Cambridge University Press
Cambridge University Press is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge. Granted letters patent by King Henry VIII in 1534, it is the world's oldest publishing house and the second-largest university press in the world, it holds letters patent as the Queen's Printer. The press mission is "to further the University's mission by disseminating knowledge in the pursuit of education and research at the highest international levels of excellence". Cambridge University Press is a department of the University of Cambridge and is both an academic and educational publisher. With a global sales presence, publishing hubs, offices in more than 40 countries, it publishes over 50,000 titles by authors from over 100 countries, its publishing includes academic journals, reference works and English language teaching and learning publications. Cambridge University Press is a charitable enterprise that transfers part of its annual surplus back to the university. Cambridge University Press is both the oldest publishing house in the world and the oldest university press.
It originated from letters patent granted to the University of Cambridge by Henry VIII in 1534, has been producing books continuously since the first University Press book was printed. Cambridge is one of the two privileged presses. Authors published by Cambridge have included John Milton, William Harvey, Isaac Newton, Bertrand Russell, Stephen Hawking. University printing began in Cambridge when the first practising University Printer, Thomas Thomas, set up a printing house on the site of what became the Senate House lawn – a few yards from where the press's bookshop now stands. In those days, the Stationers' Company in London jealously guarded its monopoly of printing, which explains the delay between the date of the university's letters patent and the printing of the first book. In 1591, Thomas's successor, John Legate, printed the first Cambridge Bible, an octavo edition of the popular Geneva Bible; the London Stationers objected strenuously. The university's response was to point out the provision in its charter to print "all manner of books".
Thus began the press's tradition of publishing the Bible, a tradition that has endured for over four centuries, beginning with the Geneva Bible, continuing with the Authorized Version, the Revised Version, the New English Bible and the Revised English Bible. The restrictions and compromises forced upon Cambridge by the dispute with the London Stationers did not come to an end until the scholar Richard Bentley was given the power to set up a'new-style press' in 1696. In July 1697 the Duke of Somerset made a loan of £200 to the university "towards the printing house and presse" and James Halman, Registrary of the University, lent £100 for the same purpose, it was in Bentley's time, in 1698, that a body of senior scholars was appointed to be responsible to the university for the press's affairs. The Press Syndicate's publishing committee still meets and its role still includes the review and approval of the press's planned output. John Baskerville became University Printer in the mid-eighteenth century.
Baskerville's concern was the production of the finest possible books using his own type-design and printing techniques. Baskerville wrote, "The importance of the work demands all my attention. Caxton would have found nothing to surprise him if he had walked into the press's printing house in the eighteenth century: all the type was still being set by hand. A technological breakthrough was badly needed, it came when Lord Stanhope perfected the making of stereotype plates; this involved making a mould of the whole surface of a page of type and casting plates from that mould. The press was the first to use this technique, in 1805 produced the technically successful and much-reprinted Cambridge Stereotype Bible. By the 1850s the press was using steam-powered machine presses, employing two to three hundred people, occupying several buildings in the Silver Street and Mill Lane area, including the one that the press still occupies, the Pitt Building, built for the press and in honour of William Pitt the Younger.
