Marshall University is a public research university in Huntington, West Virginia. It was founded in 1837 and is named after John Marshall, the fourth Chief Justice of the United States; the university is composed of nine undergraduate colleges: Lewis College of Business, College of Education and Professional Development, College of Arts and Media, College of Health Professions, Honors College, College of Information Technology and Engineering, College of Liberal Arts, College of Science, University College. The forensic science graduate program is one of nearly twenty post-graduate-level academic programs in the United States accredited by the American Academy of Forensic Sciences; the university's digital forensics program is the first program in the world to receive accreditation in digital forensics from the Forensic Science Education Programs Accreditation Commission. The Lewis College of Business is amongst only 1% of global business schools to have achieved dual AACSB accreditation in Business and Accounting.
Marshall University has a non-residential branch campus, focused on graduate education, in South Charleston, the Marshall University - South Charleston Campus, which offers classes throughout the southern half of the state, including at the Erma Byrd Higher Education Center in Beckley. It offers undergraduate courses, under three "centers", the Southern Mountain Center, operating on the campuses of the Southern West Virginia Community College in Logan and Williamson and at the YMCA in Gilbert. Marshall University operates the Robert C. Byrd Institute, with operations on both the Huntington and South Charleston campuses, as well as in Fairmont, West Virginia; the institute's goal is the transfer of technology from the academic departments to private industry to support job development in the region. Marshall University was founded in 1837 as a private subscription school by residents of Guyandotte and the surrounding area; the landmark Old Main, which now serves as the primary administrative building for the university, was built on land known as Maple Grove, at the time the home of the Mount Hebron Church in what was the state of Virginia.
John Laidley, a local attorney, hosted the meeting which led to the founding of Marshall Academy, named after Laidley's friend, the eminent John Marshall who had served as the fourth Chief Justice of the United States from January 1801 to July 1835. On March 30, 1838, the institution was formally dedicated by the Virginia General Assembly as Marshall Academy. In 1858, the Virginia General Assembly changed the name to Marshall College, but this change still did not reflect its status as a true college; the Civil War closed the financially challenged school for much of the 1860s. On June 20, 1863, Cabell County, was one of the 50 counties separated from Virginia at the height of the American Civil War to form the State of West Virginia, the college fell within the new state. In 1867, the West Virginia Legislature resurrected the institution as a teacher training facility and renamed it State Normal School of Marshall College; this began the history of the college as a state-supported post-secondary institution.
With the exception of the Old Main building, expansion of the facilities and the college itself did not begin until 1907, when the West Virginia Board of Regents changed the title of the presiding officer from "principal" to "president" and allowed the creation of new college-level departments. At that time, enrollment surpassed 1,000 students; the school began offering four-year degrees for the first time in 1920. In 1937, the college suffered through a devastating flooding by the Ohio River. Numerous structures, such as Northcott Hall and the James E. Morrow Library were extensively flooded. Much of Huntington was heavily damaged, as a result, a floodwall was constructed around much of the town to prevent future occurrences; the West Virginia Board of Education authorized Marshall College in 1938 to offer the master's degree in six programs: chemistry, history, political science and sociology, as the institution underwent another expansion. In that year the school was accredited as a "university level institution".
Further expansion accelerated after World War II. In 1960, John F. Kennedy spoke at the college during his cross-country campaign for the presidency. On March 2, 1961, West Virginia Legislature elevated Marshall to university status, the legislation was signed by Governor W. W. Barron; the student newspaper, The Parthenon, prepared two front pages for the day, depending on the outcome of the legislature's vote. In 1961, WMUL-FM began operations as the first public radio station in West Virginia; the station, which began in the Science Building at 10 watts of power, now broadcasts from the Communications Building with 1,400 watts. In 1969, the university's athletic program, facing a number of scandals, fired both its football and basketball coaches and was suspended from the Mid-American Conference and from the National Collegiate Athletic Association; the university rebuilt its athletic program back to respectability, in 1977, the university joined the Southern Conference. On the evening of November 14, 1970, the Thunderin
A hospital is a health care institution providing patient treatment with specialized medical and nursing staff and medical equipment. The best-known type of hospital is the general hospital, which has an emergency department to treat urgent health problems ranging from fire and accident victims to a sudden illness. A district hospital is the major health care facility in its region, with a large number of beds for intensive care and additional beds for patients who need long-term care. Specialized hospitals include trauma centers, rehabilitation hospitals, children's hospitals, seniors' hospitals, hospitals for dealing with specific medical needs such as psychiatric treatment and certain disease categories. Specialized hospitals can help reduce health care costs compared to general hospitals. Hospitals are classified as general, specialty, or government depending on the sources of income received. A teaching hospital combines assistance to people with teaching to medical nurses; the medical facility smaller than a hospital is called a clinic.
