Maine is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States. Maine is the 12th smallest by area, the 9th least populous, the 38th most densely populated of the 50 U. S. states. It is bordered by New Hampshire to the west, the Atlantic Ocean to the southeast, the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick and Quebec to the northeast and northwest respectively. Maine is the easternmost state in the contiguous United States, the northernmost state east of the Great Lakes, it is known for its rocky coastline. There is a humid continental climate throughout most of the state, including in coastal areas such as its most populous city of Portland; the capital is Augusta. For thousands of years, indigenous peoples were the only inhabitants of the territory, now Maine. At the time of European arrival in what is now Maine, several Algonquian-speaking peoples inhabited the area; the first European settlement in the area was by the French in 1604 on Saint Croix Island, by Pierre Dugua, Sieur de Mons.
The first English settlement was the short-lived Popham Colony, established by the Plymouth Company in 1607. A number of English settlements were established along the coast of Maine in the 1620s, although the rugged climate and conflict with the local peoples caused many to fail over the years; as Maine entered the 18th century, only a half dozen European settlements had survived. Loyalist and Patriot forces contended for Maine's territory during the American Revolution and the War of 1812. During the War of 1812, the largely-undefended eastern region of Maine was occupied by British forces, but returned to the United States after the war following major defeats in New York and Louisiana, as part of a peace treaty, to include dedicated land on the Michigan peninsula for Native American peoples. Maine was part of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts until 1820, when it voted to secede from Massachusetts to become a separate state. On March 15, 1820, under the Missouri Compromise, it was admitted to the Union as the 23rd state.
There is no definitive explanation for the origin of the name "Maine", but the most origin is that the name was given by early explorers after the former province of Maine in France. Whatever the origin, the name was fixed for English settlers in 1665 when the English King's Commissioners ordered that the "Province of Maine" be entered from on in official records; the state legislature in 2001 adopted a resolution establishing Franco-American Day, which stated that the state was named after the former French province of Maine. Other theories mention earlier places with similar names, or claim it is a nautical reference to the mainland. Attempts to uncover the history of the name of Maine began with James Sullivan's 1795 "History of the District of Maine", he made the unsubstantiated claim that the Province of Maine was a compliment to the queen of Charles I, Henrietta Maria, who once "owned" the Province of Maine in France. This was quoted by Maine historians until the 1845 biography of that queen by Agnes Strickland established that she had no connection to the province.
A new theory, put forward by Carol B. Smith Fisher in 2002, is that Sir Ferdinando Gorges chose the name in 1622 to honor the village where his ancestors first lived in England, rather than the province in France. "MAINE" appears in the Domesday Book of 1086 in reference to the county of Dorset, today Broadmayne, just southeast of Dorchester. The view held among British place name scholars is that Mayne in Dorset is Brythonic, corresponding to modern Welsh "maen", plural "main" or "meini"; some early spellings are: MAINE 1086, MEINE 1200, MEINES 1204, MAYNE 1236. Today the village is known as Broadmayne, primitive Welsh or Brythonic, "main" meaning rock or stone, considered a reference to the many large sarsen stones still present around Little Mayne farm, half a mile northeast of Broadmayne village; the first known record of the name appears in an August 10, 1622 land charter to Sir Ferdinando Gorges and Captain John Mason, English Royal Navy veterans, who were granted a large tract in present-day Maine that Mason and Gorges "intend to name the Province of Maine".
