United States Department of Justice
The United States Department of Justice known as the Justice Department, is a federal executive department of the U. S. government, responsible for the enforcement of the law and administration of justice in the United States, equivalent to the justice or interior ministries of other countries. The department was formed in 1870 during the Ulysses S. Grant administration; the Department of Justice administers several federal law enforcement agencies including the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Explosives, the Drug Enforcement Administration. The department is responsible for investigating instances of financial fraud, representing the United States government in legal matters, running the federal prison system; the department is responsible for reviewing the conduct of local law enforcement as directed by the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994. The department is headed by the United States Attorney General, nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate and is a member of the Cabinet.
The current Attorney General is William Barr. The office of the Attorney General was established by the Judiciary Act of 1789 as a part-time job for one person, but grew with the bureaucracy. At one time, the Attorney General gave legal advice to the U. S. Congress as well as the President, but in 1819 the Attorney General began advising Congress alone to ensure a manageable workload; until March 3, 1853, the salary of the Attorney General was set by statute at less than the amount paid to other Cabinet members. Early Attorneys General supplemented their salaries by running private law practices arguing cases before the courts as attorneys for paying litigants. Following unsuccessful efforts to make Attorney General a full-time job, in 1869, the U. S. House Committee on the Judiciary, led by Congressman William Lawrence, conducted an inquiry into the creation of a "law department" headed by the Attorney General and composed of the various department solicitors and United States attorneys. On February 19, 1868, Lawrence introduced a bill in Congress to create the Department of Justice.
President Ulysses S. Grant signed the bill into law on June 22, 1870. Grant appointed Amos T. Akerman as Attorney General and Benjamin H. Bristow as America's first Solicitor General the same week that Congress created the Department of Justice; the Department's immediate function was to preserve civil rights. It set about fighting against domestic terrorist groups, using both violence and litigation to oppose the 13th, 14th, 15th Amendments to the Constitution. Both Akerman and Bristow used the Department of Justice to vigorously prosecute Ku Klux Klan members in the early 1870s. In the first few years of Grant's first term in office there were 1000 indictments against Klan members with over 550 convictions from the Department of Justice. By 1871, there were 3000 indictments and 600 convictions with most only serving brief sentences while the ringleaders were imprisoned for up to five years in the federal penitentiary in Albany, New York; the result was a dramatic decrease in violence in the South.
Akerman gave credit to Grant and told a friend that no one was "better" or "stronger" than Grant when it came to prosecuting terrorists. George H. Williams, who succeeded Akerman in December 1871, continued to prosecute the Klan throughout 1872 until the spring of 1873 during Grant's second term in office. Williams placed a moratorium on Klan prosecutions because the Justice Department, inundated by cases involving the Klan, did not have the manpower to continue prosecutions; the "Act to Establish the Department of Justice" drastically increased the Attorney General's responsibilities to include the supervision of all United States Attorneys under the Department of the Interior, the prosecution of all federal crimes, the representation of the United States in all court actions, barring the use of private attorneys by the federal government. The law created the office of Solicitor General to supervise and conduct government litigation in the Supreme Court of the United States. With the passage of the Interstate Commerce Act in 1887, the federal government took on some law enforcement responsibilities, the Department of Justice tasked with performing these.
In 1884, control of federal prisons was transferred to the new department, from the Department of Interior. New facilities were built, including the penitentiary at Leavenworth in 1895, a facility for women located in West Virginia, at Alderson was established in 1924. In 1933, President Franklin D. Roosevelt issued an executive order which gave the Department of Justice responsibility for the "functions of prosecuting in the courts of the United States claims and demands by, offsenses against, the Government of the United States, of defending claims and demands against the Government, of supervising the work of United States attorneys and clerks in connection therewith, now exercised by any agency or officer..." The U. S. Department of Justice building was completed in 1935 from a design by Milton Bennett Medary. Upon Medary's death in 1929, the other partners of his Philadelphia firm Zantzinger and Medary took over the project. On a lot bordered by Constitution and Pennsylvania Avenues and Ninth and Tenth Streets, Northwest, it holds over 1,000,000 square feet of space.