Hospitals have a range of departments and specialist units such as cardiology. Some hospitals have outpatient departments and some have chronic treatment units. Common support units include a pharmacy and radiology. Hospitals are funded by the public sector, health organisations, health insurance companies, or charities, including direct charitable donations. Hospitals were founded and funded by religious orders, or by charitable individuals and leaders. Hospitals are staffed by professional physicians, surgeons and allied health practitioners, whereas in the past, this work was performed by the members of founding religious orders or by volunteers. However, there are various Catholic religious orders, such as the Alexians and the Bon Secours Sisters that still focus on hospital ministry in the late 1990s, as well as several other Christian denominations, including the Methodists and Lutherans, which run hospitals. In accordance with the original meaning of the word, hospitals were "places of hospitality", this meaning is still preserved in the names of some institutions such as the Royal Hospital Chelsea, established in 1681 as a retirement and nursing home for veteran soldiers.
During the Middle Ages, hospitals served different functions from modern institutions. Middle Ages hospitals were hostels for pilgrims, or hospital schools; the word "hospital" comes from the Latin hospes, signifying a foreigner, hence a guest. Another noun derived from this, hospitium came to signify hospitality, the relation between guest and shelterer, hospitality and hospitable reception. By metonymy the Latin word came to mean a guest-chamber, guest's lodging, an inn. Hospes is thus the root for the English words host hospitality, hospice and hotel; the latter modern word derives from Latin via the ancient French romance word hostel, which developed a silent s, which letter was removed from the word, the loss of, signified by a circumflex in the modern French word hôtel. The German word'Spital' shares similar roots; the grammar of the word differs depending on the dialect. In the United States, hospital requires an article; some patients go to a hospital just for diagnosis, treatment, or therapy and leave without staying overnight.
Hospitals are distinguished from other types of medical facilities by their ability to admit and care for inpatients whilst the others, which are smaller, are described as clinics. The best-known type of hospital is the general hospital known as an acute-care hospital; these facilities handle many kinds of disease and injury, have an emergency department or trauma center to deal with immediate and urgent threats to health. Larger cities may have several hospitals of facilities; some hospitals in the United States and Canada, have their own ambulance service. A district hospital is the major health care facility in its region, with large numbers of beds for intensive care, critical care, long-term care. In California, "district hospital" refers to a class of healthcare facility created shortly after World War II to address a shortage of hospital beds in many local communities. Today, district hospitals are the sole public hospitals in 19 of California's counties, are the sole locally-accessible hospital within nine additional counties in which one or more other hospitals are present at substantial distance from a local community.
Twenty-eight of California's rural hospitals and 20 of its critical-access hospitals are district hospitals. They are formed by local municipalities, have boards that are individually elected by their local communities, exist to serve local needs, they are a important provider of healthcare to uninsured patients and patients with Medi-Cal. In 2012, district hospitals provided $54 million in uncompensated care in California. Types of specialised hospitals incl
West Virginia is a state located in the Appalachian region in the Southern United States, considered to be a part of the Middle Atlantic States. It is bordered by Pennsylvania to the north, Maryland to the east and northeast, Virginia to the southeast, Kentucky to the southwest, Ohio to the northwest. West Virginia is the 41st largest state by area, is ranked 38th in population; the capital and largest city is Charleston. West Virginia became a state following the Wheeling Conventions of 1861, after the American Civil War had begun. Delegates from some Unionist counties of northwestern Virginia decided to break away from Virginia, although they included many secessionist counties in the new state. West Virginia was admitted to the Union on June 20, 1863, was a key border state during the war. West Virginia was the only state to form by separating from a Confederate state, the first to separate from any state since Maine separated from Massachusetts, was one of two states admitted to the Union during the American Civil War.
