Dundee Football Club is a professional football club based in the city of Dundee, Scotland. Founded in 1893, they are nicknamed "The Dark Blues" or "The Dee"; the club plays. The club's most successful era was in the 1960s when, under the management of Bob Shankly, Dundee won the Scottish Football League title in 1962 for the only time in their history before reaching the semi-finals of the 1962–63 European Cup. Dundee have won the Scottish Cup once in 1910 and the Scottish League Cup three times. Dundee F. C. was formed in 1893 by the merger of two local clubs, East End and Our Boys, with the intention of gaining election to the Scottish Football League. Their application was successful and they played their first League game on 12 August 1893 at West Craigie Park, securing a 3–3 draw against Rangers. Dundee struggled during the first 10 years of their existence, their best league position was fifth which they achieved in seasons 1895–96 and 1896–97. They reached the semi-finals of the Scottish Cup in 1894–95 and 1897–98, losing to Renton and Kilmarnock respectively.
On 26 October 1895 Dundee lost a league game by a record score of 0–11 to Celtic in Glasgow. On 1 January 1894 Dundee defeated Newton Heath 2–1 at their Carolina Port ground in Dundee. Carolina Port hosted the first international football match held in Dundee on 21 March 1896 when Scotland defeated Wales 4–0. Dundee's goalkeeper Frank Barrett, midfielder Sandy Keillor and inside-forward Bill Thomson were all capped for Scotland during this early period of the club's history. Things began to improve for Dundee with the beginning of the new century. In 1899 they moved from Carolina Port to their present ground of Dens Park. In season 1902–03 they finished runners-up in the league championship to Hibernian. Dundee were league runners-up in 1906–07 and 1908–09 finishing behind Celtic on both occasions, in 1908–09 by just 1 point. In the 10 seasons from 1902–03 Dundee lost just 16 league games at Dens Park out of 154 played and were unbeaten at home during season 1909–10. Although ultimate success eluded Dundee in the league the club achieved success in the Scottish Cup.
In season 1909–10 Dundee won their first trophy by defeating Clyde in the Scottish Cup Final. The winning goal in the second replay was scored by John'Sailor' Hunter. In season 1910–11 Dundee defeated Rangers 2–1 at Dens Park in the Scottish Cup quarter-final but lost to Hamilton in the semi-final; the beginning of the First World War and the call-up of many players for military duty drastically curtailed football in Britain from 1914 and in 1917 Dundee and Aberdeen were both asked to withdraw from the league due to increasing transport costs for the other league clubs. In 1919 league football recommenced and good home form once again propelled Dundee up the league, they finished 4th in seasons 1919–20, 1920–21 and 1921–22, were unbeaten at home during season 1921–22. However, they could not make the breakthrough to win the league championship. Dave Halliday had played on the left for his previous clubs, his hometown side Queen of the South and St Mirren. Halliday went to Dundee in 1921 with the celebrated Alec Troup playing on the left wing.
Dundee thus converted Halliday to centre forward with prolific results, finishing as Scottish top scorer in the 1923–24 season with 38 goals from 36 appearances – a good return in the era of the three-man off-side rule. With Halliday Dundee reached the 1924–25 Scottish Cup final eliminating the holders en route, the Airdrieonians side of Hughie Gallacher. Halliday scored 103 goals in 147 cup appearances for the Dee; the post-Second World War period was a golden era for Dundee Football Club. Having been relegated on the eve of war, the Dark Blues started in 1946 in the first official season in the second tier but within five years they were runners-up in the Scottish League Championship and won their first trophy in forty-one years. Back to back'B’ Division titles earned George Anderson's Dundee promotion in 1947 and just two years they were within a whisker of becoming Champions of Scotland. Silverware wasn't far away however as after spending a world record transfer fee of £23,500 on Billy Steel, much to the chagrin of modern-day supporters of the club – at least some anyway – who resented the aspect of finance in football and wish instead for'homegrown' talent, they won the Scottish League Cup in 1951 in one of the most exciting finals Hampden has seen.