Under the stewardship of C. J. Clay, University Printer from 1854 to 1882, the press increased the size and scale of its academic and educational publishing operation. An important factor in this increase was the inauguration of its list of schoolbooks. During Clay's administration, the press undertook a sizeable co-publishing venture with Oxford: the Revised Version of the Bible, begun in 1870 and completed in 1885, it was in this period as well that the Syndics of the press turned down what became the Oxford English Dictionary—a proposal for, brought to Cambridge by James Murray before he turned to Oxford. The appointment of R. T. Wright as Secretary of the Press Syndicate in 1892 marked the beginning of the press's development as a modern publishing business with a defined editorial policy and administrative structure, it was Wright who devised the plan for one of the most distinctive Cambridge contributions to publishing—the Cambridge Histories. The Cambridge Modern History was published
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of 105 square kilometres and an official estimated population of 2,140,526 residents as of 1 January 2019. Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, commerce, fashion and the arts; the City of Paris is the centre and seat of government of the Île-de-France, or Paris Region, which has an estimated official 2019 population of 12,213,364, or about 18 percent of the population of France. The Paris Region had a GDP of €681 billion in 2016, accounting for 31 percent of the GDP of France, was the 5th largest region by GDP in the world. According to the Economist Intelligence Unit Worldwide Cost of Living Survey in 2018, Paris was the second most expensive city in the world, after Singapore, ahead of Zurich, Hong Kong and Geneva. Another source ranked Paris as most expensive, on a par with Singapore and Hong-Kong, in 2018; the city is a major rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports: Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the city's subway system, the Paris Métro, serves 5.23 million passengers daily, is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro. Gare du Nord is the 24th busiest railway station in the world, the first located outside Japan, with 262 million passengers in 2015. Paris is known for its museums and architectural landmarks: the Louvre was the most visited art museum in the world in 2018, with 10.2 million visitors. The Musée d'Orsay and Musée de l'Orangerie are noted for their collections of French Impressionist art, the Pompidou Centre Musée National d'Art Moderne has the largest collection of modern and contemporary art in Europe; the historical district along the Seine in the city centre is classified as a UNESCO Heritage Site. Popular landmarks in the centre of the city include the Cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris and the Gothic royal chapel of Sainte-Chapelle, both on the Île de la Cité. Paris received 23 million visitors in 2017, measured by hotel stays, with the largest numbers of foreign visitors coming from the United States, the UK, Germany and China.
It was ranked as the third most visited travel destination in the world in 2017, after Bangkok and London. The football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris; the 80,000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros. Paris will host the 2024 Summer Olympics; the 1938 and 1998 FIFA World Cups, the 2007 Rugby World Cup, the 1960, 1984, 2016 UEFA European Championships were held in the city and, every July, the Tour de France bicycle race finishes there. The name "Paris" is derived from the Celtic Parisii tribe; the city's name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. Paris is referred to as the City of Light, both because of its leading role during the Age of Enlightenment and more because Paris was one of the first large European cities to use gas street lighting on a grand scale on its boulevards and monuments.
Gas lights were installed on the Place du Carousel, Rue de Rivoli and Place Vendome in 1829. By 1857, the Grand boulevards were lit. By the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps. Since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang. Inhabitants are known in French as Parisiens, they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the area's major north–south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité; the Parisii minted their own coins for that purpose. The Romans began their settlement on Paris' Left Bank; the Roman town was called Lutetia. It became a prosperous city with a forum, temples, an amphitheatre. By the end of the Western Roman Empire, the town was known as Parisius, a Latin name that would become Paris in French. Christianity was introduced in the middle of the 3rd century AD by Saint Denis, the first Bishop of Paris: according to legend, when he refused to renounce his faith before the Roman occupiers, he was beheaded on the hill which became known as Mons Martyrum "Montmartre", from where he walked headless to the north of the city.
Clovis the Frank, the first king of the Merovingian dynasty, made the city his capital from 508. As the Frankish domination of Gaul began, there was a gradual immigration by the Franks to Paris and the Parisian Francien dialects were born. Fortification of the Île-de-la-Citie failed to avert sacking by Vikings in 845, but Paris' strategic importance—with its bridges prevent
Joseph Marie Servan de Gerbey
Joseph Marie Servan de Gerbey was a French general. During the Revolution he served twice as Minister of War and led the Army of the Western Pyrenees, his surname is one of the names inscribed under the Arc de Triomphe, on Column 33. Servan was born in the village of Romans in south-eastern France, his older brother was publicist Joseph Michel Antoine Servan. He volunteered for the regiment of Guyenne on 20 December 1760, he rose to Engineering Officer Deputy Governor of the pages of King Louis XVI colonel brigadier general on 8 May 1792. He was recommended as Minister of War by the Girondin leadership, served a brief term from 9 May to 12 June 1792. Servan assumed the office in a time of the first year of the War of the First Coalition. Within days of his appointment he oversaw the dismissal of the royal Garde du Corps and the Swiss Guards, his most momentous action as minister, was his proposal to bring armed volunteers from the provinces to Paris. These citizen-soldiers, called fédérés, were intended to complement the grand festivities set for the anniversary of the fall of the Bastille.