The sculptor C. Paul Jennewein served as overall design consultant for the entire building, contributing more than 50 separate sculptural elements inside and outside. Various efforts, none successful, have been made to determine the original intended meaning of the Latin motto appearing on the Department of Justice s
Carrie Frances Fisher was an American actress and comedian. Fisher is best known for playing Princess Leia in the Star Wars films, a role for which she was nominated for four Saturn Awards, her other film credits include Shampoo, The Blues Brothers and Her Sisters, The'Burbs, When Harry Met Sally... Soapdish, The Women, she was nominated twice for the Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Guest Actress in a Comedy Series for her performances on the television series 30 Rock and Catastrophe. She was posthumously made a Disney Legend in 2017, in 2018 she was awarded a posthumous Grammy Award for Best Spoken Word Album. Fisher wrote several semi-autobiographical novels, including Postcards from the Edge and an autobiographical one-woman play, its non-fiction book, Wishful Drinking, based on the play, she wrote the screenplay for the film version of Postcards From The Edge which garnered her a BAFTA Award for Best Adapted Screenplay nomination, her one-woman stage show of Wishful Drinking was filmed for television and received a nomination for the Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Variety Special.
She worked on other writers' screenplays as a script doctor, including tightening the scripts for Hook, Sister Act, The Wedding Singer, many of the films from the Star Wars franchise, among others. In years, she earned praise for speaking publicly about her experiences with bipolar disorder and drug addiction. Fisher was the daughter of actress Debbie Reynolds, she and her mother appear in Bright Lights: Starring Carrie Fisher and Debbie Reynolds, a documentary about their relationship. It premiered at the 2016 Cannes Film Festival. Fisher died of a sudden cardiac arrest on December 27, 2016, at age 60, four days after experiencing a medical emergency during a transatlantic flight from London to Los Angeles. One of her final films, Star Wars: The Last Jedi, was released on December 15, 2017, is dedicated to her. Fisher will appear in Star Wars: The Rise of Skywalker through the use of unreleased footage from The Force Awakens and The Last Jedi. Carrie Frances Fisher was born on October 21, 1956, in Burbank, California, to actors and singers Debbie Reynolds and Eddie Fisher.
Fisher's paternal grandparents were Russian-Jewish immigrants, while her mother, raised a Nazarene, was of Scots-Irish and English descent. Fisher was two years old when her parents divorced in 1959, her father's third marriage, to actress Connie Stevens, resulted in the births of Fisher's two half-sisters, Joely Fisher and Tricia Leigh Fisher. In 1960, her mother married owner of a chain of shoe stores. Reynolds and Karl divorced in 1973. Fisher "hid in books" as a child, becoming known in her family as "the bookworm", she spent her earliest years reading classic literature, writing poetry. She attended Beverly Hills High School until age 15, when she appeared as a debutante and singer in the hit Broadway revival Irene, starring her mother, her time on Broadway interfered with her education, resulting in Fisher's dropping out of high school. In 1973, Fisher enrolled at London's Central School of Speech and Drama, which she attended for 18 months. Following her time there, Fisher applied to and was accepted at Sarah Lawrence College, where she planned to study the arts.
She left without graduating. Fisher made her film debut at age 18 as the precociously seductive character Lorna Karpf in the Columbia Pictures comedy Shampoo. Lee Grant and Jack Warden play the role of her parents in the film. Warren Beatty, Julie Christie and Goldie Hawn star in the film. In 1977, Fisher starred as Princess Leia in George Lucas' science-fiction film Star Wars opposite Mark Hamill and Harrison Ford. At the time, she believed the script for Star Wars was fantastic, but did not expect many people to agree with her. Though her fellow actors were not close at the time, they bonded after the commercial success of the film. In April 1978, Fisher appeared as the love interest in Ringo Starr's 1978 TV special Ringo; the next month, she starred alongside John Ritter in the ABC-TV film Leave Yesterday Behind. At this time, Fisher appeared with Laurence Olivier and Joanne Woodward in the anthology series Laurence Olivier Presents in a television version of the William Inge play Come Back, Little Sheba.
