United States Military Academy
The United States Military Academy known as West Point, Army West Point, The Academy, or The Point, is a four-year federal service academy in West Point, New York. It was established as a fort that sits on strategic high ground overlooking the Hudson River with a scenic view, 50 miles north of New York City, it is one of the five U. S. service academies. The Academy traces its roots to 1801, when President Thomas Jefferson directed, shortly after his inauguration, that plans be set in motion to establish the United States Military Academy at West Point; the entire central campus is a national landmark and home to scores of historic sites and monuments. The majority of the campus's Norman-style buildings are constructed from black granite; the campus is a popular tourist destination, with a visitor center and the oldest museum in the United States Army. Candidates for admission must both apply directly to the academy and receive a nomination from a member of Congress or Delegate/Resident Commissioner in the case of Washington, D.
C. Puerto Rico, Northern Mariana Islands, American Samoa, the Virgin Islands. Other nomination sources include the Vice President of the United States. Students are officers-in-training and are referred to as "cadets" or collectively as the "United States Corps of Cadets". Tuition for cadets is funded by the Army in exchange for an active duty service obligation upon graduation. 1,300 cadets enter the Academy each July, with about 1,000 cadets graduating. The academic program grants a bachelor of science degree with a curriculum that grades cadets' performance upon a broad academic program, military leadership performance, mandatory participation in competitive athletics. Cadets are required to adhere to the Cadet Honor Code, which states that "a cadet will not lie, steal, or tolerate those who do." The academy bases a cadet's leadership experience as a development of all three pillars of performance: academics and military. Most graduates are commissioned as second lieutenants in the Army. Foreign cadets are commissioned into the armies of their home countries.
Since 1959, cadets have been eligible for an interservice commission, a commission in one of the other armed services, provided they meet that service's eligibility standards. Most years, a small number of cadets do this; the academy's traditions have influenced other institutions because of unique mission. It was the first American college to have an accredited civil-engineering program and the first to have class rings, its technical curriculum was a model for engineering schools. West Point's student body has lexicon. All cadets dine together en masse on weekdays for breakfast and lunch; the academy fields fifteen men's and nine women's National Collegiate Athletic Association sports teams. Cadets compete in one sport every fall and spring season at the intramural, club, or intercollegiate level, its football team was a national power in the early and mid-20th century, winning three national championships. Its alumni and students are collectively referred to as "The Long Gray Line" and its ranks include two Presidents of the United States, presidents of Costa Rica and the Philippines, numerous famous generals, seventy-six Medal of Honor recipients.
The Continental Army first occupied West Point, New York, on 27 January 1778, it is the oldest continuously operating Army post in the United States. Between 1778 and 1780, the Polish engineer and military hero Tadeusz Kościuszko oversaw the construction of the garrison defenses; the Great Hudson River Chain and high ground above the narrow "S" curve in the river enabled the Continental Army to prevent British Royal Navy ships from sailing upriver and thus dividing the Colonies. While the fortifications at West Point were known as Fort Arnold during the war, as commander, Benedict Arnold committed his act of treason, attempting to sell the fort to the British. After Arnold betrayed the patriot cause, the Army changed the name of the fortifications at West Point, New York, to Fort Clinton. With the peace after the American Revolutionary War, various ordnance and military stores were left deposited at West Point. After the Continental Army was disbanded 1783, West Point was the only place in the newly formed United States to have active military personel, 80 in total, until Legion of the United States was established in 1792."Cadets" underwent training in artillery and engineering studies at the garrison since 1794.
In 1801, shortly after his inauguration as president, Thomas Jefferson directed that plans be set in motion to establish at West Point the United States Military Academy. He selected Jonathan Williams to serve as its first superintendent. Congress formally authorized the establishment and funding of the school with the Military Peace Establishment Act of 1802, which Jefferson signed on 16 March; the academy commenced operations on 4 July 1802. The academy graduated Joseph Gardner Swift, its first official graduate, in October 1802, he returned as Superintendent from 1812 to 1814. In its tumultuous early years, the academy featured few standards for length of study. Cadets attended between 6 months to 6 years; the impending War of 1812 caused the United States Congress to authorize a more formal system of education at the academy and increased the size of the Corps of Cadets to 250. In 1817, Colonel Sylvanus Thayer became the Superintendent and established the curriculum, elements of which are still in use as of 2015.