Twelve months Dundee were back at Hampden to become the first side to retain the League Cup and in between these two victories appeared in the 1952 Scottish Cup Final. The Dark Blue side of the era included players such as Bill Brown, Tommy Gallacher, Doug Cowie, Alfie Boyd, Bobby Flavell and Billy Steel. In the 1958–59 Scottish Cup Dundee suffered a shock 1–0 defeat to Highland League side Fraserburgh; this is regarded as Dundee's most embarrassing defeat in their history. Bob Shankly was appointed manager in 1959. Dundee won the league title of Scotland's top division called the Division One, in the 1961–62 season. With players such as Bobby Cox, Bobby Wishart, Pat Liney, Alan Cousin, Andy Penman, Hugh Robertson, Alan Gilzean, Alex Hamilton, Bobby Seith, Gordon Smith and Ian Ure they clinched the title with a win against St Johnstone, which in turn relegated St Johnstone to the Second Division. Gordon Smith earned the distinction of being the only player to win the Scottish football championship with three clubs (Hibs, Hearts and
St Monans spelt St Monance, is a village and parish in the East Neuk of Fife and is named after the legendary Saint Monan. Situated 3 miles west of Anstruther, this small community, whose inhabitants made their living from fishing, is now a tourist destination situated on the Fife Coastal Path; the former burgh rests on a hill overlooking the Firth of Forth, with views to North Berwick, the Bass Rock and the Isle of May. St Monans contains many historical buildings, including the now defunct windmill that once powered a salt panning industry, a 14th-century church that sits on the rocks above the water on the western side. ½ mile west of St Monans are the remains of Newark Castle, a 16th-century manor that has since fallen to ruin through cliff erosion and disrepair. In 2002, with the permission of Historic Scotland, an unsuccessful attempt to restore the castle was made; the civil parish has a population of 1,357. St Monans Church dates from 1369 and is situated in an isolated position to the west of the village on the edge of the sea.
It is perched over a small valley with a burn. As seen from most directions it has the sea as a backdrop; the original graveyard surrounds the church and a more modern cemetery stands further westwards on the upper slopes of the little hill. This contains the local war memorial. Standing at the extreme west end of this the ruin of an earlier church can be viewed across fields, again perched on the sea edge, it is said that St Monans is the church nearest the sea in the whole of Scotland, this may well be the case, being only around 20m from the edge. The church, one of the finest remaining from the Middle Ages in Scotland, was built by King David II Bruce for a small house of Dominican friars, it became the Church of Scotland parish church. Though the church may never have been finished, it has many features of architectural interest, notably the fine stone vaulting in the choir and the plain but handsome sedilia. White-washed throughout internally, the church is light and attractive among ancient Scottish churches.
The church was restored in 1899 by the Glasgow architect, Peter MacGregor Chalmers. The church hall was added in 1913 to a design by Sir Robert Lorimer. Major restoration to the windows and masonry was completed in March 2007; the church is open to visitors daily from April - October. The Hall was built in 1970 and is a modern building, harled with a slate roof, situated in a raised location facing broadly west over Hope Park on the northern edge of St. Monans. Prior to its construction, it was not uncommon for fishermen from St Monans to cycle to St Andrews to attend meetings at the Gospel Hall there. St Monans has a fish-smokehouse. There are several pubs and cafes in the village. There is a caravan park which attracts many visitors, a tradition that has continued from the days of the railway line. In the industrial estate at the entrance to St Monans are the remains of the old railway station, a relic of the old East Neuk Rail Line, part of the Fife Coast Railway, shut down in the 1960s after the Beeching cuts.
All that remains is the south platform, overgrown with grass. Nearby is the station master's house, now a private residence, which stands out from the newer buildings surrounding it; the village takes its name from St Monance, killed by invading Danes in about 875. St Adrian was killed on the Isle of May in the same raid and 6,000 Fife Christians are said to have died. Like other small East Neuk towns, St Monans is rich in vernacular fisher and merchant houses of the 17th to early 19th centuries, with characteristic old Scots features, e.g. forestairs, crow-stepped gables, pantiled roofs etc. The tradition of shipbuilding has now ceased. For over 200 years the boat builder J W Miller & Sons Ltd produced fifie fishing boats and motor launches in the village; the author Christopher Rush grew up in the village. His autobiography Hellfire and Herring describes the community as seen by a small boy in the 1940s, 1950s and earlier, as recounted by his grandfather and other relatives. Haswell-Smith, Hamish.