That November, she played Princess Leia in the 1978 TV production Star Wars Holiday Special, sang in the last scene. Fisher appeared in the film The Blues Brothers as Jake's vengeful ex-lover. While Fisher was in Chicago filming the movie, she choked on a Brussels sprout, she appeared on Broadway in Censored Scenes from King Kong in 1980. The same year, she reprised her role as Princess Leia in The Empire Strikes Back, appeared with her Star Wars co-stars on the cover of the July 12, 1980 issue of Rolling Stone to promote the film, she starred as Sister Agnes in the Broadway production of Agnes of God in 1983. In 1983, Fisher returned to the role of Princess Leia in Return of the Jedi, posed in the character's metal bikini on the cover of the Summer 1983 issue of Rolling Stone to promote the film; the costume achieved a following of its own. In 1986 she starred along with Barbara Hershey and Mia Farrow in Woody Allen's Hannah and Her Sisters. In 1987, Fisher published Postcards from the Edge; the book was semi-autobiographical in the sense that she fictionalized and satirized real-life events such as her drug addiction of the late 1970s and her relationship with her mot
John August is an American screenwriter, director and novelist. He is known for writing the films Go, Charlie's Angels, Charlie's Angels: Full Throttle, Big Fish and the Chocolate Factory and Frankenweenie, the novel Arlo Finch in the Valley of Fire, he hosts the popular screenwriting podcast Scriptnotes with Craig Mazin, maintains an eponymous screenwriting blog and develops screenwriter-targeted software through his company, Quote-Unquote Apps. He is a member of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, voting in the Writers branch. In 2016, he was awarded the WGAw's Valentine Davies Award for his dignified contributions to the entertainment industry and the community-at-large, has been nominated for a BAFTA and a Grammy. August was raised in Boulder, Colorado, his birth name was John Tilton Meise, a surname he found was difficult to pronounce and wished to change. He earned a degree in journalism from Drake University in Iowa, he went on to earn an MFA in film from The Peter Stark Producing Program at the University of Southern California.
As part of his course at USC, August wrote a romantic tragedy called Now. Though the script never sold, it resulted in August finding agent representation and helped launch his screenwriting career. August's debut film was 1999's critically acclaimed crime-comedy Go, directed by Doug Liman, for which he served as co-producer and second unit director; the film performed moderately at the box office, but was well received, has since become a cult classic. After Go finished filming and Melissa McCarthy, who had a small role in the film, ran into each other in a coffee shop, August told McCarthy that he had written a short film with her in mind; the short film, was shot after Go, but finished and released before. It has been credited as one of the early showcases of McCarthy's comedic talent. August created his first television show, D. C. in 2000 for The WB. The series was produced by Law & Order creator Dick Wolf, with August serving as co-executive producer. Seven episodes were produced. In the same year, August wrote the animated science fiction feature Titan A.
E. and the McG-directed Charlie's Angels. In the fall of 1998, while Go was still in post-production, August had acquired the film rights to Daniel Wallace's novel Big Fish after reading it as a not-yet published manuscript, his adaptation became the 2003 Tim Burton film of the same name and earned August a 2003 BAFTA Award nomination for Best Adapted Screenplay. He would return to the world of Charlie's Angels to write its sequel, 2003's Charlie's Angels: Full Throttle. August has spoken about the difficult production process for the film, he reunited with Big Fish director Burton in 2005 for Charlie and the Chocolate Factory, an adaptation of Roald Dahl's classic children's book. August had written to Dahl as part of a third grade class project, received a postcard reply. Though the reply was a form letter, August still had it, decades when he adapted the book, he earned a 2006 Grammy nomination for his lyrics for “Wonka's Welcome Song” from the film. He collaborated for a third time with Burton on the stop-motion animated fantasy Corpse Bride released in 2005.