Thayer instilled strict disciplinary
National Natural Landmark
The National Natural Landmarks Program recognizes and encourages the conservation of outstanding examples of the natural history of the United States. It is the only national natural areas program that identifies and recognizes the best examples of biological and geological features in both public and private ownership; the program was established on May 18, 1962, by United States Secretary of the Interior Stewart Udall. The program aims to encourage and support voluntary preservation of sites that illustrate the geological and ecological history of the United States, it hopes to strengthen the public's appreciation of the country's natural heritage. As of November 2016, 599 sites have been added to the National Registry of National Landmarks; the registry includes nationally significant geological and ecological features in 48 states, American Samoa, Puerto Rico, the U. S. Virgin Islands; the National Park Service administers the NNL Program and if requested, assists NNL owners and managers with the conservation of these important sites.
Land acquisition by the federal government is not a goal of this program. National Natural Landmarks are nationally significant sites owned by a variety of land stewards, their participation in this federal program is voluntary; the legislative authority for the National Natural Landmarks Program stems from the Historic Sites Act of August 21, 1935. The NNL Program does not have the protection features of Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966. Thus, designation of a National Natural Landmark presently constitutes only an agreement with the owner to preserve, insofar as possible, the significant natural values of the site or area. Administration and preservation of National Natural Landmarks is the owner's responsibility. Either party may terminate the agreement; the NNL designation is made by the Secretary of the Interior after in-depth scientific study of a potential site. All new designations must have owner concurrence; the selection process is rigorous: to be considered for NNL status, a site must be one of the best examples of a natural region's characteristic biotic or geologic features.
Since establishment of the NNL program, a multi-step process has been used to designate a site for NNL status. Since 1970, the following steps have constituted the process. A natural area inventory of a natural region is completed to identify the most promising sites. After landowners are notified that the site is being considered for NNL status, a detailed onsite evaluation is conducted by scientists other than those who conducted the inventory; the evaluation report is peer reviewed by other experts to assure its soundness. The report is reviewed further by National Park Service staff; the site is reviewed by the Secretary of the Interior's National Park Advisory Board to determine that the site qualifies as an NNL. The findings are provided to the Secretary of the Interior who declines. Landowners are notified a third time informing them that the site has been designated an NNL. Prospective sites for NNL designation are aquatic ecosystems; each major natural history "theme" can be further subdivided into various sub-themes.
For example, sub-themes suggested in 1972 for the overall theme "Lakes and ponds" included large deep lakes, large shallow lakes, lakes of complex shape, crater lakes, kettle lake and potholes, oxbow lakes, dune lakes, sphagnum-bog lakes, lakes fed by thermal streams, tundra lakes and ponds and marshy areas, sinkhole lakes, unusually productive lakes, lakes of high productivity and high clarity. The NNL program does not require designated properties to be owned by public entities. Lands under all forms of ownership or administration have been designated—federal, local and private. Federal lands with NNLs include those administered by the National Park Service, National Forest Service, Bureau of Land Management, Bureau of Reclamation and Wildlife Service, Air Force, Marine Corps, Army Corps of Engineers and others; some NNL have been designated on lands held by Native tribes. NNLs have been designated on state lands that cover a variety of types and management, as forest, game refuge, recreation area, preserve.
Private lands with NNLs include those owned by universities, scientific societies, conservation organizations, land trusts, commercial interests, private individuals. 52% of NNLs are administered by public agencies, more than 30% are privately owned, the remaining 18% are owned or administered by a mixture of public agencies and private owners. Participation in the NNL Program carries no requirements regarding public access; the NNL registry includes many sites of national significance that are open for public tours, but others are not. Since many NNLs are located on federal and state property, permission to visit is unnecessary; some private property may be open to public visitation or just require permission from the site manager. On the other hand, some NNL private landowners desire no visitors whatever and might prosecute trespassers; the reasons for this viewpoint vary: potential property damage or liability, fragile or dangerous resources, desire for solitude or no publicity. NNL designation is an agreement between the federal government.