The Scottish Islands. Edinburgh: Canongate. ISBN 978-1-84195-454-7. Http://www.stmonans.org.uk/ http://www.eastneukwide.co.uk/tourist/st-monans.html http://www.electricscotland.com/history/eastneuk9.htm http://www.onfife.com/venues/st-monans-windmill
The Memphis Rogues were a professional soccer team in the former North American Soccer League. They operated in the 1978, 1979, 1980 seasons and played their home games in Memphis' Liberty Bowl Memorial Stadium, they played indoor soccer at the Mid-South Coliseum during the 1979–80 season. "We’re the Ramblin’ Rogues from Memphis, the biggest kick in town!" – Rogues fight song. In the mid-1970s, Harry T. Mangurian, Jr. and Beau Rogers joined forces to establish a new North American Soccer League franchise. Mangurian owned a horse racing track in Florida, Rogers was part-owner and general manager of the Tampa Bay Rowdies; as the two men searched for a city to serve as home for their new team, they looked at several locations in the southern U. S. – including New Orleans, Houston and Atlanta – before settling on Memphis, Tennessee. Next, they decided to name the team the "Rogues" in part as an allusion to the Rowdies, as well as for a desire to have an elephant mascot; the team made its first mistake.
Allison came from Turkish powerhouse Galatasaray but his time in Memphis would be short. Allison had achieved much controversy during his time in England, when he had failed to sign a sufficient number of players for the inaugural season, he was dismissed without having coached a match and replaced by ex-Chelsea star Eddie McCreadie; the club did not make the playoffs. Attendance averaged 8,708 a match, 17th in the 24-team league; the second season, 1979, was disrupted by a players' strike which forced McCreadie out of retirement for a time. The team did worse on the pitch, finishing last, worse at the box office, with 7,137 a match, with three teams doing worse; the poor gates resulted in Mangurian and Rogers selling the team to Avron Fogelman in 1980. Fogelman owned a Memphis minor league baseball team and became a part owner of the Kansas City Royals. Though attendance went up in 1980 to 9,864 a match, this was still 17th in the league and the team were again last in their division, though McCreadie's old Chelsea mate Charlie Cooke had taken over as coach.
The Rogues' last game came at Liberty Bowl Memorial Stadium against the Houston Hurricane. The Rogues won, 6–1. Tony Field scored the final goal in Memphis Rogues history, he walked the ball into the net. When he arrived at the goal line, he headed the ball into the net. More skeptical fans and that the Rogues were mathematically eliminated from the playoffs and the Hurricane only need one goal to qualify, raised an eyebrow at the result. In the 1980 NASL goals of the year video, you can see the Hurricanes standing still, allowing Field to give the fans one last show. In 1981, Fogelman cut his losses and sold the Rogues to Nelson Skalbania, a Canadian businessman who moved the team to Calgary, Alberta. Skalbania renamed the team the Calgary Boomers for the 1981, but the team lasted only one year in Calgary before folding; the Rogues played the 1979–80 season of NASL indoor soccer at the Mid-South Coliseum. They posted a 9–3 regular-season record, won the Western Division, went all the way to the finals, winning Game 1 of the series, 5–4, at home in front of 9,081 fans, before losing Game 2 and the mini-game tie-breaker to the Tampa Bay Rowdies at the Bayfront Center in St. Petersburg, Florida.
