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Charles Xavier Thomas

Charles Xavier Thomas de Colmar was a French inventor and entrepreneur best known for designing and manufacturing the first commercially successful mechanical calculator, the Arithmometer, for founding the insurance companies Le Soleil and L'aigle which, under his leadership, became the number one insurance group in France at the beginning of the Second Empire. Born Charles Xavier Thomas in Colmar, his father was a doctor and member of the town council. After a short employment in the French administration, Thomas joined the French army in 1809 reaching the level of General Manager of the supply store of all of the armies located in Spain in 1813. Shortly thereafter he was promoted to Inspector of Supply for the entire French army, it was during that time that he conceived the idea of the Arithmometer to help him with the great deal of calculations that he had to perform. Back into civilian life, in 1819, he co-founded the fire insurance company "Phoenix" which he left because of the lack of support for his new ideas from his partners and shareholders.

Ten years in 1829, he started the fire insurance company "Le Soleil" that he grew by merger and acquisitions until his death. In 1843 he started another insurance company called "L'Aigle incendie". With the Sun symbol of previous kings of France and the Eagle reminiscent of Napoleon, he had all bases covered to attract a wide range of customers in a divided 19th century France. By his death the "Aigle - Soleil" group was the biggest insurance business in France and he owned 81% of it. Eighty years in 1946, it was nationalized and merged with "La National" in 1968 to become the GAN company, still in business today. Thomas was made Chevalier of the Légion d'honneur for his invention of the Arithmometer in 1821, he changed his name from "M. Charles Xavier Thomas" to "M. le Chevalier Thomas, de Colmar" and simply "Thomas de Colmar". Because of the Arithmometer, he was raised to the level of Officier of the Légion d'honneur in 1857. Thomas spent all of his time and energy on his insurance business, therefore there is a hiatus of more than thirty years in between the first model of the Arithmometer introduced in 1820 and its true commercialization in 1852.

By the time of his death in 1870, his manufacturing facility had built around 1,000 Arithmometers, making it the first mass-produced mechanical calculator in the world, at the time, the only mechanical calculator reliable and dependable enough to be used in places like government agencies, insurance companies and observatories just to name a few. The manufacturing of the Arithmometer went on for another 40 years until around 1914, he married Francesca Garcia de Ampudia Alvarez in Seville in 1812. She came from an old Andalusian noble family. Together, they had ten children: Joseph Thomas d'Alvarez, Louis Thomas who married Livia Carafa, Duchess of Bojano and took the name of Thomas de Bojano and Henriette. History of computing hardware Patent at the Wayback Machine His biography on Another biography in French

Star-free language

A regular language is said to be star-free if it can be described by a regular expression constructed from the letters of the alphabet, the empty set symbol, all boolean operators – including complementation – and concatenation but no Kleene star. For instance, the language of words over the alphabet that do not have consecutive a's can be defined by c, where X c denotes the complement of a subset X of ∗; the condition is equivalent to having generalized star height zero. An example of a regular language, not star-free is. Marcel-Paul Schützenberger characterized star-free languages as those with aperiodic syntactic monoids, they can be characterized logically as languages definable in FO, the first-order logic over the natural numbers with the less-than relation, as the counter-free languages and as languages definable in linear temporal logic. All star-free languages are in uniform AC0. Star height Generalized star height problem Star height problem Lawson, Mark V.. Finite automata. Chapman and Hall/CRC.

ISBN 1-58488-255-7. Zbl 1086.68074. Diekert, Volker. "First-order definable languages". In Jörg Flum. Logic and automata: history and perspectives. Amsterdam University Press. ISBN 978-90-5356-576-6

38th Scripps National Spelling Bee

The 38th Scripps National Spelling Bee was held in Washington, D. C. on June 9–10, 1965, sponsored by the E. W. Scripps Company. 70 contestants participated in the competition. 7th grader 12-year old Michael Kerpan, Jr. from Tulsa, sponsored by the Tulsa Tribune, won the competition by spelling the word "eczema" after 17 rounds. Judy Guarr of Topeka, Kansas took second place after misspelling "larghetto" in a long duel; as of 2015, Kerpan is the last of two winners from Oklahoma, the first being John Capehart in the 1961 bee. Third place was taken by 13-year-old Ralph Moore of Ohio. There were 70 contestants this year, ranging from 11 to 15 years old, evenly split with 35 boys and 35 girls, from 32 states, the District of Columbia, Guam. Three finalists returned from the prior year's bee. Future Federal Reserve Board Chairman Ben Bernanke was eliminated on the word edelweiss, finishing 26th; the first place prize was $1,000. A total of $5,700 in prizes were awarded to all spellers

Bigler Township, Clearfield County, Pennsylvania

Bigler Township is a township in Clearfield County, United States. The population was 1,289 at the 2010 census. According to the United States Census Bureau, the township has a total area of 24.8 square miles, all of it land. Amesville Atlantic Belsena Mills Betz Blackburn Booker Beulah Chesterfield Madera Mascot Smoke Run As of the census of 2000, there were 1,368 people, 547 households, 386 families residing in the township; the population density was 55.2 people per square mile. There were 647 housing units at an average density of 26.1/sq mi. The racial makeup of the township was 99.05% White, 0.07% African American, 0.07% Asian, 0.22% from other races, 0.58% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.15% of the population. There were 547 households, out of which 30.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.8% were married couples living together, 9.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.4% were non-families. 24.7% of all households were made up of individuals, 16.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.