The two films were in production with actors including Johnny Depp, Helena Bonham Carter and Christopher Lee appearing in both. The film marked the third of five produced collaborations to date between Burton. August made his feature directorial debut in 2007 with science fiction psychological thriller The Nines, starring Ryan Reynolds, Melissa McCarthy, Hope Davis and Elle Fanning; the film, which August wrote, premiered at the 2007 Sundance Film Festival and Venice Film Festival's Critics’ Week. One of McCarthy's characters in the film, Margaret, is the same one she played in August's 1998 short film God. In 2010, he partnered with game designer Jordan Mechner to pitch an adaptation of Mechner's Prince of Persia. August served as an executive producer on the resulting film, Prince of Persia: The Sands of Time, directed by Mike Newell and produced by Jerry Bruckheimer, he reunited with Burton again in 2012 for the stop-motion fantasy horror comedy Frankenweenie, a remake of Burton's 1984 short film of the same name.
August received story credit on Burton's Dark Shadows adaptation. August returned to Big Fish for a 2013 Broadway musical adaptation, with music and lyrics by Andrew Lippa and choreographed by Susan Stroman; the musical has subsequently been adapted all over the world, including a 2017 run on London's West End starring Kelsey Grammer. August has written the screenplay for Walt Disney Pictures' upcoming live-action musical fantasy film Aladdin, alongside Vanessa Taylor and director Guy Ritchie. In July 2016, August signed a deal to write a three-book series aimed at middle-grade children, inspired by his experience as a Boy Scout; the first book in the series, Arlo Finch in the Valley of Fire, was published on February 6, 2018 by Roaring Brook Press, an imprint of the Macmillan Children’s Publishing Group. Its origins and creation were documented in August's podcast Launch. Arlo Finch in the Lake of the Moon publishes in 2019, the final book in the series will follow in 2020. August was nominated for a BAFTA Award for Best Adapted Screenplay in 2003 for Big Fish.
He earned a 2006 Grammy nomination for his lyrics for "Wonka's Welcome Song" from Charlie and the Chocolate Factory. In 2016, he was awarded the WGAw's Valentine Davies Award for his dignified contributions to the entertainment industry and the community-at-large
Bernard Jeffrey McCullough, better known by his stage name Bernie Mac, was an American comedian and voice actor. Born and raised on Chicago's South Side, Mac gained popularity as a stand-up comedian, he joined fellow comedians Steve Harvey, Cedric the Entertainer, D. L. Hughley in the film The Original Kings of Comedy. After hosting the HBO show Midnight Mac, Mac appeared in several films in smaller roles, his most noted film role was as Frank Catton in the remake Ocean's Eleven and the title character of Mr. 3000. He was the star of his eponymous show, which ran from 2001 through 2006, earning him two Emmy Award nominations for Outstanding Lead Actor in a Comedy Series. Mac's other films included starring roles in Booty Call, The Players Club, Head of State, Charlie's Angels: Full Throttle, Bad Santa, Guess Who, Soul Men, Old Dogs, Madagascar: Escape 2 Africa. Born Bernard Jeffrey McCullough in Chicago, Mac was the second child of Mary McCullough and Jeffery Harrison. Mac was raised by his grandparents on the city's south side.
Mac began his high school career at Chicago Vocational High School. During 1973, Mac moved to Tampa, Florida to attend Jesuit High School after the death of his mother during his sophomore year. Mac returned to Chicago and graduated from Chicago Vocational in 1975. Mac married his high school sweetheart Rhonda Gore on September 17, 1977 and together they had a daughter Ja'Niece Childress born in 1978. During his 20s through his early 30s, Mac worked in a variety of jobs, including janitor, professional mover, bus driver, Sears Delivery man, furniture mover and a UPS agent while doing comedy on the weekends at funerals and parties. Bernie Mac's influences were from The Three Stooges and listening to stand-up comedians Richard Pryor and Redd Foxx. Mac started as a stand-up comedian in Chicago's Cotton Club. After he won the Miller Lite Comedy Search at the age of 32, his popularity as a comedian began to grow. A performance on HBO's Def Comedy Jam thrust him into the spotlight. Mac's comedy and fearlessness on stage cemented his reputation with colleagues.