Mason had served with the Royal Navy in the Orkney Islands, where the chief island is called Mainland, a possible name derivation for these English sailors. In 1623, the English naval captain Christopher Levett, exploring the New England coast, wrote: "The first place I set my foote upon in New England was the Isle of Shoals, being Ilands in the sea, above two Leagues from the Mayne." Several tracts along the coast of New England were referred to as Main or Maine. A reconfirmed and enhanced April 3, 1639, from England's King Charles I, gave Sir Ferdinando Gorges increased powers over his new province and stated that it "shall forever hereafter, be called and named the PROVINCE OR COUNTIE OF MAINE, not by any other name or names whatsoever..." Maine is the only U. S. state whose name has one syllable. The original inhabitants of the territory, now Maine were Algonquian-speaking Wabanaki peoples, including the Passamaquoddy, Penobscot and Kennebec. During the King Philip's War, many of these peoples would merge in one form or another to become the Wabanaki Confederacy, aiding the Wampanoag of Massachusetts & the Mahican of New York.
Afterwards, many of these people were driven from their natural territories, but most of the tribes of Maine continued, until the American Revolution
Manchester, New Hampshire
Manchester is a city in the southern part of the U. S. state of New Hampshire. It is the most populous city in northern New England, an area comprising the states of Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont; as of the 2010 census the city had a population of 109,565, up to 111,196 in a 2017 estimate. The combined Manchester-Nashua Metropolitan Area had a 2010 population of 400,721. Manchester is, along with Nashua, one of two seats of Hillsborough County, the state's most populous. Manchester lies near the northern end of the Northeast megalopolis and straddles the banks of the Merrimack River, it was first named by the merchant and inventor Samuel Blodgett, namesake of Samuel Blodget Park and Blodget Street in the city's North End. His vision was to create a great industrial center similar to that of the original Manchester in England, the world's first industrialized city. Manchester appears favorably in lists ranking the affordability and livability of U. S. cities, placing high in small business climate, upward mobility, education level.
Native Pennacook Indians called Amoskeag Falls on the Merrimack River — the area that became the heart of Manchester — Namaoskeag, meaning "good fishing place". In 1722, John Goffe III settled beside Cohas Brook building a dam and sawmill at what was dubbed "Old Harry's Town", it was granted by Massachusetts in 1727 as "Tyngstown" to veterans of Queen Anne's War who served in 1703 under Captain William Tyng. But at New Hampshire's 1741 separation from Massachusetts, the grant was ruled invalid and substituted with Wilton, resulting in a 1751 rechartering by Governor Benning Wentworth as "Derryfield" — a name that lives on in Derryfield Park, Derryfield Country Club, the private Derryfield School. In 1807, Samuel Blodget opened a canal and lock system to allow vessels passage around the falls, part of a network developing to link the area with Boston, he envisioned a great industrial center arising, "the Manchester of America", in reference to Manchester, England at the forefront of the Industrial Revolution.
In 1809, Benjamin Prichard and others built a water-powered cotton spinning mill on the western bank of the Merrimack. Following Blodgett's suggestion, Derryfield was renamed "Manchester" in 1810, the year the mill was incorporated as the Amoskeag Cotton & Woolen Manufacturing Company, it would be purchased in 1825 by entrepreneurs from Massachusetts, expanded to three mills in 1826, incorporated in 1831 as the Amoskeag Manufacturing Company. Amoskeag engineers and architects planned a model company town on the eastern bank, founded in 1838 with Elm Street as its main thoroughfare. Incorporation as a city followed for Manchester in 1846, soon home to the largest cotton mill in the world—Mill No. 11, stretching 900 feet long by 103 feet wide, containing 4,000 looms. Other products made in the community included shoes and paper; the Amoskeag foundry made rifles, sewing machines, textile machinery, fire engines, locomotives in a division called the Amoskeag Locomotive Works. The rapid growth of the mills demanded a large influx of workers, resulting in a flood of immigrants French Canadians.
Many residents descend from these workers. The Amoskeag Manufacturing Company went out of business in 1935, although its red brick mills have been renovated for other uses. Indeed, the mill town's 19th-century affluence left behind some of the finest Victorian commercial and residential architecture in the state. Manchester is in south-central New Hampshire, 18 miles south of Concord, the state capital, the same distance north of Nashua, the second-largest city in the state. Manchester is 51 miles north-northwest of the largest city in New England. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 35.0 square miles, of which 33.1 square miles are land and 1.9 square miles are water, comprising 5.33% of the city. Manchester is drained by the Merrimack River and its tributaries the Piscataquog River and Cohas Brook. Massabesic Lake is on the eastern border; the highest point in Manchester is atop Wellington Hill, where the elevation reaches 570 feet above sea level. The Manchester Planning Board, in its 2010 Master Plan, defines 25 neighborhoods within the city.