The average household size was 2.50 and the average family size was 2.97. In the township the population was spread out, with 24.3% under the age of 18, 6.3% from 18 to 24, 28.1% from 25 to 44, 23.0% from 45 to 64, 18.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females, there were 93.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.7 males. The median income for a household in the township was $22,792, the median income for a family was $28,482. Males had a median income of $26,471 versus $17,604 for females; the per capita income for the township was $12,434. About 15.7% of families and 19.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 31.2% of those under age 18 and 16.2% of those age 65 or over. Moshannon Valley School District A portion of the Pennsylvania State Game Lands Number 60 is located at the southern border of the township. History of Bigler, PA


Yongin is a major city in the Seoul Capital Area, located in Gyeonggi Province, South Korea. With a population close to 1 million, the city has developed since the 21st century, recording the highest population growth of any city in the country. Yongin is home to Everland and Caribbean Bay, water parks; the city is home to the Korean Folk Village, the largest of its kind. Yongin is a city as large as Seoul by area, consisting of the urbanized districts of Suji-gu and Giheung-gu and the semi-urbanized district of Cheoin-gu. Yongin's urbanized districts are located close to the capital and many commute to and from downtown Seoul in 30–40 minutes by car using the Gyeongbu Expressway or Yongin-Seoul Expressway, the Bundang Line subway, the Shinbundang Line subway or metropolitan buses; the Shinbundang Line with a maximum speed of 110 km/h extended to Suji-gu in January 2016, which allows Suji residents to travel to Gangnam Station in 20–30 minutes. The Bundang Line extended south to Giheung Station in December 2011, connecting to EverLine that extends all the way to Everland.

In December 2013, the Bundang Line extended to Suwon Station of Seoul Subway Line 1. Yongin has many university campuses, namely Yong-In University, noted for its sports courses, Myongji University's Yongin Campus, Hankuk University of Foreign Studies' Yongin Campus, the Police University, Kangnam University, Yong-in Songdam College, Dankook University and Calvin University; the Gyeonggi Suwon International School, an IB World School with a boarding program for foreign students, is situated on the border of Yongin and Suwon. The city is divided into three gu: Cheoin District Giheung District Suji District Yongin is served by trains on the Seoul Metropolitan Subway; the Bundang Line has been extended into Yongin, calling at Jukjeon, Guseong, Singal and Sanggal stations. Since May 2013 a new line named the EverLine Rapid Transit System is in operation and linked to the Bundang Line at Giheung Station where it is possible to transfer between lines without going outside. From 2016 onwards, the inner Suji area will be served by four new Shinbundang Line stations, which will allow Suji residents travel to Gangnam Station in less than 30 minutes.

Yongin has an intercity bus terminal in the city centre, though the densely settled northern areas are served better by the terminal in Yatap-dong, Seongnam. Although there is evidence of human settlement here as far back as the fifth century, Yongin was granted city status only in March 1996; the most representative food of Yongin is the Sundae of Chouin-gu. Baekamsundae has a special feature of filling meat without blood. Everland theme park Korean Folk Village Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation Dramia located at Cheoin-gu, is the filming location of historical dramas such as Moon Embracing the Sun, Queen Seondeok and Dong Yi. Viewing tours are available, which includes traditional folk games, historical court dress and archery. List of cities in South Korea City government website Yongin: Official Seoul City Tourism

Babcock Building, South Carolina State Hospital

The Babcock Building is an historic structure located off Bull St. in Columbia, South Carolina. It was added to the National Register of Historic Places on October 30, 1981; the building is the second to house patients on the campus of South Carolina State Hospital, after the Mills Building proved to be insufficient in space to house its patients. The first section of Babcock, was designed by George E. Walker in 1858. Walker died; the north wing was overseen by Gustavus T. Berg; the central portion, bearing the name and serving as the main entrance, was designed by architect Samuel Sloan. The structure was completed in 1885 after four building campaigns. Construction delays were the fault of the American Civil War. Through the years, additions were made to the building, including stairwells whose style and materials do not match that of the rest of the building. Several buildings have since been removed; the Babcock Building is scheduled to be renovated into apartment buildings for Columbia's planned Bull Street District.

The state has sold 143 out of the 181 property's acres for $18.5 million. On December 13th, 2018, the building's roof caught fire; the state of South Carolina will pay for repairs which may cost up to $400,000. Following the Kirkbride Plan, Babcock was designed not to include subterranean housing of patients; each wing of the structure is 3-4 stories with rooms broken up into manageable wards. For its time, the building was fireproofed, it utilized, for a time, gas lighting. The building does not comply with Kirkbride standards. Babcock does not have staggered blocks within its wings. South Carolina Lunatic Asylum head physician Dr. Trezevant argued that the staggering of blocks would not allow the ventilation needed for the warm southern climate. However, against Trezevant's wishes, the halls were built in a double-range, with rooms on either side of the hallway. Babcock is noted as a fine example of Italian Renaissance Revival architecture. Walker was known for his work in Romanesque and Gothic Revival.

Though he died before his own section was complete, his work became the basis for the rest of the building's construction. Berg's Northern wing mirrors the design of the original in many ways. Sloan's central section is crowned with a now iconic, twelve-sided cupola whose red domed roof can be seen from far across the city; this section features the operating rooms, dormitories for staff, a chapel. Dining halls were added to the Eastern end of the central block in 1916. Health care Filming location for Chattahoochee Columbia - Kirkbrides HD on Vimeo, 2009 Mills Building, South Carolina State Hospital Kirkbride Plan