While a portion of its residents held slaves, most of the residents were yeomen farmers, the delegates provided for gradual abolition of slavery in the new state Constitution. The Census Bureau and the Association of American Geographers classify West Virginia as part of the Southern United States; however the Bureau of Labor Statistics classifies West Virginia as a part of the Mid-Atlantic. The northern panhandle extends adjacent to Pennsylvania and Ohio, with the West Virginia cities of Wheeling and Weirton just across the border from the Pittsburgh metropolitan area, while Bluefield is less than 70 miles from North Carolina. Huntington in the southwest is close to the states of Ohio and Kentucky, while Martinsburg and Harpers Ferry in the Eastern Panhandle region are considered part of the Washington metropolitan area, in between the states of Maryland and Virginia; the unique position of West Virginia means that it is included in several geographical regions, including the Mid-Atlantic, the Upland South, the Southeastern United States.
It is the only state, within the area served by the Appalachian Regional Commission. The state is noted for its mountains and rolling hills, its significant logging and coal mining industries, its political and labor history, it is known for a wide range of outdoor recreational opportunities, including skiing, whitewater rafting, hiking, mountain biking, rock climbing, hunting. Many ancient man-made earthen mounds from various prehistoric mound builder cultures survive in the areas of present-day Moundsville, South Charleston, Romney; the artifacts uncovered in these give evidence of village societies. They had a tribal trade system culture. In the 1670s during the Beaver Wars, the powerful Iroquois, five allied nations based in present-day New York and Pennsylvania, drove out other American Indian tribes from the region in order to reserve the upper Ohio Valley as a hunting ground. Siouan language tribes, such as the Moneton, had been recorded in the area. A century the area now identified as West Virginia was contested territory among Anglo-Americans as well, with the colonies of Pennsylvania and Virginia claiming territorial rights under their colonial charters to this area before the American Revolutionary War.
Some speculative land companies, such as the Vandalia Company, the Ohio Company and Indiana Company, tried to legitimize their claims to land in parts of West Virginia and present day Kentucky, but failed. This rivalry resulted in some settlers petitioning the Continental Congress to create a new territory called Westsylvania. With the federal settlement of the Pennsylvania and Virginia border dispute, creating Kentucky County, Kentuckians "were satisfied, the inhabitants of a large part of West Virginia were grateful."The Crown considered the area of West Virginia to be part of the British Virginia Colony from 1607 to 1776. The United States considered this area to be the western part of the state of Virginia from 1776 to 1863, before the formation of West Virginia, its residents were discontented for years with their position in Virginia, as the government was dominated by the planter elite of the Tidewater and Piedmont areas. The legislature had electoral malapportionment, based on the counting of slaves toward regional populations, the western white residents were underrepresented in the state legislature.
More subsistence and yeoman farmers lived in the west and they were less supportive of slavery, although many counties were divided on their support. The residents of this area became more divided after the planter elite of eastern Virginia voted to secede from the Union during the Civil War. Residents of the western and northern counties set up a separate government under Francis Pierpont in 1861, which they called the Restored Government. Most voted to separate from Virginia, the new state was admitted to the Union in 1863. In 1864 a state constitutional convention drafted a constitution, ratified by the legislature without putting it to popular vote. West Virginia abolished slavery by a gradual process and temporarily disenfranchised men who had held Confederate office or fought for the Confederacy. West Virginia's history has been profoundly affected by its mountainous terrain and vast river valleys, rich natural resources; these were all factors driving its economy and the lifestyles of its residents, who tended to live in many small isolated communities in the mountain valleys.
