved at the musée des Arts décoratifs, Paris Mercure apporte Bacchus aux nymphes de Nysa known as La Naissance de Bacchus, tapestry conserved at the Mobilier National, Paris. Works of Louis-Jean-François Lagrenée Antoine-Denis Chaudet Lagrenée le Jeune, Pierre Peyron This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Lagrenée, Louis Jean François". Encyclopædia Britannica. 16. Cambridge University Press. P. 78. Benezit Dictionary of Artists Marc Sandoz, Les Lagrenée, I. Louis Lagrénée, 1725–1805, Tours, 1983 Pascal-François Bertrand, « La tenture des sujets mythologiques d'après Lagrenée l'aîné reconstituée », dans Aubusson, tapisseries des Lumières, Aubusson, 2013 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed..
"Lagrenée, Louis Jean F
Prix de Rome
The Prix de Rome or Grand Prix de Rome was a French scholarship for arts students for painters and sculptors, established in 1663 during the reign of Louis XIV of France. Winners were awarded a bursary that allowed them to stay in Rome for three to five years at the expense of the state; the prize was extended to architecture in 1720, music in 1803, engraving in 1804. The prestigious award was abolished in 1968 by the Minister of Culture; the Prix de Rome was created for painters and sculptors in 1663 in France during the reign of Louis XIV. It was an annual bursary for promising artists having proved their talents by completing a difficult elimination contest; the prize, organised by the Académie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture, was open to their students. From 1666, the award winner could win a stay of three to five years at the Palazzo Mancini in Rome at the expense of the King of France. In 1720, the Académie Royale d’Architecture began a prize in architecture. Six painters, four sculptors, two architects would be sent to the French Academy in Rome founded by Jean-Baptiste Colbert from 1666.
Expanded after 140 years into five categories, the contest started in 1663 as two categories: painting and sculpture. Architecture was added in 1720. In 1803, music was added, after 1804 there was a prix for engraving as well; the primary winner took the "First Grand Prize" and the "Second Prizes" were awarded to the runners-up. In 1803, Napoleon Bonaparte moved the French Academy in Rome to the Villa Medici with the intention of preserving an institution once threatened by the French Revolution. At first, the villa and its gardens were in a sad state, they had to be renovated in order to house the winners of the Prix de Rome. In this way, he hoped to retain for young French artists the opportunity to see and copy the masterpieces of antiquity and the Renaissance. Jacques-Louis David, having failed to win the prize three years in a row, considered suicide. Édouard Manet, Edgar Degas, Ernest Chausson and Maurice Ravel attempted the Prix de Rome, but did not gain recognition. Ravel tried a total of five times to win the prize, the last failed attempt in 1905 was so controversial that it led to a complete reorganization of the administration at the Paris Conservatory.
During World War II the prize winners were accommodated in the Villa Paradiso in Nice. The Prix de Rome was abolished in 1968 by André Malraux, Minister of Culture at the time. Since a number of contests have been created, the academies, together with the Institut de France, were merged by the State and the Minister of Culture. Selected residents now have an opportunity for study during an 18-month stay at The Academy of France in Rome, accommodated in the Villa Medici; the heyday of the Prix de Rome was during early nineteenth centuries. It was imitated by the Prix Abd-el-Tif and the Villa Abd-el-Tif in Algiers, 1907–1961, Prix d'Indochine including a bursary to visit the École des Beaux-Arts de l'Indochine in Hanoi, 1920–1939, bursary for residence at the Casa de Velázquez in Madrid, 1929–present; the Prix de Rome for Architecture was created in 1720. The engraving prize was created in 1804. List of all the winners of the Prix de Rome for musical composiiton A Prix de Rome was established in the Kingdom of Holland by Lodewijk Napoleon to award young artists and architects.
During the years 1807 -- 1810 prize winners were sent to onwards to Rome for study. In 1817, after the Netherlands had gained its independence, King Willem I restarted the prize. Suspended in 1851 it was reinstated in 1870 by William III of the Netherlands. Since the winners have been selected by the Rijksakademie in Amsterdam under the main headings of architecture and the visual arts; the Belgian Prix de Rome is an award for young artists, created in 1832, following the example of the original French Prix de Rome. The Royal Academy of Fine Arts Antwerp organised the prize until 1920, when the national government took over; the first prize is sometimes called the Grand Prix de Rome. There were distinct categories for architecture, painting and music. Académie de France Rome American Academy in Rome American School of Classical Studies at Athens American Schools of Oriental Research British School at Rome Deutsches Archäologisches Institut Rom Rome Prize The Prix de Rome Contests in Painting The Prix de Rome winners in Sculpture — Complete Prix de Rome winners
Jean Alaux, called "le Romain", was a French history painter and Director of the French Academy in Rome from 1846–52. Alaux was born in Bordeaux, the son of a painter and the second of four brothers who all became painters, he received his first lessons in art from his father, but went on to a formal training with Pierre Lacour and with Pierre-Narcisse Guérin. In 1807 he was admitted to the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris. From 1808 he entered works for the Prix de Rome, but his energies were diverted when his elder brother, Jean-Francois Alaux, asked him to help with a large "neorama" he was working on. Alaux won the major Prix de Rome in 1815 with a work entitled "Briseis weeping over the body of Patroclus", a scene inspired by the Iliad of Homer, he subsequently became a pensionnaire at the French Academy in Rome from 1816 to 1820 and went on to become its director. Among his fellow artists at the Academy were such luminaries as Drolling and Cogniet, sculptors such as Angers and Ramey, his first painting at the Academy was "Cadmus killing the dragon at the fountains of Dirce", purchased by the Duke of Orleans but was destroyed in the fire which engulfed the Palais-Royal in the French Revolution of 1848.
Alaux painted at the Academy "Diamedes carrying off the palladium" and "Episodes in the combats between the centaurs and the Lapithes". In 1821, he returned to France, where his reputation grew with works such as "The Baptism of Clovis", "States General of 1838", "The Assembly of the notables at Rouen in 1596", "States General 1614". Under the July Monarchy, he worked at the "Galerie des batailles" of the Château de Versailles, for which he painted "The Battle of Villaviciosa". Alaux was appointed as director of the French Academy in Rome in 1846 and was caught up in the siege of Rome of 1849, involving defending Italian forces under Garibaldi and the invading French army, his directorship ended with his retirement in 1852. Alaux died in Paris on 2 March 1864. Paintings by Alaux Portrait of Jean Alaux by Ingres The atelier of Ingres in Rome