LivableMHT has drawn maps of the neighborhoods and neighborhood village centers as defined by the city. Recognition of particular neighborhoods varies, with some having neighborhood associations, but none have any legal or political authority; the major neighborhoods include Amoskeag, Rimmon Heights, Notre Dame/McGregorville and Piscataquog/Granite Square known as "Piscat" on the West Side. In 2007, the city began a Neighborhood Initiatives program to "insure that our neighborhoods are vibrant, livable areas since these are the portions of the city where most of the residents spend their time living, playing and going to school." The purpose of this initiative is to foster vibrancy and redevelopment in the neighborhoods, to restore the sense of neighborhood communities, overlooked in the city for some time. The city began the program with street-scape and infrastructure improvements in the Rimmon Heights neighborhood of the West Side, which has spurred growth and investment in and by the community.
Despite the success of the program in Rimmon Heights, it was unclear in recent years how the city planned to implement similar programs throughout the city. The city announced plans for extending the Neighborhood Initiatives program
The Marshall Plan was an American initiative passed in 1948 to aid Western Europe, in which the United States gave over $12 billion in economic assistance to help rebuild Western European economies after the end of World War II. Replacing the previous Morgenthau Plan, it operated for four years beginning on April 3, 1948; the goals of the United States were to rebuild war-torn regions, remove trade barriers, modernize industry, improve European prosperity, prevent the spread of Communism. The Marshall Plan required a lessening of interstate barriers, a dropping of many regulations, encouraged an increase in productivity, as well as the adoption of modern business procedures; the Marshall Plan aid was divided amongst the participant states on a per capita basis. A larger amount was given to the major industrial powers, as the prevailing opinion was that their resuscitation was essential for general European revival. Somewhat more aid per capita was directed towards the Allied nations, with less for those, part of the Axis or remained neutral.
The largest recipient of Marshall Plan money was the United Kingdom, followed by France and West Germany. Some eighteen European countries received Plan benefits. Although offered participation, the Soviet Union refused Plan benefits, blocked benefits to Eastern Bloc countries, such as Hungary and Poland; the United States provided similar aid programs in Asia, but they were not part of the Marshall Plan. Its role in the rapid recovery has been debated. Most reject the idea that it alone miraculously revived Europe, since the evidence shows that a general recovery was under way; the Marshall Plan's accounting reflects that aid accounted for less than 3% of the combined national income of the recipient countries between 1948 and 1951, which means an increase in GDP growth of only 0.3%. After World War II, in 1947, industrialist Lewis H. Brown wrote at the request of General Lucius D. Clay, A Report on Germany, which served as a detailed recommendation for the reconstruction of post-war Germany, served as a basis for the Marshall Plan.
The initiative was named after United States Secretary of State George Marshall. The plan had bipartisan support in Washington, where the Republicans controlled Congress and the Democrats controlled the White House with Harry S. Truman as President; the Plan was the creation of State Department officials William L. Clayton and George F. Kennan, with help from the Brookings Institution, as requested by Senator Arthur H. Vandenberg, chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee. Marshall spoke of an urgent need to help the European recovery in his address at Harvard University in June 1947; the purpose of the Marshall Plan was to aid in the economic recovery of nations after WWII and to reduce the influence of Communist parties within them. To combat the effects of the Marshall Plan, the USSR developed its own economic plan, known as the Molotov Plan, in spite of the fact that large amounts of resources from the Eastern Bloc countries to the USSR were paid as reparations, for countries participating in the Axis Power during the war.