A 2010 analysis of
Emergency medicine known as accident and emergency medicine, is the medical specialty concerned with the care of illnesses or injuries requiring immediate medical attention. Emergency physicians care for undifferentiated patients of all ages; as first-line providers, their primary responsibility is to initiate resuscitation and stabilization and to start investigations and interventions to diagnose and treat illnesses in the acute phase. Emergency physicians practice in hospital emergency departments, pre-hospital settings via emergency medical services, intensive care units, but may work in primary care settings such as urgent care clinics. Sub-specializations of emergency medicine include disaster medicine, medical toxicology, critical care medicine, hyperbaric medicine, sports medicine, palliative care, or aerospace medicine. Different models for emergency medicine exist internationally. In countries following the Anglo-American model, emergency medicine was the domain of surgeons, general practitioners, other generalist physicians, but in recent decades it has become recognised as a speciality in its own right with its own training programmes and academic posts, the specialty is now a popular choice among medical students and newly qualified medical practitioners.
By contrast, in countries following the Franco-German model, the speciality does not exist and emergency medical care is instead provided directly by anesthesiologists, specialists in internal medicine, cardiologists or neurologists as appropriate. In developing countries, emergency medicine is still evolving and international emergency medicine programs offer hope of improving basic emergency care where resources are limited. Emergency Medicine is a medical specialty—a field of practice based on the knowledge and skills required for the prevention and management of acute and urgent aspects of illness and injury affecting patients of all age groups with a full spectrum of undifferentiated physical and behavioral disorders, it further encompasses an understanding of the development of pre-hospital and in-hospital emergency medical systems and the skills necessary for this development. The field of emergency medicine encompasses care involving the acute care of internal medical and surgical conditions.
In many modern emergency departments, emergency physicians are tasked with seeing a large number of patients, treating their illnesses and arranging for disposition—either admitting them to the hospital or releasing them after treatment as necessary. They provide episodic primary care to patients during off hours and for those who do not have primary care providers. Most patients present to emergency departments with low-acuity conditions, but a small proportion will be critically ill or injured. Therefore, the emergency physician requires a broad field of knowledge and procedural skills including surgical procedures, trauma resuscitation, advanced cardiac life support and advanced airway management, they must have some of the core skills from many medical specialities—the ability to resuscitate a patient, manage a difficult airway, suture a complex laceration, set a fractured bone or dislocated joint, treat a heart attack, manage strokes, work-up a pregnant patient with vaginal bleeding, control a patient with mania, stop a severe nosebleed, place a chest tube, conduct and interpret x-rays and ultrasounds.
This generalist approach can obviate barrier-to-care issues seen in systems without specialists in emergency medicine, where patients requiring immediate attention are instead managed from the outset by speciality doctors such as surgeons or internal physicians. However, this may lead to barriers through acute and critical care specialties disconnecting from emergency care. Emergency medicine can be distinguished from urgent care, which refers to immediate healthcare for less emergent medical issues, but there is obvious overlap and many emergency physicians work in urgent care settings. Emergency medicine includes many aspects of acute primary care, shares with family medicine the uniqueness of seeing all patients regardless of age, gender or organ system; the emergency physician workforce includes many competent physicians who trained in other specialties. Physicians specializing in emergency medicine can enter fellowships to receive credentials in subspecialties such as palliative care, critical-care medicine, medical toxicology, wilderness medicine, pediatric emergency medicine, sports medicine, disaster medicine, tactical medicine, pain medicine, pre-hospital emergency medicine, or undersea and hyperbaric medicine.
The practice of emergency medicine is quite different in rural areas where there are far fewer other specialties and healthcare resources. In these areas, family physicians with additional skills in emergency medicine staff emergency departments. Rural emergency physicians may be the only health care providers in the community, require skills that include primary care and obstetrics. Patterns vary by region. In the United States, the employment arrangement of emergency physician practices are either private, corporate, or governmental
American Osteopathic Association
The American Osteopathic Association is the representative member organization for the more than 145,000 osteopathic medical doctors and osteopathic medical students in the United States. The AOA is headquartered in Chicago, is involved in post-graduate training for osteopathic physicians. Beginning in 2015, it began accrediting post-graduate education as a committee within ACGME, creating a unified accreditation system for all DOs and MDs in the United States; the organization promotes public health, encourages academic scientific research, serves as the primary certifying body for D. O.s overseeing 18 certifying boards, is the accrediting agency for osteopathic medical schools through its Commission on Osteopathic College Accreditation. As of October 2015, the AOA no longer owns the Healthcare Facilities Accreditation Program, which accredited hospitals and other health care facilities; the AOA has held yearly conventions since its founding in 1897. The AOA manages DOCARE International, a non-profit charitable organization.
