Episcopal Church (United States)
The Episcopal Church is a member church of the worldwide Anglican Communion based in the United States with dioceses elsewhere. It is a mainline Christian denomination divided into nine provinces; the presiding bishop of the Episcopal Church is Michael Bruce Curry, the first African-American bishop to serve in that position. In 2017, the Episcopal Church had 1,871,581 baptized members, of whom 1,712,563 were in the United States. In 2011, it was the nation's 14th largest denomination. In 2015, Pew Research estimated that 1.2 percent of the adult population in the United States, or 3 million people, self-identify as mainline Episcopalians. The church was organized after the American Revolution, when it became separate from the Church of England, whose clergy are required to swear allegiance to the British monarch as Supreme Governor of the Church of England; the Episcopal Church describes itself as "Protestant, yet Catholic". The Episcopal Church claims apostolic succession, tracing its bishops back to the apostles via holy orders.
The Book of Common Prayer, a collection of traditional rites, blessings and prayers used throughout the Anglican Communion, is central to Episcopal worship. The Episcopal Church was active in the Social Gospel movement of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Since the 1960s and 1970s, the church has pursued a decidedly more liberal course, it has supported the civil rights movement and affirmative action. Some of its leaders and priests are known for marching with influential civil rights demonstrators such as Martin Luther King Jr; the church calls for the full legal equality of LGBT people. In 2015, the church's 78th triennial General Convention passed resolutions allowing the blessing of same-sex marriages and approved two official liturgies to bless such unions; the Episcopal Church ordains women and LGBT people to the priesthood, the diaconate, the episcopate, despite opposition from a number of other member churches of the Anglican Communion. In 2003, Gene Robinson became the first gay person ordained as a bishop.'The Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States of America and "The Episcopal Church" are both official names specified in the church's constitution.
The latter is much more used. In other languages, an equivalent is used. For example, in Spanish, the church is called La Iglesia Episcopal Protestante de los Estados Unidos de América or La Iglesia Episcopal. and in French L'Église protestante épiscopale dans les États Unis d'Amérique or L'Église épiscopale. Until 1964, "The Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States of America" was the only official name in use. In the 19th century, High Church members advocated changing the name, which they felt did not acknowledge the church's Catholic heritage, they were opposed by the church's evangelical wing, which felt that the "Protestant Episcopal" label reflected the Reformed character of Anglicanism. After 1877, alternative names were proposed and rejected by the General Convention. One proposed alternative was "the American Catholic Church". By the 1960s, opposition to dropping the word "Protestant" had subsided. In a 1964 General Convention compromise and lay delegates suggested adding a preamble to the church's constitution, recognizing "The Episcopal Church" as a lawful alternate designation while still retaining the earlier name.
The 66th General Convention voted in 1979 to use the name "The Episcopal Church" in the Oath of Conformity of the Declaration for Ordination. The evolution of the name can be seen in the church's Book of Common Prayer. In the 1928 BCP, the title page read, "According to the use of The Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States of America", whereas on the title page of the 1979 BCP it states, "'According to the use of The Episcopal Church"; the Episcopal Church in the United States of America has never been an official name of the church but is an alternative seen in English. Since several other churches in the Anglican Communion use the name "Episcopal", including Scotland and the Philippines, for example Anglicans Online, add the phrase "in the United States of America"; the full legal name of the national church corporate body is the "Domestic and Foreign Missionary Society of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States of America", incorporated by the legislature of New York and established in 1821.
The membership of the corporation "shall be considered as comprehending all persons who are members of the Church". This should not be confused with the name of the church itself, as it is a distinct body relating to church governance; the Episcopal Church has its origins in the Church of England in the American colonies, it stresses continuity with the early universal Western Church and claims to maintain apostolic succession. The first parish was founded in Jamestown, Virginia in 1607, under the charter of the Virginia Company of London; the tower of Jamestown Church is one of the oldest surviving Anglican church structures in the United States. The Jamestown church building itself is a modern reconstruction. Although no American Anglican bishops existed in the colonial era, the Church of England had an official status in several colonies, which meant that local governments paid tax money to local parishes, the parishes handled some civic functions; the Church of England was designated the established church in Virginia in 1609, in New York in 1693, in Maryland in 1702, in South Carolina in 1706, in North Carolina in 1730, in Georgia in 1758.