The phrase "equivalent of the Marshall Plan" is used to describe a proposed large-scale economic rescue program. The reconstruction plan, developed at a meeting of the participating European states, was drafted on June 5, 1947, it offered the same aid to the Soviet Union and its allies, but they refused to accept it, as doing so would allow a degree of US control over the communist economies. In fact, the Soviet Union prevented its satellite states from accepting. Secretary Marshall became convinced Stalin had no interest in helping restore economic health in Western Europe. President Harry Truman signed the Marshall Plan on April 3, 1948, granting $5 billion in aid to 16 European nations. During the four years the plan was in effect, the United States donated $17 billion in economic and technical assistance to help the recovery of the European countries that joined the Organisation for European Economic Co-operation; the $17 billion was in the context of a US GDP of $258 billion in 1948, on top of $17 billion in American aid to Europe between the end of the war and the start of the Plan, counted separately from the Marshall Plan.
The Marshall Plan was replaced by the Mutual Security Plan at the end of 1951. The ERP addressed each of the obstacles to postwar recovery; the plan did not focus on the destruction caused by the war. Much more important were efforts to modernize European industrial and business practices using high-efficiency American models, reducing artificial trade barriers, instilling a sense of hope and self-reliance. By 1952, as the funding ended, the economy of every participant state had surpassed pre-war levels. Over the next two decades, Western Europe enjoyed unprecedented growth and prosperity, but economists are not sure what proportion was due directly to the ERP, what proportion indirectly, how much would have happened without it. A common American interpretation of the program's role in European recovery was expressed by Paul Hoffman, head of the Economic Cooperation Administration, in 1949, when he told Congress Marshall aid had provided the "critical margin" on which other investment needed for European recovery depended.
The Marshall Plan was one of the first elements of European integration, as it erased trade barriers and set up institutions to co
American entry into World War I
The American entry into World War I came in April 1917, after more than two and a half years of efforts by President Woodrow Wilson to keep the United States out of the war. Apart from an Anglophile element urging early support for the British, American public opinion reflected that of the president: the sentiment for neutrality was strong among Irish Americans, German Americans, Scandinavian Americans, as well as among church leaders and among women in general. On the other hand before World War I had broken out, American opinion had been more negative toward Germany than towards any other country in Europe. Over time after reports of atrocities in Belgium in 1914 and following the sinking of the passenger liner RMS Lusitania in 1915, American citizens came to see Germany as the aggressor in Europe. Wilson, as president, made all the key decisions over foreign policy. While the country was at peace American banks made huge loans to Britain and France, which were used to buy munitions, raw materials, food from across the Atlantic.
Until 1917, Wilson made minimal preparations for a land war and kept the United States Army on a small peacetime footing, despite increasing demands for enhanced preparedness. He did, expand the United States Navy. In 1917, with Russia experiencing political upheaval, with Britain and France low on credit, Germany appeared to have the upper hand in Europe, while the Ottoman Empire, Germany's ally, held on to its territory in modern-day Iraq and Israel. At this point Germany decided to resume unrestricted submarine warfare, its goal was to starve Britain into surrender, although it realized that this would certainly bring the United States into the war. Germany made a secret offer to help Mexico regain territories lost in the Mexican–American War in an encoded telegram known as the Zimmermann Telegram, intercepted by British intelligence. Publication of that communique outraged Americans just as German U-boats started sinking American merchant ships in the North Atlantic. Wilson asked Congress for "a war to end all wars" that would "make the world safe for democracy", Congress voted to declare war on Germany on April 6, 1917.