The AOA publishes The DO, an online publication, The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association, a peer reviewed medical journal. The AOA's mission is to advance the philosophy and practice of osteopathic medicine by promoting excellence in education and the delivery of quality, cost-effective healthcare; the AOA supports the annual "D. O. Day on Capitol Hill," where more than 1,000 osteopathic physicians and osteopathic medical students go to Washington, D. C. to meet with members of congress to discuss current issues in health care, such as access to care challenges. The event serves as an opportunity for legislators to learn more about health care and osteopathic medicine and for medical students to become more familiar with the political process; the association was founded as the American Association for the Advancement of Osteopathy on April 10, 1897, in Kirksville, Missouri, by students of the American School of Osteopathy Andrew Taylor Still. It was renamed the American Osteopathic Association in 1901.
In September 1901, the AOA began to publish a scientific journal entitled the Journal of the American Osteopathic Association. Subscriptions were offered to AOA members, at the time, membership fees were $5 annually; the journal was published bimonthly for the first year monthly thereafter. In April 1927, the AOA began publishing The Forum of Osteopathy, a monthly magazine that covered news relating to osteopathic medicine, the AOA, related groups. In September 1960, the magazine was renamed The DO. In the early 1900s, the AOA, citing concerns about safety and efficacy, was opposed to the introduction of pharmacology into the curriculum of osteopathic medicine. However, in 1929 the AOA board of trustees voted to allow the teaching of pharmacology in D. O. schools. By 1938, the AOA began requiring that osteopathic medical students have at least 1 year of undergraduate college coursework, by 1940, the AOA required two years. In 1957, the U. S. Department of Health and Welfare recognized the AOA as the official accrediting body for osteopathic medical education.
In 1967, the National Commission on Accrediting recognized the AOA as the official accrediting agency for all aspects of osteopathic medical education. The Department of Health and Welfare recognized the AOA as the official accrediting body for osteopathic hospitals under Medicare in 1966; as of October 2015, the AOA no longer owns the Healthcare Facilities Accreditation Program, which accredited hospitals and other health care facilities through its program, the Healthcare Facilities Accreditation Program The AOA provides funding for post-graduate osteopathic medical residencies. In the 2017 match, more than 2,200 osteopathic physicians matched into these residency programs. In February, 2014, the AOA and AACOM decided to join with ACGME to form a unified post-graduate accreditation system. From July 1, 2015, to June 30, 2020, AOA-accredited training programs will transition to ACGME recognition and accreditation. There will continue to be osteopathic-focused training programs under the ACGME accreditation system.
Two osteopathic review committees will be developed to evaluate and set standards for the osteopathic aspects of training programs seeking osteopathic recognition. DOs and MDs would have access to all training programs. There will be prerequisite competencies and a recommended program of training for MD graduates who apply for entry into osteopathic-focused programs. AOA and AACOM will become ACGME member organizations, each will have representation on ACGME’s board of directors; the American Osteopathic Association publishes The DO, an online publication covering news related to osteopathic medicine, health care changes, osteopathic continuing medical education programs. The AOA publishesThe Journal of the American Osteopathic Association, a monthly peer-reviewed medical journal focusing on original research and editorial articles. DOCARE International is a non-profit medical charity serving remote areas of the Western Hemisphere. DOCARE is operated by the American Osteopathic Association, consists of osteopathic physicians, osteopathic medical students, M.
D. physicians, other healthcare professionals. American Association of Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine The DO Journal of the American Osteopathic Association Student Osteopathic Medical Association George, John. "Class-action lawsuit filed against American Osteopathic Association over membership fees". Philadelphia Business Journal. American Osteopathic Association "The DO" online news publication Mini-Medical School
Charleston, West Virginia
Charleston is the most populous city in, the capital of, the U. S. state of West Virginia. Located at the confluence of the Elk and Kanawha rivers, the population during the 2017 Census Estimate was 47,929; the Charleston metropolitan area as a whole had 214,406 residents. Charleston is the center of government and industry for Kanawha County, of which it is the county seat. Early industries important to Charleston included the first natural gas well. Coal became central to economic prosperity in the city and the surrounding area. Today, utilities, government and education play central roles in the city's economy; the first permanent settlement, Ft. Lee, was built in 1788. In 1791, Daniel Boone was a member of the Kanawha County Assembly. Charleston is the home of the West Virginia Power minor league baseball team, the West Virginia Wild minor league basketball team, the annual 15-mile Charleston Distance Run. Yeager Airport and the University of Charleston are in the city. West Virginia University, Marshall University, West Virginia State University have campuses in the area.