NNL designation does not change ownership of the property nor induce any encumbrances on the property. NNL status does not transfer with changes in ownership. Participation in the NNL Program involve
Wilberforce University is a private, liberal arts black university located in Wilberforce, Ohio. Affiliated with the African Methodist Episcopal Church, it was the first college to be owned and operated by African Americans, it participates in the United Negro College Fund. The founding of the college was unique as a collaboration in 1856 by the Cincinnati, Ohio Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church and the African Methodist Episcopal Church, they planned a college to provide classical teacher training for black youth. The first board members were leaders both white; when the number of students fell due to the American Civil War and financial losses closed the college in 1863, the AME Church purchased the institution to ensure its survival. Its first president, AME Bishop Daniel A. Payne, was one of the original founders. Prominent supporters and the US government donated funds for rebuilding after a fire in 1865; when the college added an industrial department in the late 19th century, state legislators could sponsor scholarship students.
The college attracted the top professors of the day, including W. E. B. Du Bois. In the 19th century, it enlarged its mission to include students from South Africa; the university supports the national Association of African American Museums to broaden the reach of its programs and assist smaller museums with professional standards. Wilberforce requires all students to participate in cooperative education to meet graduation requirements; the cooperative program places students in internships that provide practical work experience in addition to academic training. It has been a required part of the curriculum at Wilberforce since 1966. In October 2006, Wilberforce held the grand opening and dedication for the NASA Science, Engineering and Aerospace Academy and the associated Aerospace Education Laboratory, it was attended by Dr. Bernice G. Alston, deputy assistant administrator of NASA’s office of Education, the Honorable Dave Hobson, U. S. Representative from Ohio's 7th congressional district. NASA’s program was designed to provide training in science, technology and mathematics to underprivileged students to support NASA's future needs.
There were 17 NASA SEMAA project sites through the United States. Through this partnership, Wilberforce offered training sessions for students in grades K-12 during the academic year and during the summer; the AEL is computerized classroom that provided technology to students in grades 7–12 that supported the SEMAA training sessions. Located three miles from Xenia, Ohio in the southwestern part of the state, the founding of Wilberforce University was a collaboration among leaders of the Cincinnati Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church and the African Methodist Episcopal Church, they planned to promote classical teacher training for black youth. Among the first 24 members of the Board of Trustees in 1855 were Bishop Daniel A. Payne, Rev. Lewis Woodson and Messrs. Ishmael Keith and Alfred Anderson, all of the AME Church. On the Board were Salmon P. Chase Governor of Ohio and a strong supporter of abolition, they named the college after statesman William Wilberforce. As a base for the college, the Cincinnati Conference bought a hotel, cottages and 54 acres of a resort property, named Tawawa Springs after a Shawnee word for "clear or golden water".
White people had founded the health resort because of the springs, which had long been reputed to have health benefits. Because of its location, the resort attracted summer people from the South; some people in this area of abolitionist sentiment were shocked when wealthy Southern planters arrived at the resort with their entourages of enslaved or free African American mistresses and mixed-race "natural" children. Given migration patterns, this was an area where numerous free people of color settled, many having moved across the Ohio River from the South to find better work and living conditions. In addition, some southern states prohibited free blacks from settling. Xenia had quite a large free black population, as did other towns in southern Ohio, such as Chillicothe, Yellow Springs and Zanesville. Free blacks and anti-slavery white supporters used houses in Xenia as stations on the Underground Railroad in the years before the war. Wilberforce College supported freedom-seeking slaves; the college opened for classes in 1856, by 1858 its trustees selected Rev. Richard S. Rust as the first president.