On December 7, 1917, the U. S. declared war on Austria-Hungary. U. S. Troops began arriving on the Western Front in large numbers in 1918. Britain used its large navy to prevent cargo vessels entering German ports by intercepting them in the North Sea between the coasts of Scotland and Norway; the wider sea approaches to Britain and France, their distance from German harbours and the smaller size of the German surface fleet all made it harder for Germany to reciprocate. Instead, Germany used submarines to lie in wait for, sink, merchant ships heading for enemy ports; the United States insisted on maintaining the traditional rights of ships registered in neutral countries and protested against American ships being intercepted or sunk: the British seized American ships for supposed violations, while the Germans sank them — without warning, in violation of international law that said sailors must be allowed an opportunity to reach their lifeboats. After several violations, Germany stopped this practice but in early 1917 she decided to resume unrestricted submarine warfare, in the hope that this would starve out the British before the Americans could make any effective military retaliation.
The British Royal Navy stopped the shipment of most war supplies and food to Germany. Neutral American ships that tried to trade with Germany were seized or turned back by the Royal Navy who viewed such trade as in direct conflict with the Allies' war efforts; the strangulation came about slowly, because Germany and its allies controlled extensive farmlands and raw materials. It was successful because Germany and Austria-Hungary had decimated their agricultural production by taking so many farmers into their armies. By 1918, German cities were on the verge of starvation. Germany considered a blockade. "England wants to starve us", said Admiral Alfred von Tirpitz, the man who built the German fleet and who remained a key advisor to the Kaiser Wilhelm II. "We can play the same game. We can bottle her up and destroy every ship that endeavors to break the blockade". Unable to challenge the more powerful Royal Navy on the surface, Tirpitz wanted to scare off merchant and passenger ships en route to Britain.
He reasoned that since the island of Britain depended on imports of food, raw materials, manufactured goods, scaring off a substantial number of the ships would undercut its long-term ability to maintain an army on the Western Front. While Germany had only nine long-range U-boats at the start of the war, it had ample shipyard capacity to build the hundreds needed. However, the United States demanded that Germany respect the international agreements upon "freedom of the seas", which protected neutral American ships on the high seas from seizure or sinking by either belligerent. Furthermore, Americans insisted that the drowning of innocent civilians was barbaric and grounds for a declaration of war; the British violated America's neutral rights by seizing ships. Wilson's top advisor, Colonel Edward M. House commented that, "The British have gone as far as they could in violating neutral rights, though they have done it in the most courteous way"; when Wilson protested British violations of American neutrality, the British backed down.
German submarines torpedoed ships without causing sailors and passengers to drown. Berlin explained that submarines were so vulnerable that they dared not surface near merchant ships that might be carrying guns and whic
Baptists are Christians distinguished by baptizing professing believers only, doing so by complete immersion. Baptist churches generally subscribe to the tenets of soul competency/liberty, salvation through faith alone, scripture alone as the rule of faith and practice, the autonomy of the local congregation. Baptists recognize two ordinances: baptism and the Lord's supper. Diverse from their beginning, those identifying as Baptists today differ from one another in what they believe, how they worship, their attitudes toward other Christians, their understanding of what is important in Christian discipleship. Historians trace the earliest "Baptist" church to 1609 in Amsterdam, Dutch Republic with English Separatist John Smyth as its pastor. In accordance with his reading of the New Testament, he rejected baptism of infants and instituted baptism only of believing adults. Baptist practice spread to England, where the General Baptists considered Christ's atonement to extend to all people, while the Particular Baptists believed that it extended only to the elect.
Thomas Helwys formulated a distinctively Baptist request that the church and the state be kept separate in matters of law, so that individuals might have freedom of religion. Helwys died in prison as a consequence of the religious conflict with English dissenters under King James I. In 1638, Roger Williams established the first Baptist congregation in the North American colonies. In the 18th and 19th centuries, the First and Second Great Awakening increased church membership in the United States. Baptist missionaries have spread their faith to every continent. Baptist historian Bruce Gourley outlines four main views of Baptist origins: the modern scholarly consensus that the movement traces its origin to the 17th century via the English Separatists, the view that it was an outgrowth of Anabaptist traditions, the perpetuity view which assumes that the Baptist faith and practice has existed since the time of Christ, the successionist view, or "Baptist successionism", which argues that Baptist churches existed in an unbroken chain since the time of Christ.