Malcolm Allison 1978 Eddie McCreadie 1978–1979 Charlie Cooke 1980 Memphis Rogues Tribute & Memorabilia Memories of the Rogues
George Graham (footballer)
George Graham is a Scottish former football player and manager. He made 455 appearances in the Football League as a midfielder or forward for Aston Villa, Arsenal, Manchester United and Crystal Palace. Half of his total appearances were for Arsenal and he was part of the side that won the Football League Championship and FA Cup "double" in 1971. Graham made 17 appearances for California Surf in 1978, he moved to the coaching staff at Crystal Palace, before joining former Palace manager Terry Venables as a coach at Queens Park Rangers. As a manager, he won numerous domestic and European honours with Arsenal between 1987 and 1995, he managed Millwall, Leeds United and Tottenham Hotspur; the youngest of seven children, Graham grew up in poverty near Coatbridge. He was raised by his mother, after his father, Robert Young Graham, died of tuberculosis and heart failure on Christmas Day 1944, when George was not yet a month old, his elder sister died of tuberculosis at the age of 19, in 1951. When growing up, Graham showed considerable promise as a footballer, Newcastle United and Aston Villa displayed an interest in the young Graham.
Graham's career saw him play for clubs in the United States. He signed on his 17th birthday, he spent three seasons at the Birmingham club, but only made eight appearances – though one of them was the club's 1963 League Cup final loss to Birmingham City. Chelsea signed him in July 1964 for £5,000. Graham scored 35 goals in 72 league games for the club and won a League Cup medal in 1965 but he, along with several other Chelsea players clashed with their volatile manager Tommy Docherty; this culminated in Graham and seven others being sent home and disciplined by Docherty for breaking a pre-match curfew in 1965. Bertie Mee's Arsenal were looking for a replacement for Joe Baker, paid £50,000 plus Tommy Baldwin in 1966 to bring him to Highbury, he made his debut on 1 October 1966 at home to Leicester City, although the result was a 4–2 defeat he became a regular in the Arsenal side. He was Arsenal's top scorer in both 1966–67 and 1967–68, having started out as a centre forward for the club, but moved to inside forward with John Radford moving from the wing to up front.
With Arsenal, Graham was a runner-up in both the 1968 and 1969 League Cup finals, before winning a medal with the 1969–70 Inter-Cities Fairs Cup. He followed it up with being an integral part of Arsenal's Double-winning side of 1970–71, had a claim to scoring Arsenal's equaliser in the FA Cup Final against Liverpool, although Eddie Kelly is credited with the goal. Winning the Double brought the attention of Scotland and Graham was selected for the national side for the first time against Portugal on 13 October 1971, he would go on to win twelve caps over the next two years for Scotland, scoring three goals, his final one coming against Brazil on 30 June 1973. By however, Graham was no longer an Arsenal player; the arrival of Alan Ball midway through 1971–72 had made his place in the Arsenal side less assured. In total, he played 308 matches for Arsenal, he moved for £120,000 to Manchester United in December 1972. He spent two years at United, was relegated to Division Two, he saw out his career in England at Crystal Palace.
He played the summer of 1978 in America for the California Surf. After retiring from playing, he became a coach at Crystal Palace and later Queens Park Rangers. On 6 December 1982 Graham was appointed manager of Millwall, who were bottom of the old Third Division. Graham turned the side around in a short period of time—they avoided relegation that season and in 1984–85 they were promoted to the old Second Division. After he left the club in 1986, they went on to win the Second Division and win promotion to the First in 1987–88. Graham's achievements at Millwall attracted attention from First Division clubs, with the resignation of Don Howe as Arsenal manager in March 1986, their directors first offered the job to FC Barcelona coach Terry Venables, but he rejected their offer and Arsenal switched their attention to Alex Ferguson, the Aberdeen manager, as their new manager with Graham as his assistant. However, Ferguson had decided to wait until after the World Cup that summer before deciding on his future, so the Arsenal directors appointed Graham as their new manager on 14 May 1986.