With some protest, in the 1850s the abolitionist poet Frances E. W. Harper was the first woman hired by the school in a teaching capacity. By 1860 the university had more than 200 students. Most were from the South rather than northern states, they were the "natural" mixed-race sons and daughters of wealthy white planters and their African American mistresses. The fathers paid, they were among the fathers who did not abandon their mixed-race children but provided them with the social capital of education and sometimes property. The outbreak of the Civil War threatened the college's finances. Not only were Methodist church resources diverted to support the war, but the southern planters withdrew their children, no more paying students came from the South; the college closed temporarily in 1862 when the Cincinnati Methodist Church was unable to fund it fully. Led by Bishop Daniel A. Payne, in 1863 the African Methodist Episcopal Church decided to buy the college to ensure its survival. Founders were Bishop Payne, selected as its Pr
National Historic Landmark
A National Historic Landmark is a building, object, site, or structure, recognized by the United States government for its outstanding historical significance. Of over 90,000 places listed on the country's National Register of Historic Places, only some 2,500 are recognized as National Historic Landmarks. A National Historic Landmark District may include contributing properties that are buildings, sites or objects, it may include non-contributing properties. Contributing properties may or may not be separately listed. Prior to 1935, efforts to preserve cultural heritage of national importance were made by piecemeal efforts of the United States Congress. In 1935, Congress passed the Historic Sites Act, which authorized the Interior Secretary authority to formally record and organize historic properties, to designate properties as having "national historical significance", gave the National Park Service authority to administer significant federally owned properties. Over the following decades, surveys such as the Historic American Buildings Survey amassed information about culturally and architecturally significant properties in a program known as the Historic Sites Survey.
Most of the designations made under this legislation became National Historic Sites, although the first designation, made December 20, 1935, was for a National Memorial, the Gateway Arch National Park in St. Louis, Missouri; the first National Historic Site designation was made for the Salem Maritime National Historic Site on March 17, 1938. In 1960, the National Park Service took on the administration of the survey data gathered under this legislation, the National Historic Landmark program began to take more formal shape; when the National Register of Historic Places was established in 1966, the National Historic Landmark program was encompassed within it, rules and procedures for inclusion and designation were formalized. Because listings triggered local preservation laws, legislation in 1980 amended the listing procedures to require owner agreement to the designations. On October 9, 1960, 92 properties were announced as designated NHLs by Secretary of the Interior Fred A. Seaton; the first of these was a political nomination: the Sergeant Floyd Monument in Sioux City, Iowa was designated on June 30 of that year, but for various reasons, the public announcement of the first several NHLs was delayed.
NHLs are designated by the United States Secretary of the Interior because they are: Sites where events of national historical significance occurred. More than 2,500 NHLs have been designated. Most, but not all, are in the United States. There are the District of Columbia. Three states account for nearly 25 percent of the nation's NHLs. Three cities within these states all separately have more NHLs than 40 of the 50 states. In fact, New York City alone has more NHLs than all but five states: Virginia, Pennsylvania and New York. There are 74 NHLs in the District of Columbia; some NHLs are in U. S. commonwealths and territories, associated states, foreign states. There are 15 in Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, other U. S. territories. S.-associated states such as Micronesia. Over 100 ships or shipwrecks have been designated as NHLs. About half of the National Historic Landmarks are owned; the National Historic Landmarks Program relies on suggestions for new designations from the National Park Service, which assists in maintaining the landmarks.
A friends' group of owners and managers, the National Historic Landmark Stewards Association, works to preserve and promote National Historic Landmarks. If not listed on the National Register of Historic Places, an NHL is automatically added to the Register upon designation. About three percent of Register listings are NHLs. American Water Landmark List of U. S. National Historic Landmarks by state List of churches that are National Historic Landmarks in the United States Listed building, a similar designation in the UK National Historic Sites and Persons, similar designations in Canada National Natural Landmark United States Memorials United States National Register of Historic Places listings Official National Historic Landmarks Program website A History of the NHL Program List of National Historic Landmarks National Historic Landmarks: Archaeological Properties Historical Landmarks - United States Lighthouses
Charles Young (United States Army)
Charles Young was an American soldier. He was the third African-American graduate of the United States Military Academy, the first black US national park superintendent, first black military attaché, first black man to achieve the rank of colonel in the United States Army, highest-ranking black officer in the regular army until his death in 1922. Charles Young was born in 1864 into slavery to Gabriel Young and Arminta Bruen in Mays Lick, Kentucky, a small village near Maysville. However, his father escaped from slavery early in 1865, crossing the Ohio River to Ripley and enlisting in the Fifth Regiment of Colored Artillery near the end of the American Civil War, his service earned Gabriel and his wife their freedom, guaranteed by the 13th Amendment after the war. Arminta was literate, which suggests she may have worked as a house slave before her freedom; the Young family settled in Ripley when Gabriel was discharged in 1866, deciding that opportunities there in Ohio were better there than in postwar Kentucky.