Mac opened for Redd Foxx and Natalie Cole. He played a small role in 1994's House Party 3 as Uncle Vester, he had a short-lived talk show on HBO titled Midnight Mac. Mac acted in minor roles and got his big break as "Pastor Clever" in Ice Cube's 1995 film Friday. Following that role, Mac was selectively chosen to play the title role, The Wiz in the 1995 Apollo Revival of The Wiz. Mac had his first starring role as "Dollar Bill", a silly, slick-talking club owner in The Players Club. Mac was able to break from the traditional "black comedy" genre, having roles in the 2001 remake of Ocean's Eleven and becoming the new Bosley for the Charlie's Angels sequel, Charlie's Angels: Full Throttle. In 2003 he gave an impressive performance in a supporting role as the villain "Gin Slagel, The Store Dick" in Bad Santa, he starred in Guess Who?, a comedic remake of the film Guess Who's Coming to Dinner, made an appearance in the 2007 film Transformers as the car salesman "Bobby Bolivia". In his years, he hosted the reality television talent show Last Comic Standing.
He served as the voice of Zuba, Alex the Lion's long lost father in Madagascar: Escape 2 Africa. He co-starred with Samuel L. Jackson in the 2008 musical comedy Soul Men as "Floyd Henderson", his final film role was as Jimmy Lunchbox in the 2009 Disney film Old Dogs, released a year after his death. He starred alongside Robin Williams in that film. In 2001 the Fox network gave Mac his own television sitcom called The Bernie Mac Show portraying a fictional version of himself. In the show, he becomes custodian of his sister's three children after she enters rehab, it was a success, in part because it allowed Mac to stay true to his stand-up comedy roots, breaking the fourth wall to communicate his thoughts to the audience. The show contained many parodies of events in Bernie's actual life. Bernie, who grew up on Chicago's South Side, was a fan of the Chicago White Sox, would sneak a reference to his favorite team in his episodes, including enlisting White Sox pitcher Jon Garland to make a guest cameo appearance.
Bernie Mac's "fourth wall" technique allowed him a moment of heartfelt sincerity during the sitcom's 2005 season when, sitting in his customary easy chair and facing the audience before the start of an episode, Bernie unabashedly donned a White Sox jacket and cap, congratulated his hometown Chicago White Sox and their staff members, on their recent World Series championship. The show was not renewed after the 2005–2006 season; the series finale aired on April 14, 2006. However, the finale left a conclusion for the series, no ending to the storyline of Bernie and Wanda trying to adopt a baby, abandoned a few episodes earlier. Among other awards, the show won an Emmy for "Outstanding Writing", the Peabody Award for excellence in broadcasting, the Humanitas Prize for television writing that promotes human dignity, his character on The Bernie Mac Show was ranked #47 in TV Guide's list of the "50 Greatest TV Dads of All Time". In 2004 Bernie Mac starred as a retired baseball player in the film Mr. 3000.
In the 2003 National League Championship Series, Mac sang "Take Me Out to the Ball Game" at Wrigley Field with the Chicago Cubs leading the Florida Marlins in the series 3 games to 2 and in Game 6 by a 2–0 sco
Joseph McGinty Nichol, known professionally as McG, is an American director and former record producer. He began his career in the music industry, producing various albums, he rose to prominence with his first film, Charlie's Angels, which had the highest-grossing opening weekend for a directorial debut at the time. Since he has directed several other films, including Charlie's Angels sequel Charlie's Angels: Full Throttle and Terminator Salvation, co-created the television series Fastlane and has executive produced numerous television programs, such as The O. C. Chuck, Supernatural. McG owns a production company, Wonderland Sound and Vision, founded in 2001, which has overseen the production of the films and television shows he has worked on since Charlie's Angels: Full Throttle. Joseph McGinty Nichol was born in Kalamazoo and grew up in Newport Beach, California; as his uncle and grandfather were named Joe, his mother nicknamed him "McG" to avoid confusion. McG attended Corona del Mar High School.
He wanted to become the lead singer of a band he formed with McGrath. However, he persuaded McGrath to take over. Instead he worked behind the scenes as producer and marketer for the band until he was 22, he obtained a Bachelor of Arts in psychology from UC Irvine. The band had several hit singles as "Sugar Ray", signed with a label, went on tour. McG worked as a still photographer, shooting local musicians; this led him to form a record label known as G Recordings in 1993. In 1995, McG produced Sugar Ray's first album and co-wrote several songs on their second, including their smash hit "Fly." His music career included directing over fifty music videos such as Smash Mouth's'All Star', The Offspring's'Pretty Fly', directing documentaries on Korn and Sugar Ray. In 1997, he was awarded the Billboard's Pop Video of the Year Award for Smash Mouth's'Walking on the Sun' and the Music Video Production Association's Pop Video of the Year Award for Sugar Ray's'Fly.' This landed him in the television commercial business, directing advertisements for Major League Baseball and Coca-Cola.