A month after arriving at Highbury, Graham was himself linked with the Scotland national team combining it with the Arsenal manager's job, but that role went to Andy Roxburgh instead. Arsenal had not won a trophy since the FA Cup in 1978–79, were drifting away from the top teams in the League, having not finished in the top five during any of the previous four seasons, during which the major honours were picked up by an all-conquering Liverpool as well as the likes of Manchester United and Everton. Graham discarded the likes of Tony Woodcock and Tommy Caton, replaced them with new signings and youth team products, he imposed much stricter discipline than his predecessors, both in the dressing room and on the pitch. Arsenal's form improved, so much so that the club were top of the League at Christmas 1986, the club's centenary, for the first time in a decade; the key players in the upturn were high-scoring winger Martin Hayes. Arsenal finished fourth in Graham's first season in charge, they went on to win the 1987 League Cup, beating Liverpool 2-1.
While Arsenal lost the League Cup final the following
Thomas Henderson Docherty known as "The Doc", is a Scottish former football player and manager. Docherty played for several clubs, most notably Preston North End, represented Scotland 25 times between 1951 and 1959, he managed a total of 13 clubs between 1961 and 1988, as well as managing the Scottish national team. Docherty was manager of Manchester United between 1972 and 1977, during which time United were relegated to the Second Division but promoted at the first attempt. Born in Gorbals, Docherty began his playing career when he joined junior football club Shettleston; the turning point in his playing career came in 1946 when he was called up for National service in the Highland Light Infantry. While completing his National service, Docherty represented the British Army at football. On demobilisation, Docherty was offered a contract with Celtic in 1947, he would say that Jimmy Hogan, the club's coach, was his greatest influence. In November 1949, after spending over two years with Celtic, he joined Preston North End.
With the Lilywhites he got to the 1954 FA Cup Final. Altogether Docherty made close to 300 appearances for the club, he left Deepdale in August of that year to join Arsenal for £28,000. With the Gunners he made a sum of 83 appearances scoring once, he went to play for Chelsea where he brought an end to his playing days in 1962. At Preston Docherty received the first of his 25 full Scotland international caps. Docherty was part of the Scotland squad that played at the 1958 FIFA World Cup finals, hosted in Sweden. In February 1961, Docherty was offered the post of player-coach of Chelsea. Less than twelve months upon Ted Drake's departure and with the club facing relegation from the top flight, Docherty took over as manager, he was unable to keep the club in the First Division and the team was relegated at the end of the 1961–62 season. During his first year in charge he sold many of the club's older players and brought in new ones such as Terry Venables, Bobby Tambling, Peter Bonetti and Barry Bridges.
He changed the club's home colours, switching from white shorts to blue shorts, the combination that remains as of 2018. The team, nicknamed "Docherty's Diamonds", achieved promotion back to Division One in their first attempt and finished fifth the following year. In 1964–65, Chelsea won the League Cup in April with an aggregate win over Leicester City, but were beaten 2–0 by eventual winner Liverpool in the FA Cup semi-final. Docherty led Chelsea to the FA and the Inter-Cities Fairs Cup semi-finals a year before reaching the FA Cup Final in 1967, which they lost to Tottenham Hotspur, he resigned in October 1967. The core of the team Docherty had put together, including Peter Osgood, Charlie Cooke, Ron Harris and John Hollins, went on to win the FA Cup and Cup Winners' Cup under Docherty's successor, Dave Sexton. Sexton succeeded Docherty as manager of Manchester United a decade later; the month following his departure from Chelsea, Docherty became manager of Rotherham United. He left Rotherham after a year and was appointed manager at Queens Park Rangers, only to leave 29 days later.
He became Doug Ellis' first manager at Aston Villa in December 1968, for 13 months. On 19 January 1970, with Aston Villa bottom of the Second Division, Docherty was sacked. From there he went to FC Porto, where he stayed for 16 months before resigning in May 1971, having failed to usurp Benfica and Sporting. On 2 July 1971, he was appointed by Hull City as assistant manager to Terry Neill, but on 12 September he left to become the caretaker manager of Scotland, with the position becoming permanent in November 1971. In December 1972, when Frank O'Farrell was sacked as manager of Manchester United, Docherty was poached by Manchester United and quit his job with Scotland to become manager, his first game in charge was against Leeds United at Old Trafford. The game finished 1–1 with Ted MacDougall scoring one of his few goals for United. Although United were in serious trouble when he took them over, because of an ageing squad, he managed to keep them in the First Division in 1972–73; the 1973–74 season saw United continue to struggle and they were relegated to the Second Division.