Gabriel Young received a bonus by continuing to serve in the Army after the war, he had enough to buy land and build a house. Charles Young attended the all-white high school in Ripley, the only one there, African-American, he graduated in 1880 at the top of his class. He taught for several years in the new black high school opened in Ripley. In 1883, Young took the competitive examination for appointment as a cadet at United States Military Academy at West Point, he had the second highest score in his district, but the top candidate decided not to go and Young reported to West Point in 1884. There was one other black cadet, John Hanks Alexander, who had entered in 1883 and graduated in 1887. Young and Alexander shared a room for three years at West Point. Although discriminated against, Young did make several lifelong friends among his classmates, but none among his initial class, he had to repeat his first year. He failed an engineering class, but he passed it the second time when he was tutored during the summer by George Washington Goethals, the Army engineer who directed construction of the Panama Canal and who as an assistant professor took an interest in Young.
As one of the first African-Americans to attend and graduate from West Point, Charles Young faced challenges far beyond his white peers. He experienced extreme racial discrimination from classmates and upperclassmen. Hazing was not an unusual practice at the male dominated military academies. Charles Young, was subjected to a disproportionate amount of abuse because of his color. There are many stories about Young's struggles at West Point. Upon arrival to West Point, Young was welcomed in as “The Load of Coal”. Once, in the mess hall, a white cadet proclaimed that he would not take food from a platter that Young had taken from. Young passed the white cadet the plate first, allowing him to take from it he himself took from the plate. Upperclassmen targeted and demerited Young 140 times, which would have been considered unusually high. Whereas Young's peers were referred to by their last names, Young was called “Mr. Young” as a kind of feigned deference. One of Young's greatest struggles at West Point was loneliness.
A white classmate of Young's, Major General Charles D. Rhodes reported that it was a practice of Young to converse with some of the servants at West Point in German to maintain some human interaction. Towards the end of his five-year stay at West Point, the merciless discrimination and taunts decreased; because of his perseverance, some of Young's classmates began to see past the color of his skin. Despite this and by his own admission, Charles Young's time at West Point was fraught with difficulty. Young graduated in 1889 with his commission as a second lieutenant, the third black man to do so at the time, he was first assigned to the Tenth U. S. Cavalry Regiment. Through a reassignment, he served first with the Ninth U. S. Cavalry Regiment, starting in Nebraska, his subsequent service of 28 years was chiefly with black troops—the Ninth U. S. Cavalry and the Tenth U. S. Cavalry, black troops nicknamed the "Buffalo Soldiers" since the Indian Wars; the armed services were racially segregated until 1948, when President Harry S. Truman initiated integration by executive order, which took some years to complete.
After getting established in his career, Young married Ada Mills on February 18, 1904 in Oakland, California. They had two children: Charles Noel, born in 1906 in Ohio, Marie Aurelia, born in 1909 when Young and his family were stationed in the Philippines. Young began his service with the Ninth Cavalry in the American West: from 1889-1890 he served at Fort Robinson and from 1890-1894 at Fort Duchesne, Utah. In 1894, Lieutenant Young was assigned to Wilberforce College in Ohio, an black college, to lead the new military sciences department, established under a special federal grant. A professor for four years, he was one of several outstanding men on staff, including W. E. B. Du Bois, who became his close friend; when the Spanish–American War broke out, Young was promoted to the temporary rank of major of Volunteers on May 14, 1898. He commanded the 9th Ohio Infantry Regiment which was, in the terminology of the day, a "colored" unit. Despite its name, the 9th Ohio was only battalion sized with four companies.