Servan planned to give them military training before using them to supplement the army at the front. The scope and length of their stay in the capital was undefined, the proposal was contentious: some, like the king, saw it as a plot to stack Paris full with anti-monarchists, while others, like Maximilien Robespierre, feared the outsiders might be used as a provincial counterweight to the radical Parisian sans-culottes. King Louis used his constitutional prerogative to veto Servan's proposal. Amid much criticism for his use of the unpopular veto power, the king fought back and dismissed the entire Girondin ministry, including Servan. Radical agitators seized the issue, the invitation to the fédérés ignited a storm of citywide unrest. Thousands of the provincial volunteers arrived regardless of the king's disapproval, they were given a warm welcome by members of the Assembly, including Robespierre himself; the fédérés issue helped lead to the insurrection of 10 August after which Servan was reappointed as Minister of War.
Another of Servan's ministerial initiatives was the deletion of the eighth verse of the anthem La Marseillaise in 1792. Servan claimed its references to God undermined the Republic. Arrested during the Terror, he was reinstated in the army. Under the Consulate, he was Chairman of Records as well as Commander of the Legion of Honor. Servan retired on 3 May 1807, died the following year in Paris at the age of 67, his name in inscribed on the west side. Schama, Simon. Citizens: A Chronicle of the French Revolution. New York: Vintage. ISBN 0-679-72610-1. Soboul, Albert; the French Revolution 1787–1799. New York: Vintage. ISBN 0-394-71220-X. "Joseph Servan" in Charles Muller, Biographies of famous military forces by land and sea from 1789 to 1850, 1852) Servan, Minister of War offers his resignation 25 September 1792 Record in Biography of Dauphine, by Adolphe Rochas t. 2, 1860
Charles Alexandre de Calonne
Charles Alexandre de Calonne, titled Count of Hannonville in 1759, was a French statesman, best known for his involvement in the French Revolution. Realizing that the Parlement of Paris would never agree to reform, Calonne handpicked an Assembly of Notables in 1787 to approve new taxes; when they refused, Calonne's reputation plummeted and he was forced to leave the country. Born in Douai of an upper-class family, he entered the legal profession and became a lawyer to the general council of Artois, procureur to the parlement of Douai, Master of Requests, intendant of Metz and of Lille, he seems to have been a man with notable business abilities and an entrepreneurial spirit, while unscrupulous in his political actions. In the terrible crisis preceding the French Revolution, when successive ministers tried in vain to replenish the exhausted royal treasury, Calonne was summoned as Controller-General of Finances, an office he assumed on 3 November 1783, he owed the position to the Comte de Vergennes.
According to the Habsburg ambassador, his public image was poor. Calonne set about remedying the fiscal crisis, he found in Louis XVI enough support to create a vast and ambitious plan of revenue-raising and administrative centralization. Calonne focused on maintaining public confidence through building projects and spending, designed to maintain the Crown's capacity to borrow funds, he presented the king with his plan on 20 August 1786. At its heart was a new land value tax, which would replace the old vingtieme taxes and sweep away the fiscal exemptions of the privileged orders; the new tax would be administered by a system of provincial assemblies elected by the local property owners at parish and provincial level. This central proposal was accompanied by a further package of rationalizing reform, including free trade in grain and abolition of France's myriad internal customs barriers, it was in effect one, if not the most, comprehensive attempt at enlightened reform during the reign of Louis XVI.