After the American Revolutionary War, pioneers began making their way out from the early settlements. Many migrated into the western part of Virginia. Capitalizing on its many resources made Charleston an important part of Virginia and West Virginia history. Today, Charleston is the largest city in the state capital. Charleston's history goes back to the 18th century. Thomas Bullitt was deeded 1,250 acres of land near the mouth of the Elk River in 1773, it was inherited by his brother, Cuthbert Bullitt, upon his death in 1778, sold to Col. George Clendenin in 1786; the first permanent settlement, Fort Lee, was built in 1787 by Col. Savannah Clendenin and his company of Virginia Rangers; this structure occupied the area, now the intersection of Brooks Street and Kanawha Boulevard. Historical conjecture indicates that Charleston is named after Charles. Charles Town was shortened to Charleston to avoid confusion with another Charles Town in eastern West Virginia, named after George Washington's brother Charles.
Six years the Virginia General Assembly established Charleston. On the 40 acres that made up the town in 1794, 35 people inhabited seven houses. Charleston is part of Kanawha County; the origin of the word Kanawha, "Kanawha", derives from the region's Iroquois dialects meaning "water way" or "Canoe Way" implying the metaphor, "transport way", in the local language. It is the name of the river that flows through Charleston; the grammar of the "hard H" sound soon dropped out as new arrivals of various European languages developed West Virginia. The phrase has been a matter of Register. In fact, a two-story jail was the first county structure built, with the first floor dug into the bank of the Kanawha River. Daniel Boone, commissioned a lieutenant colonel of the Kanawha County militia, was elected to serve in 1791 in the Virginia House of Delegates; as told in historical accounts, Boone walked all the way to Richmond. By the early 19th century, salt brines were discovered along the Kanawha River and the first salt well was drilled in 1806.
This created great economic growth for the area. By 1808, 1,250 pounds of salt were being produced a day. An area adjacent to Charleston, Kanawha Salines, now Malden, would become the top salt producer in the world. In 1818, Kanawha Salt Company, first trust in United States, went into operation. Captain James Wilson, while drilling for salt, struck the first natural gas well in 1815, it was drilled at the site, now the junction of Brooks Street and Kanawha Boulevard In 1817, coal was first discovered and became used as the fuel for the salt works. The Kanawha salt industry declined in importance after 1861, until the onset of World War I brought a demand for chemical products; the chemicals needed were sodium hydroxide, which could be made from salt brine. The town continued to grow until the Civil War began in 1861; the state of Virginia seceded from the Union, Charleston was divided between Union and Confederate loyalty. On September 13, 1862, the Union and Confederate Armies met in the Battle of Charleston.
Although the Confederate States Army was victorious, occupation of the city was short-lived. Union troops returned just six weeks and stayed through the end of the war; the Northern hold on Charleston and most of the western part of Virginia created an larger problem. Virginia had seceded from the Union, but the western part was under Union control; the issue of statehood was raised. So amid the tumultuous Civil War, West Virginia became a state through Presidential Proclamation. Abraham Lincoln declared the northwestern portion of Virginia to be returned to the Union, on June 20, 1863, West Virginia became the 35th state. In addition to the issue of slavery, West Virginia was driven to separate from Virginia for economic reasons; the heavy industries in the North the steel business of the upper Ohio River region, were dependent on the coal available from western Virginia mines. Federalized military units were dispatched from Ohio to western Virginia early in the war to secure access to the coal mines and transportation resources.
Although the state now existed, settling on a state capital location proved to be difficult. For several years, the capital of West Virginia intermittently traveled between Wheeling and Charleston. In 1877, state citizens voted on the final location of their capital. Charleston received 41,243 votes, Clarksburg received 29,44