The short war ended before his men could be sent overseas. Young's command of this unit is sig
The Underground Railroad was a network of secret routes and safe houses established in the United States during the early to mid-19th century, used by African-American slaves to escape into free states and Nova Scotia with the aid of abolitionists and allies who were sympathetic to their cause. The term is applied to the abolitionists, both black and white and enslaved, who aided the fugitives. Various other routes led to Mexico or overseas. An earlier escape route running south toward Florida a Spanish possession, existed from the late 17th century until Florida became a United States territory in 1821. However, the network now known as the Underground Railroad was formed in the late 1700s, it ran north to the free states and Canada, reached its height between 1850 and 1860. One estimate suggests that by 1850, 100,000 slaves had escaped via the "Railroad". British North America, where slavery was prohibited, was a popular destination, as its long border gave many points of access. Most former slaves settled in Ontario.
More than 30,000 people were said to have escaped there via the network during its 20-year peak period, although U. S. Census figures account for only 6,000. Numerous fugitives' stories are documented in the 1872 book The Underground Railroad Records by William Still, an abolitionist who headed the Philadelphia Vigilance Committee. At its peak, nearly 1,000 slaves per year escaped from slave-holding states using the Underground Railroad – more than 5,000 court cases for escaped slaves were recorded – many fewer than the natural increase of the enslaved population; the resulting economic impact was minuscule, but the psychological influence on slave holders was immense. Under the original Fugitive Slave Act of 1793, officials from free states were required to assist slaveholders or their agents who recaptured runaway slaves, but and governments of many free states ignored the law, the Underground Railroad thrived. With heavy lobbying by southern politicians, the Compromise of 1850 was passed by Congress after the Mexican–American War.
It stipulated a more stringent Fugitive Slave Law. Because the law required sparse documentation to claim a person was a fugitive, slave catchers kidnapped free blacks children, sold them into slavery. Southern politicians exaggerated the number of escaped slaves and blamed these escapes on Northerners interfering with Southern property rights; the law deprived suspected slaves of the right to defend themselves in court, making it difficult to prove free status. In a de facto bribe, judges were paid a higher fee for a decision that confirmed a suspect as a slave than for one ruling that the suspect was free. Many Northerners who might have ignored slave issues in the South were confronted by local challenges that bound them to support slavery; this was a primary grievance cited by the Union during the American Civil War, the perception that Northern States ignored the fugitive slave law was a major justification for secession. The escape network was not underground nor a railroad, it was figuratively "underground" in the sense of being an underground resistance.
It was known as a "railroad" by way of the use of rail terminology in the code. The Underground Railroad consisted of meeting points, secret routes and safe houses, personal assistance provided by abolitionist sympathizers. Participants organized in small, independent groups. Escaped slaves would move north along the route from one way station to the next. "Conductors" on the railroad came from various backgrounds and included free-born blacks, white abolitionists, former slaves, Native Americans. Church clergy and congregations played a role the Religious Society of Friends, Congregationalists and Reformed Presbyterians, as well as certain sects of mainstream denominations such as branches of the Methodist church and American Baptists. Without the presence and support of free black residents, there would have been no chance for fugitive slaves to pass into freedom unmolested. To reduce the risk of infiltration, many people associated with the Underground Railroad knew only their part of the operation and not of the whole scheme.
"Conductors" transported the fugitives from station to station. A conductor sometimes pretended to be a slave. Once a part of a plantation, the conductor would direct the runaways to the North. Slaves traveled at about 10 -- 20 miles to each station, they rested, a message was sent to the next station to let the station master know the runaways were on their way. They would stop at the so-called "stations" or "depots" during the rest; the stations were located in barns, under church floors, or in hiding places in caves and hollowed-out riverbanks. The resting spots where the runaways could sleep and eat were given the code names "stations" and "depots", which were held by "station masters". "Stockholders" gave money or supplies for assistance. Using biblical references, fugitives referred to Canada as the "Promised Land" or "Heaven" and the Ohio River as the "River Jordan", which marked the boundary between slave states and free states. Although the fugitives sometimes traveled on boat or train, they traveled