In taking office he found debts of 110 million livres, debts caused by France's involvement in the American Revolution among other reasons, no means of paying them. At first he attempted to obtain credit, to support the government by means of loans so as to maintain public confidence in its solvency. In October 1785 he reissued the gold coinage, he developed the caisse d'escompte. Knowing the Parlement of Paris would veto a single land tax payable by all landowners, Calonne persuaded Louis XVI to call an assembly of notables to vote on his referendum. Calonne's eventual reform package, introduced to the Assembly of Notables, consisted of 5 major points: 1) Cut Government Spending 2) Create a revival of free trade methods 3) Authorize the sale of Church property 4) Equalization of salt and tobacco taxes 5) Establish a universal land value tax All these measures failed because of the powerlessness of the crown to impose them; as a last resort, he proposed to the king the suppression of internal customs duties, argued in favor of the taxation of the property of nobles and clergy.
Anne Robert Jacques Turgot and Jacques Necker had attempted these reforms, Calonne attributed their failure to the opposition of the parlements. Therefore, he called an Assemblée des notables in February 1787, to which he presented the deficit in the treasury, proposed the establishment of a subvention territoriale, which would be levied on all property without distinction; this suppression of privileges was badly received. Calonne's spendthrift and authoritarian reputation was well-known to the parlements, earning him their enmity. Knowing this, he intentionally submitted his reform programme directly to the king and the hand-picked assembly of notables, not to the sovereign courts or parlements, first. Composed of the old regime's social and political elite, the assembly of notables balked at the deficit presented to them when they met at Versailles in February 1787, despite Calonne's plan for reform and his backing from the king, they suspected that the controller-general was in some way responsible for the enormous financial strains.
Calonne, printed his reports and so alienated the court. Louis XVI exiled him to Lorraine; the joy was general in Paris, where Calonne, accused of wishing to raise taxes, was known as Monsieur Déficit. Calonne soon afterwards left for Great Britain, during his residence there kept up a polemical correspondence with Necker. After being dismissed, Calonne stated, "The King, who assured me a hundred times that he would support me with unshakable firmness, abandoned me, I succumbed”. In 1789, when the Estates-General were about to assemble, he crossed to Flanders in the hope of offering himself for election, but he was forbidden to enter France. In revenge he joined the émigré group at Coblenz, wrote in their favour, spent nearly all the fortune brought him by his wife, a wealthy widow, he was present with the Count of Artois, the reactionary brother of Louis XVI, at Pillnitz in August 1791 at the time of the issuance of the Declaration of Pillnitz, an attempt to intimidate the revolutionary government of France that the Count of Artois pressed for.
In 1802, having again settled in London, he received permission from Napoleon Bonaparte to return to France. He died about a month after his arrival in his native country. Calonne's negative reputation and assumed responsibility for France's financial crisis in the years leading to the Revolution of 1789 have been judged unfair by historians such as Munro Price. During his position as controller-general, he had genuinely tried to make amends for
9 September massacres
The 9 September massacres were two series of massacres of prisoners at Versailles on 9 September 1792 during the French Revolution. They occurred in the context of the September Massacres. Claude Fournier was accused of complicity in them; those killed included Charles d'Abancour, Claude Antoine de Valdec de Lessart and Louis Hercule Timoléon de Cossé-Brissac. The same evening, the assassins returned to the écuries de la Reine, which had become Versailles' prison, to carry out another massacre of 30 prisoners there. Diagnopsy: Les massacres de septembre Quid: see the chapter Constitution du 3-9-1791. Haute Cour nationale
National Legislative Assembly (France)
The Legislative Assembly was the legislature of France from 1 October 1791 to 20 September 1792 during the years of the French Revolution. It provided the focus of political debate and revolutionary law-making between the periods of the National Constituent Assembly and of the National Convention; the National Constituent Assembly dissolved itself on 28 September 1791. Upon Maximilien Robespierre's motion, it had decreed that none of its members would be eligible to the next legislature, its successor body, the Legislative Assembly, operating over the liberal French Constitution of 1791, lasted until 20 September 1792 when the National Convention was established after the insurrection of 10 August just the month before. The Legislative Assembly entrenched the perceived left–right political spectrum, still used today. There were 745 members; the elections of 1791, held by census suffrage, brought in a legislature that desired to carry the Revolution further. Prominent in the legislature were its affiliated societies throughout France.