In the following season, United returned to the top flight as Second Division champions. In 1975–76 they finished in third place in the First Division and reached the 1976 FA Cup Final. United lost 1–0 to Southampton, who were in the Second Division. Docherty led United to the FA Cup final again in this time as underdogs against Liverpool. United won 2–1, denying Liverpool the second trophy of a possible treble of League, FA Cup and European Cup. Shortly afterwards, news that Docherty was having an extramarital affair with the wife of a United physiotherapist, Laurie Brown, became public, he was sacked in a blaze of publicity in July 1977. Docherty was replaced at Old Trafford by the same man who had replaced him at Dave Sexton; the affair resulted in the end of his marriage to Agnes, his wife since December 1949. She has since died. Tommy married Mary Brown, the couple are still together. Docherty has gone on to have a frosty relationship with the club since. Docherty became manager at Derby County in September 1977, where he stayed for two seasons before resigning in May 1979.
His next appointment was at Queens Park Rangers in May 1979. When he took over at Loftus Road, Rangers had been relegated to the Second Division and Docherty had to lift the team spirits to start the new season. New players such as Clive Allen, Tony Currie and Paul Goddard were brought in. Despite this, Docherty had a quick fallout with Queens Park Rangers's star player, Stan Bow
Edward Graham McCreadie is a Scottish former footballer who played at left-back for Chelsea. He became a football manager. McCreadie started his footballing career with amateur Scottish side Drumchapel before moving to Clydebank Juniors and East Stirlingshire. After turning down a move to Fulham, he was signed for Chelsea in 1962 by then-manager Tommy Docherty for £5,000 to help the club's push for promotion from the Second Division; as part of the deal Chelsea agreed to play two friendly matches against East Stirlingshire. A match was played at Firs Park in 1963. Over 50 years East Stirlingshire requested that Chelsea complete the agreement. Chelsea were promoted to the First Division in 1962 and McCreadie became a fixture in the Chelsea defence for the next decade. A talented and pacy attacking full-back with impressive timing, McCreadie featured in the flamboyant Chelsea sides of the 1960s and 1970s alongside the likes of Ron Harris, Bobby Tambling, Peter Osgood and Charlie Cooke. While he only scored five goals for the club throughout his career, McCreadie scored a memorable winner in the League Cup final of 1965 in which he dribbled 80 yards up the pitch before slotting the ball past Leicester City goalkeeper Gordon Banks to give his side a 3–2 first leg lead, which won the trophy for his club as the second leg at Filbert Street ended in a 0–0 draw.
After a string of high-league placings and near misses in the cups but no more silverware, McCreadie won the FA Cup with Chelsea in 1970, where a move involving him won the throw-in which created David Webb's winner in the replayed final against Leeds United at Old Trafford. The side won the Cup Winners' Cup the following season, but McCreadie missed the final in Athens through injury, he was a Scotland international, winning 23 caps between 1965 and 1969 after making his debut against England. He played in Scotland's famous 3-2 win over world champions England at Wembley in 1967, after which the Scots declared themselves the new unofficial world champions. Upon his retirement from playing in 1973, McCreadie joined the coaching staff at Chelsea having made 410 appearances for the club. In April 1975 he was appointed manager but by this stage the team was in decline with the club in debt and he couldn't prevent relegation to the Second Division. McCreadie re-built the side - taking the captaincy from John Hollins and giving it to 18-year-old Ray Wilkins in the process - and with no money to spend, put together a team of youth players and veterans from the club's heyday.