Modern Baptist churches trace their history to the English Separatist movement in the 1600s, the century after the rise of the original Protestant denominations. This view of Baptist origins has the most historical support and is the most accepted. Adherents to this position consider the influence of Anabaptists upon early Baptists to be minimal, it was a time of considerable religious turmoil. Both individuals and churches were willing to give up their theological roots if they became convinced that a more biblical "truth" had been discovered. During the Protestant Reformation, the Church of England separated from the Roman Catholic Church. There were some Christians who were not content with the achievements of the mainstream Protestant Reformation. There were Christians who were disappointed that the Church of England had not made corrections of what some considered to be errors and abuses. Of those most critical of the Church's direction, some chose to stay and try to make constructive changes from within the Anglican Church.
They are described by Gourley as cousins of the English Separatists. Others decided they must leave the Church because of their dissatisfaction and became known as the Separatists. Historians trace the earliest Baptist church back to 1609 in Amsterdam, with John Smyth as its pastor. Three years earlier, while a Fellow of Christ's College, Cambridge, he had broken his ties with the Church of England. Reared in the Church of England, he became "Puritan, English Separatist, a Baptist Separatist," and ended his days working with the Mennonites, he began meeting in England with 60–70 English Separatists, in the face of "great danger." The persecution of religious nonconformists in England led Smyth to go into exile in Amsterdam with fellow Separatists from the congregation he had gathered in Lincolnshire, separate from the established church. Smyth and his lay supporter, Thomas Helwys, together with those they led, broke with the other English exiles because Smyth and Helwys were convinced they should be baptized as believers.
In 1609 Smyth first baptized himself and baptized the others. In 1609, while still there, Smyth wrote a tract titled "The Character of the Beast," or "The False Constitution of the Church." In it he expressed two propositions: first, infants are not to be baptized. Hence, his conviction was that a scriptural church should consist only of regenerate believers who have been baptized on a personal confession of faith, he rejected the Separatist movement's doctrine of infant baptism. Shortly thereafter, Smyth left the group, layman Thomas Helwys took over the leadership, leading the church back to England in 1611. Smyth became committed to believers' baptism as the only biblical baptism, he was convinced on the basis of his interpretation of Scripture that infants would not be damned should they die in infancy. Smyth, convinced that his self-baptism was invalid, applied with the Mennonites for membership, he died while waiting for membership, some of his followers became Mennonites. Thomas Helwys and others kept their Baptist commitments.
The modern Baptist denomination is an outgrowth of Smyth's movement. Baptists rejected the name Anabaptist. McBeth writes that as late as the 18th century, many Baptists referred to themselves as "the Christians commonly—though falsely—called Anabaptists."Another milestone in the early dev
Bethesda is an unincorporated, census-designated place in southern Montgomery County, United States, located just northwest of the U. S. capital of Washington, D. C, it takes its name from a local church, the Bethesda Meeting House, which in turn took its name from Jerusalem's Pool of Bethesda. In Aramaic, beth ḥesda means "House of Mercy" and in Hebrew, beit ḥesed means "House of Kindness"; the National Institutes of Health main campus and the Walter Reed National Military Medical Center are in Bethesda, as are a number of corporate and government headquarters. As an unincorporated community, Bethesda has no official boundaries; the United States Census Bureau defines a census-designated place named Bethesda whose center is located at 38°59′N 77°7′W. The United States Geological Survey has defined Bethesda as an area whose center is at 38°58′50″N 77°6′2″W different from the Census Bureau's definition. Other definitions are used by the Bethesda Urban Planning District, the United States Postal Service, other organizations.