The Legislative Assembly first met on 1 October 1791. It consisted of 745 members from the middle class; the members were young and since none had sat in the previous Assembly, they lacked national political experience. They tended to be people who had made their name through successful political careers in local politics; the rightists within the assembly consisted of about 260 Feuillants, whose chief leaders, Gilbert du Motier de La Fayette and Antoine Barnave, remained outside the House because of their ineligibility for re-election. They were staunch constitutional monarchists, firm in their defence of the king against the popular agitation; the leftists were of 136 Cordeliers. Its most famous leaders were Jacques Pierre Brissot, the philosopher Condorcet and Pierre Victurnien Vergniaud; the Left drew its inspiration from the more radical tendency of the Enlightenment, regarded the émigré nobles as traitors and espoused anticlericalism. They were suspicious of Louis XVI, some of them favoring a general European war, both to spread the new ideals of liberty and equality and to put the king's loyalty to the test.
The remainder of the House, 345 deputies belonged to no definite party. They were called The Plain, they were committed to the ideals of the Revolution, hence inclined to side with the Left, but would occasionally back proposals from the Right. The king's ministers, named by him and excluded from the Assembly, are described by the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica as "mostly persons of little mark"; the 27 August 1791 Declaration of Pillnitz threatened France with attack by its neighbors. King Louis XVI favored war hoping to exploit a military defeat to restore his absolute power—the Assembly was leaning toward war and to spread the ideals of the Revolution; this led in April 1792 to the first of the French Revolutionary Wars. The king vetoed many of the Assembly's bills throughout its existence such as these: Legislation declaring the émigrés guilty of conspiracy and prosecuted as such was passed on 8 November 1791, but vetoed by Louis. Enforcement of the Civil Constitution of the Clergy: on 29 November 1791, the Assembly decreed that every non-juring clergyman who did not take the civic oath within eight days would lose his pension and—if any troubles broke out—he would be deported.
Louis vetoed the decree as a matter of conscience. Louis XVI formed a series of cabinets. However, by the summer of 1792, amid war and insurrection, it had become clear that the monarchy and the now-dominant Jacobins could not reach any accommodation. On 11 July 1792, the Assembly formally declared the nation in danger because of the dire military situation. On 9 August 1792, a new revolutionary Commune took possession of Hôtel de Ville and early on the morning of 10 August the insurgents assailed the Tuileries, where the royal family resided. Louis and his family sought asylum with the Legislative Assembly; the Assembly stripped Louis, suspected of intelligence with the enemy, of all his royal functions and prerogatives. The king and his family were subsequently imprisoned in the Temple. On 10 August 1792, a resolution is adopted to summon a new National Convention, to be elected by universal suffrage. Many who had sat in the National Constituent Assembly and many more who had sat in the Legislative Assembly were re-elected.
The Convention became the new government of France. There were numerous reforms passed by the Legislative Assembly that addressed various topics including divorce, émigrés and the clergy; the Legislative Assembly implemented new reforms to help create a society of independent individuals with equal rights. These reforms included new legislation about divorce, government control over registration and inheritance rights for children; the registration of births and deaths became a function under the government instead of the Catholic Church. The new laws introduced adoption and gave illegitimate children inheritance rights equal to those of legitimate children. Before 1791, divorces could only be granted for adultery and other violations of the marriage contract, but under the new reform a couple could get divorced if they met one or more of the following: If there was mutual consent of both spouses If there was a unilateral incompatibility of character If the couple had been formally separated before and needed a legalized divorce If there was dissolution of marriage due to "insanity, condemnation to an infamous punishment, violence or ill-treatment, notoriously dissolute morals, desertion for at least two years, abs
Orléans is a prefecture and commune in north-central France, about 111 kilometres southwest of Paris. It is the capital of the Loiret department and of the Centre-Val de Loire region. Orléans is located on the Loire River. In 2015, the city had 114,644 inhabitants, the population of the urban area was 433,337. Île d'Orléans, Orléans and New Orleans, Louisiana are named after the city. Orléans is located in the northern bend of the Loire. Orléans belongs to the vallée de la Loire sector between Sully-sur-Loire and Chalonnes-sur-Loire, in 2000 inscribed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site; the capital of Orléanais, 120 kilometres southwest of Paris, is bordered to the north by the Beauce region, more the Orléans Forest and Orléans-la-Source neighbourhood, the Sologne region to the south. Five bridges in the city cross the Loire River: Pont de l'Europe, Pont du Maréchal Joffre, Pont George-V, Pont René-Thinat and Pont de Vierzon. To the north of the Loire is to be found a small hill which rises to 125 m at la Croix Fleury, at the limits of Fleury-les-Aubrais.