A notable one was a commercial for Gap, honored at the 1999 London International Film Festival. Impressed with McG's music videos, Drew Barrymore approached him about directing a Charlie's Angels film, he accepted, wanting to take on bigger projects, pitched the movie to the studio executives, who were reluctant but approved the project after much persistence. The film, for which he was paid $350,000, was released in 2000 and went on to gross over $250 million worldwide with mixed critical reception from critics and fans alike. However, he won the Hollywood Breakthrough Award at the 6th Annual Hollywood Film Festival held in 2002. Proving himself to be quite bankable, Sony paid him $2.5 million to helm the military action-drama Dreadnought for Red Wagon Entertainment. He was set to develop a sequel to Charlie's Angels and present his film producing debut with Airshow, the latter of which has yet to be made. In February 2002, Jon Peters and Lorenzo di Bonaventura attached him onto the fifth installment in the Superman film series, in development hell, thus putting his previous projects on hold.
McG and Peters hired J. J. Abrams to pen a new script for the film entitled Superman: Flyby, submitted in July 2002. Bailing out of the project in favor of Charlie's Angels: Full Throttle in September 2002, McG was replaced by Brett Ratner. Meanwhile, he developed and co-created a television series with John McNamara called Fastlane, canceled after one season due to the high costs of each episode. Josh Schwartz approached him and his producing partner, Stephanie Savage, about another television series as well, The O. C. which revolved around the lives of several teenagers based in McG's hometown of Newport Beach. McG was set to direct the pilot, but because of scheduling conflicts with Charlie's Angels: Full Throttle, he was replaced by Doug Liman; the show ended after four seasons in 2007. The sequel to Charlie's Angels followed in 2003, although not as successful as the first, Charlie's Angels: Full Throttle made over $250 million worldwide. Shortly thereafter, Sony extended its first-look production deal with Wonderland Sound and Vision for an additional three years, with Hot Wheels and Radiant on their film slate.
Since none of those films have been developed with the former, supposed to be a directing vehicle for him in 2003, being put into turnaround in 2009. Warner Bros. still satisfied with his bankability, re-hired him to direct Superman: Flyby in April 2003 after Ratner had dropped out due to casting and pre-production difficulties. During his tenure, McG and the producers spent more than $15 million planning storyboards, concept art, locations, as well as having script revisions and the film pre-visualized. However, McG left the project, citing his fear of flying to Sydney; this brought Bryan Singer on board in July 2004, resulting in Superman Returns. McG produced the television series, The Mountain, on the same year getting canceled after one season, his next television work was Supernatural, for which he served as an executive producer until 2013. The show centers on two brothers who hunt down paranormal creatures, continues to be on air today; the following year saw Warner Bros. allowing McG, who "looked to improve as a storyteller and wanted to get more substantial material," to direct We Are Marshall, a sports drama film.
Although the film received mixed critical reception
Mongolia is a landlocked country in East Asia. Its area is equivalent with the historical territory of Outer Mongolia, that term is sometimes used to refer to the current state, it is sandwiched between China to Russia to the north. Mongolia does not share a border with Kazakhstan. At 1,564,116 square kilometres, Mongolia is the 18th-largest and the most sparsely populated sovereign state in the world, with a population of around three million people, it is the world's second-largest landlocked country behind Kazakhstan and the largest landlocked country that does not border a closed sea. The country contains little arable land, as much of its area is covered by grassy steppe, with mountains to the north and west and the Gobi Desert to the south. Ulaanbaatar, the capital and largest city, is home to about 45% of the country's population. Ulaanbaatar shares the rank of the world's coldest capital city with Moscow and Nur-Sultan. 30% of the population is nomadic or semi-nomadic. The majority of its population are Buddhists.