According to estimates released by the U. S. Census Bureau in 2013, the community had a total population of 63,374. Most of Bethesda's residents are in Maryland Legislative District 16. Bethesda is situated along a major thoroughfare, the route of an Indian trail. Henry Fleet was an English fur trader and the first European to travel to the area, which he reached by sailing up the Potomac River, he stayed with the Piscataway tribe from 1623 to 1627 as both a guest and a prisoner returned to England. He spoke of potential riches in fur and gold, won funding for another American expedition. Most early settlers in Maryland were tenant farmers who paid their rent in tobacco, colonists continued to push farther north in search of fertile land. Henry Darnall surveyed a 710-acre area in 1694 which became the first land grant in Bethesda. and tobacco farming was the primary way of life in Bethesda throughout the 1700s. The establishment of Washington, D. C. in 1790 deprived Montgomery County of its economic center at Georgetown, although the event had little effect on the small farmers throughout Bethesda.
Between 1805 and 1821, Bethesda became a rural way station after development of the Washington and Rockville Turnpike, which carried tobacco and other products between Georgetown and Rockville, north to Frederick. A small settlement grew around a store and tollhouse along the turnpike by 1862 known as "Darcy's Store", named after the store's owner William E. Darcy; the settlement was renamed in 1871 by postmaster Robert Franck after the Bethesda Meeting House, a Presbyterian church built in 1820. The church burned in 1849 and was rebuilt the same year about 100 yards south, its former location became the Cemetery of the Bethesda Meeting House. Bethesda did not develop beyond a small crossroads village through the 19th century, consisting of a blacksmith shop, a church and school, a few houses and stores. In 1852, the postmaster general established a post office in Bethesda and appointed Rev. A. R. Smith its first postmaster. A streetcar line was established in 1890 and suburbanization increased in the early 1900s, Bethesda began to grow in population.
Communities that were situated near railroad lines had grown the fastest during the 19th century, but mass production of the automobile ended that dependency and Bethesda planners grew the community with the transportation revolution in mind. This included becoming a key stopping point for the B & O railroad on their Georgetown Branch line completed around 1910 that ran from Silver Spring to Georgetown, passing through Bethesda on the way; the branch had a storage yard there and multiple sidings that served the industries in Bethesda in the early 20th century. B & O successor CSX ceased train service on the line in 1985, so the county transformed it into a trail in the rails-to-trails movement; the tracks were removed in 1994 and the first part of the trail was opened in 1998. Subdivisions began to appear on old farmland in the late 19th century, becoming the neighborhoods of Drummond, Woodmont and Battery Park. Farther north, several wealthy men made Rockville Pike famous for its mansions; these included Brainard W. Parker, James Oyster, George E. Hamilton, Luke I.
Wilson, Gilbert Hovey Grosvenor, George Freeland Peter. In 1930, Dr Armistead Peter's pioneering manor house "Winona" became the clubhouse of the Woodmont Country Club on land, now part of the National Institutes of Health campus. Merle Thorpe's mansion "Pook's Hill" became the home-in-exile of the Norwegian Royal Family during World War II. World War II and the subsequent expansion of government further fed the rapid growth of Bethesda. Both the National Naval Medical Center and the NIH complex were built just to the north of the developing downtown, this drew government contractors, medical professionals, other businesses to the area. In recent years, Bethesda has consolidated as the major urban core and employment center of southwestern Montgomery County; this recent growth has been vigorous following the expansion of Metrorail with a station in Bethesda in 1984. Alan Kay built the Bethesda Metro Center over the Red line metro rail which opened up further commercial and residential development in the immediate vicinity.
In the 2000s, the strict height limits on construction in
New Hampshire is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States. It is bordered by Massachusetts to the south, Vermont to the west and the Atlantic Ocean to the east, the Canadian province of Quebec to the north. New Hampshire is the 10th least populous of the 50 states. Concord is the state capital, it is personal income taxed at either the state or local level. The New Hampshire primary is the first primary in the U. S. presidential election cycle. Its license plates carry the state motto, "Live Free or Die"; the state's nickname, "The Granite State", refers to its extensive granite quarries. In January 1776, it became the first of the British North American colonies to establish a government independent of the Kingdom of Great Britain's authority, it was the first to establish its own state constitution. Six months it became one of the original 13 colonies that signed the United States Declaration of Independence, in June 1788 it was the ninth state to ratify the United States Constitution, bringing that document into effect.