Conversely, the south has a gentle depression to about 95 m above sea level between the Loire and the Loiret, designated a "zone inondable". At the end of the 1960s, the Orléans-la-Source neighbourhood was created, 12 kilometres to the south of the original commune and separated from it by the Val d'Orléans and the Loiret River; this quarter's altitude varies from about 100 to 110 m. In Orléans, the Loire is separated by a submerged dike known as the dhuis into the Grande Loire to the north, no longer navigable, the Petite Loire to the south; this dike is just one part of a vast system of construction that allowed the Loire to remain navigable to this point. The Loire was an important navigation and trading route. With the increase in size of ocean-going ships, large ships can now navigate the estuary only up to about Nantes. Boats on the river were traditionally flat-bottomed boats, with large but foldable masts so the sails could gather wind from above the river banks, but the masts could be lowered in order to allow the boats to pass under bridges.
These vessels are known as gabarre, so on, may be viewed by tourists near pont Royal. The river's irregular flow limits traffic on it, in particular at its ascent, though this can be overcome by boats being given a tow. An Inexplosible-type paddle steamer owned by the mairie was put in place in August 2007, facing Place de la Loire and containing a bar; every two years, the Festival de Loire recalls the role played by the river in the commune's history. On the river's north bank, near the town centre, is the Canal d'Orléans, which connects to the Canal du Loing and the Canal de Briare at Buges near Montargis; the canal is no longer used along its whole length. Its route within Orléans runs parallel to the river, separated from it by a wall or muret, with a promenade along the top, its last pound was transformed into an outdoor swimming pool in the 1960s filled in. It was reopened in 2007 for the "fêtes de Loire." There are plans to install a pleasure-boat port there. Orléans experiences an oceanic climate, similar to much of central France.
See Cenabum, Aureliana Civitas. Cenabum was a Gallic stronghold, one of the principal towns of the tribe of the Carnutes where the Druids held their annual assembly; the Carnutes were massacred and the city was destroyed by Julius Caesar in 52 BC a new city was built on its ruins by settlers from the gens Aurelia who named the city, civitas Aurelianorum, after themselves. The name evolved into Orléans. In 442 Flavius Aetius, the Roman commander in Gaul, requested Goar, head of the Iranian tribe of Alans in the region to come to Orleans and control the rebellious natives and the Visigoths. Accompanying the Vandals, the Alans crossed the Loire in 408. One of their groups, under Goar, joined the Roman forces of Flavius Aetius to fight Attila when he invaded Gaul in 451, taking part in the Battle of Châlons under their king Sangiban. Goar established his capital in Orléans, his successors took possession of the estates in the region between Orléans and Paris. Installed in Orléans and along the Loire, they resented by the local inhabitants.
Many inhabitants around the present city have names bearing witness to the Alan presence – Allaines. Many places in the region bear names of Alan origin. In the Merovingian era, the city was capital of the Kingdom of Orléans following Clovis I's division of the kingdom under the Capetians it became the capital of a county duchy held in appanage by the house of Valois-Orléans; the Valois-Orléans family acceded to the throne of France via Louis XII Francis I. In 1108, one of the few consecrations of a French monarch to occur outside of Reims occurred at Orléans, when Louis VI of France was consecrated in Orléans cathedral by Daimbert, archbishop of Sens; the city was always a strategic point on the Loire, for it was sited at the river's most northerly point, thus its closest point to Paris. There were few bridges over the dangerous river Loire, b