The non-religious population is the second largest group. Islam is the dominant religion among ethnic Kazakhs; the majority of the state's citizens are of Mongol ethnicity, although Kazakhs and other minorities live in the country in the west. Mongolia joined the World Trade Organization in 1997 and seeks to expand its participation in regional economic and trade groups; the area of what is now Mongolia has been ruled by various nomadic empires, including the Xiongnu, the Xianbei, the Rouran, the Turkic Khaganate, others. In 1206, Genghis Khan founded the Mongol Empire, which became the largest contiguous land empire in history, his grandson Kublai Khan conquered China to establish the Yuan dynasty. After the collapse of the Yuan, the Mongols retreated to Mongolia and resumed their earlier pattern of factional conflict, except during the era of Dayan Khan and Tumen Zasagt Khan. In the 16th century, Tibetan Buddhism began to spread in Mongolia, being further led by the Manchu-founded Qing dynasty, which absorbed the country in the 17th century.
By the early 1900s one-third of the adult male population were Buddhist monks. After the collapse of the Qing dynasty in 1911, Mongolia declared independence, achieved actual independence from the Republic of China in 1921. Shortly thereafter, the country came under the control of the Soviet Union, which had aided its independence from China. In 1924, the Mongolian People's Republic was founded as a socialist state. After the anti-Communist revolutions of 1989, Mongolia conducted its own peaceful democratic revolution in early 1990; this led to a multi-party system, a new constitution of 1992, transition to a market economy. Homo erectus inhabited Mongolia from 850,000 years ago. Modern humans reached Mongolia 40,000 years ago during the Upper Paleolithic; the Khoit Tsenkher Cave in Khovd Province shows lively pink and red ochre paintings of mammoths, bactrian camels, ostriches, earning it the nickname "the Lascaux of Mongolia". The venus figurines of Mal'ta testify to the level of Upper Paleolithic art in northern Mongolia.
Neolithic agricultural settlements, such as those at Norovlin, Tamsagbulag and Rashaan Khad, predated the introduction of horse-riding nomadism, a pivotal event in the history of Mongolia which became the dominant culture. Horse-riding nomadism has been documented by archeological evidence in Mongolia during the Copper and Bronze Age Afanasevo culture; the wheeled vehicles found in the burials of the Afanasevans have been dated to before 2200 BC. Pastoral nomadism and metalworking became more developed with the Okunev culture, Andronovo culture and Karasuk culture, culminating with the Iron Age Xiongnu Empire in 209 BC. Monuments of the pre-Xiongnu Bronze Age include deer stones, keregsur kurgans, square slab tombs, rock paintings. Although cultivation of crops has continued since the Neolithic, agriculture has always remained small in scale compared to pastoral nomadism. Agriculture arose independently in the region; the population during the Copper Age has been described as mongoloid in the east of what is now Mongolia, as europoid in the west.
Tocharians and Scythians inhabited western Mongolia during the Bronze Age. The mummy of a Scythian warrior, believed to be about 2,500 years old, was a 30- to 40-year-old man with blond hair; as equine nomadism was introduced into Mongolia, the political center of the Eurasian Steppe shifted to Mongolia, where it remained until the 18th century CE. The intrusions of northern pastoralists into China during the Shang dynasty and Zhou dynasty presaged the age of nomadic empires; the concept of Mongolia as an independent power north of China is expressed in a letter sent by Emperor Wen of Han to Laoshang Chanyu in 162 BC: Since prehistoric times, Mongolia has been inhabited by nomads who, from time to time, formed great confederations that rose to power and prominence. Common institutions were the office of the Khan, the Kurultai and right wings, imperial army and the decimal military system; the first of these empires, the Xiongnu of undetermined
Action film is a film genre in which the protagonist or protagonists are thrust into a series of challenges that include violence, extended fighting, physical feats, frantic chases. Action films tend to feature a resourceful hero struggling against incredible odds, which include life-threatening situations, a villain, or a pursuit which concludes in victory for the hero. Advancements in CGI have made it cheaper and easier to create action sequences and other visual effects that required the efforts of professional stunt crews in the past. However, reactions to action films containing significant amounts of CGI have been mixed, as films that use computer animations to create unrealistic unbelievable events are met with criticism. While action has long been a recurring component in films, the "action film" genre began to develop in the 1970s along with the increase of stunts and special effects. Common action scenes in films are but not limited to, car chases and gunplay or shootouts; this genre is associated with the thriller and adventure genres, they may contain elements of spy fiction.