Chelsea were promoted back to the First Division in 1977. It was that he lost his job in somewhat bizarre circumstances. Having won promotion, his request for a company car was rejected by chairman Brian Mears, so he resigned. Mears relented and offered him the car but with his sense of pride he did not come back to the club as he had made his mind up. McCreadie left for the North American Soccer League in the late 1970s and was appointed manager of the Memphis Rogues, with whom he played one game in 1979, the indoor Cleveland Force before retiring from football in 1985, he continues to live in Tennessee in the United States. Eddie McCreadie at the Scottish Football Association Article from The Scotsman Chelsea FC'former key player' profile
Association football, more known as football or soccer, is a team sport played with a spherical ball between two teams of eleven players. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies, making it the world's most popular sport; the game is played on a rectangular field called a pitch with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by moving the ball beyond the goal line into the opposing goal. Association football is one of a family of football codes, which emerged from various ball games played worldwide since antiquity; the modern game traces its origins to 1863 when the Laws of the Game were codified in England by The Football Association. Players are not allowed to touch the ball with hands or arms while it is in play, except for the goalkeepers within the penalty area. Other players use their feet to strike or pass the ball, but may use any other part of their body except the hands and the arms; the team that scores most goals by the end of the match wins.
If the score is level at the end of the game, either a draw is declared or the game goes into extra time or a penalty shootout depending on the format of the competition. Association football is governed internationally by the International Federation of Association Football, which organises World Cups for both men and women every four years; the rules of association football were codified in England by the Football Association in 1863 and the name association football was coined to distinguish the game from the other forms of football played at the time rugby football. The first written "reference to the inflated ball used in the game" was in the mid-14th century: "Þe heued fro þe body went, Als it were a foteballe"; the Online Etymology Dictionary states that the "rules of the game" were made in 1848, before the "split off in 1863". The term soccer comes from a slang or jocular abbreviation of the word "association", with the suffix "-er" appended to it; the word soccer was first recorded in 1889 in the earlier form of socca.
Within the English-speaking world, association football is now called "football" in the United Kingdom and "soccer" in Canada and the United States. People in countries where other codes of football are prevalent may use either term, although national associations in Australia and New Zealand now use "football" for the formal name. According to FIFA, the Chinese competitive game cuju is the earliest form of football for which there is evidence. Cuju players could use any part of the body apart from hands and the intent was kicking a ball through an opening into a net, it was remarkably similar to modern football. During the Han Dynasty, cuju games were standardised and rules were established. Phaininda and episkyros were Greek ball games. An image of an episkyros player depicted in low relief on a vase at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens appears on the UEFA European Championship Cup. Athenaeus, writing in 228 AD, referenced the Roman ball game harpastum. Phaininda and harpastum were played involving hands and violence.
They all appear to have resembled rugby football and volleyball more than what is recognizable as modern football. As with pre-codified "mob football", the antecedent of all modern football codes, these three games involved more handling the ball than kicking. Other games included kemari in chuk-guk in Korea. Association football in itself does not have a classical history. Notwithstanding any similarities to other ball games played around the world FIFA has recognised that no historical connection exists with any game played in antiquity outside Europe; the modern rules of association football are based on the mid-19th century efforts to standardise the varying forms of football played in the public schools of England. The history of football in England dates back to at least the eighth century AD; the Cambridge Rules, first drawn up at Cambridge University in 1848, were influential in the development of subsequent codes, including association football. The Cambridge Rules were written at Trinity College, Cambridge, at a meeting attended by representatives from Eton, Rugby and Shrewsbury schools.
They were not universally adopted. During the 1850s, many clubs unconnected to schools or universities were formed throughout the English-speaking world, to play various forms of football; some came up with their own distinct codes of rules, most notably the Sheffield Football Club, formed by former public school pupils in 1857, which led to formation of a Sheffield FA in 1867. In 1862, John Charles Thring of Uppingham School devised an influential set of rules; these ongoing efforts contributed to the formation of The Football Association in 1863, which first met on the morning of 26 October 1863 at the Freemasons' Tavern in Great Queen Street, London. The only school to be represented on this occasion was Charterhouse; the Freemason's Tavern was the setting for five more meetings between October and December, which produced the first comprehensive set of rules. At the final meeting, the first FA treasurer, the representative from Blackheath, withdrew his club from the FA over the removal of two draft rules at the previous meeting: the first allowed for running with the ball in hand.
Other English rugby clubs followed this lead and did not join the FA and instead in 1871 formed the Rugby Football Union. The eleven remaining clubs, under