New Hampshire was a major center for textile manufacturing and papermaking, with Amoskeag Manufacturing Company in Manchester at one time being the largest cotton textile plant in the world. Numerous mills were located along various rivers in the state the Merrimack and Connecticut rivers. Many French Canadians migrated to New Hampshire to work the mills in the late 19th and early 20th century. Manufacturing centers such as Manchester and Berlin were hit hard in the 1930s–1940s, as major manufacturing industries left New England and moved to the southern United States or overseas, reflecting nationwide trends. In the 1950s and 1960s, defense contractors moved into many of the former mills, such as Sanders Associates in Nashua, the population of southern New Hampshire surged beginning in the 1980s as major highways connected the region to Greater Boston and established several bedroom communities in the state. With some of the largest ski mountains on the East Coast, New Hampshire's major recreational attractions include skiing and other winter sports and mountaineering, observing the fall foliage, summer cottages along many lakes and the seacoast, motor sports at the New Hampshire Motor Speedway, Motorcycle Week, a popular motorcycle rally held in Weirs Beach in Laconia in June.
The White Mountain National Forest links the Vermont and Maine portions of the Appalachian Trail, has the Mount Washington Auto Road, where visitors may drive to the top of 6,288-foot Mount Washington. Among prominent individuals from New Hampshire are founding father Nicholas Gilman, Senator Daniel Webster, Revolutionary War hero John Stark, editor Horace Greeley, founder of the Christian Science religion Mary Baker Eddy, poet Robert Frost, astronaut Alan Shepard, rock musician Ronnie James Dio, author Dan Brown, actor Adam Sandler, inventor Dean Kamen, comedians Sarah Silverman and Seth Meyers, restaurateurs Richard and Maurice McDonald, President of the United States Franklin Pierce; the state was named after the southern English county of Hampshire by Captain John Mason. New Hampshire is part of the six-state New England region, it is bounded by Quebec, Canada, to the northwest. New Hampshire's major regions are the Great North Woods, the White Mountains, the Lakes Region, the Seacoast, the Merrimack Valley, the Monadnock Region, the Dartmouth-Lake Sunapee area.
New Hampshire has the shortest ocean coastline of any U. S. coastal state, with a length of 18 miles, sometimes measured as only 13 miles. New Hampshire was home to the rock formation called the Old Man of the Mountain, a face-like profile in Franconia Notch, until the formation disintegrated in May 2003; the White Mountains range in New Hampshire spans the north-central portion of the state, with Mount Washington the tallest in the northeastern U. S. – site of the second-highest wind speed recorded – and other mountains like Mount Madison and Mount Adams surrounding it. With hurricane-force winds every third day on average, over 100 recorded deaths among visitors, conspicuous krumholtz, the climate on the upper reaches of Mount Washington has inspired the weather observatory on the peak to claim that the area has the "World's Worst Weather". In the flatter southwest corner of New Hampshire, the landmark Mount Monadnock has given its name to a class of earth-forms – a monadnock – signifying, in geomorphology, any isolated resistant peak rising from a less resistant eroded plain.
Major rivers include the 110-mile Merrimack River, which bisects the lower half of the state north–south and ends up in Newburyport, Massachusetts. Its tributaries include the Contoocook River, Pemigewasset River, Winnipesaukee River; the 410-mile Connecticut River, which starts at New Hampshire's Connecticut Lakes and flows south to Connecticut, defines the western border with Vermont. The state border is not in the center of that river, as is the case, but at the low-water mark on the Vermont side. Only one town – Pittsburg – shares a land border with the st