Some historians consider The Great Train Robbery to be the first action film. During the 1920s and 1930s, action-based films were "swashbuckling" adventure films in which actors, such as Douglas Fairbanks, wielded swords in period pieces or Westerns. Indian action films in this era were known as stunt films; the 1940s and 1950s saw "action" in a new form through cowboy movies. Alfred Hitchcock ushered in the spy-adventure genre while establishing the use of action-oriented "set pieces" like the famous crop-duster scene and the Mount Rushmore finale in North by Northwest; the film, along with a war-adventure called The Guns of Navarone, inspired producers Albert R. Broccoli and Harry Saltzman to invest in their own spy-adventure, based on the novels of Ian Fleming; the long-running success of the James Bond films or series introduced a staple of the modern-day action film: the resourceful hero. Such larger-than-life characters were a veritable "one-man army"; such heroes are ready with one-liners and dry quips.
The Bond films used fast cutting, car chases, fist fights, a variety of weapons and gadgets, elaborate action sequences. Producer-Director John Sturges' 1963 film The Great Escape, featuring Allied prisoners of war attempting to escape a German POW camp during World War II, featuring future icons of the action genre including Steve McQueen and Charles Bronson, is an example of an action film prototype. During the 1970s, gritty detective stories and urban crime dramas began to evolve and fuse themselves with the new "action" style, leading to a string of maverick police officer films, such as Bullitt, The French Connection and The Seven-Ups. Dirty Harry lifted its star, Clint Eastwood, out of his cowboy typecasting, framed him as the archetypal hero of the urban action film. In many countries, restrictions on language, adult content, violence had loosened up, these elements became more widespread. In the 1970s, martial-arts films from Hong Kong became popular with Western audiences and inspired big budget films such as Bruce Lee's Enter the Dragon.
Chuck Norris blended martial arts with'cops and robbers' in films such as Good Guys Wear Black and A Force of One. From Japan, Sonny Chiba starred in his first martial arts movie in 1973 called the Karate Kiba, his breakthrough international hit was The Street Fighter series, which established him as the reigning Japanese martial arts actor in international cinema. He played the role of Mas Oyama in Champion of Death, Karate Bearfighter, Karate for Life. Chiba's action films were not only bounded by martial arts, but action thriller and science fiction. In the 1980s, Hollywood produced many big budget action blockbusters with actors such as Sylvester Stallone, Arnold Schwarzenegger, Lorenzo Lamas, Michael Dudikoff, Charles Bronson and Bruce Willis. Steven Spielberg and George Lucas paid their homage to the Bond-inspired style with Raiders of the Lost Ark. In 1982, veteran actor Nick Nolte and rising comedian Eddie Murphy broke box office records with the action-comedy 48 Hrs. credited as the first "buddy-cop" movie.
That same year, Sylvester Stallone starred in First Blood, the first installment in the Rambo film series which made the character John Rambo a pop culture icon. 1984 saw the beginning of the Terminator franchise starring Linda Hamilton and Arnold Schwarzenegger. This story provides one of the grittiest roles for a woman in action and Hamilton was required to put in extensive effort to develop a strong physique.1987's Lethal Weapon starring Mel Gibson, Danny Glover, Darlene Love was another significant action film hit of the decade, another "buddy-cop" genre classic, launching a franchise that spawned 3 sequels. The 1988 film, Die Hard, was influential on the development of the action genre. In the film, Bruce Willis plays a New York police detective who inadvertently becomes embroiled in a terrorist take-over of a Los Angeles office building high-rise; the use of a maverick, resourceful lone hero has always been a common thread from James Bond to John Rambo, but John McClane in Die Hard is much more of an'everyday' person whom circumstance turns into a reluctant hero