From 1635 the vestries and the clergy came loosely under the diocesan authority of the Bishop of London. After 1702, the Society for the Propagation of the Gos
A spectrum is a condition, not limited to a specific set of values but can vary, without steps, across a continuum. The word was first used scientifically in optics to describe the rainbow of colors in visible light after passing through a prism; as scientific understanding of light advanced, it came to apply to the entire electromagnetic spectrum. Spectrum has since been applied by analogy to topics outside optics. Thus, one might talk about the "spectrum of political opinion", or the "spectrum of activity" of a drug, or the "autism spectrum". In these uses, values within a spectrum may not be associated with quantifiable numbers or definitions; such uses imply a broad range of conditions or behaviors grouped together and studied under a single title for ease of discussion. Nonscientific uses of the term spectrum are sometimes misleading. For instance, a single left–right spectrum of political opinion does not capture the full range of people's political beliefs. Political scientists use a variety of biaxial and multiaxial systems to more characterize political opinion.
In most modern usages of spectrum there is a unifying theme between the extremes at either end. This was not always true in older usage. In Latin, spectrum means "image" or "apparition", including the meaning "spectre". Spectral evidence is testimony about what was done by spectres of persons not present physically, or hearsay evidence about what ghosts or apparitions of Satan said, it was used to convict a number of persons of witchcraft at Salem, Massachusetts in the late 17th century. The word "spectrum" was used to designate a ghostly optical afterimage by Goethe in his Theory of Colors and Schopenhauer in On Vision and Colors; the prefix "spectro-" is used to form words relating to spectra. For example, a spectrometer is a device used to record spectra and spectroscopy is the use of a spectrometer for chemical analysis. In the 17th century, the word spectrum was introduced into optics by Isaac Newton, referring to the range of colors observed when white light was dispersed through a prism.
Soon the term referred to a plot of light intensity or power as a function of frequency or wavelength known as a spectral density plot. The term spectrum was expanded to apply to other waves, such as sound waves that could be measured as a function of frequency, frequency spectrum and power spectrum of a signal; the term now applies to any signal that can be measured or decomposed along a continuous variable such as energy in electron spectroscopy or mass-to-charge ratio in mass spectrometry. Spectrum is used to refer to a graphical representation of the signal as a function of the dependent variable. Electromagnetic spectrum refers to the full range of all frequencies of electromagnetic radiation and to the characteristic distribution of electromagnetic radiation emitted or absorbed by that particular object. Devices used to measure an electromagnetic spectrum are called spectrometer; the visible spectrum is the part of the electromagnetic spectrum. The wavelength of visible light ranges from 390 to 700 nm.
The absorption spectrum of a chemical element or chemical compound is the spectrum of frequencies or wavelengths of incident radiation that are absorbed by the compound due to electron transitions from a lower to a higher energy state. The emission spectrum refers to the spectrum of radiation emitted by the compound due to electron transitions from a higher to a lower energy state. Light from many different sources contains various colors, each with its own brightness or intensity. A rainbow, or prism, sends these component colors in different directions, making them individually visible at different angles. A graph of the intensity plotted against the frequency is the frequency spectrum of the light; when all the visible frequencies are present the perceived color of the light is white, the spectrum is a flat line. Therefore, flat-line spectra in general are referred to as white, whether they represent light or another type of wave phenomenon. In radio and telecommunications, the frequency spectrum can be shared among many different broadcasters.
The radio spectrum is the part of the electromagnetic spectrum corresponding to frequencies lower below 300 GHz, which corresponds to wavelengths longer than about 1 mm. The microwave spectrum corresponds to frequencies between 300 MHz and 300 GHz and wavelengths between one meter and one millimeter; each broadcast radio and TV station transmits a wave on an assigned frequency range, called a channel. When many broadcasters are present, the radio spectrum consists of the sum of all the individual channels, each carrying separate information, spread across a wide frequency spectrum. Any particular radio receiver will detect a single function of amplitude vs. time. The radio uses a tuned circuit or tuner to select a single channel or frequency band and demodulate or decode the information from that broadcaster. If we made a graph of the strength of each channel vs. the frequency of the tuner, it would be the frequency spectrum of the antenna signal. In astronomical spectroscopy, the strength and position of absorption and emission lines, as well as the overall spectral energy distribution of the continuum, reveal many properties of astronomical objects.
Stellar classification is the categorisation of stars based on their characteristic electromagnetic spectra. The spectral flux density is used to represent the spectrum such as a star. In radiometry and colorimetry, the spectral power distribution of a light source is a measure o
Federal Communications Commission
The Federal Communications Commission is an independent agency of the United States government created by statute to regulate interstate communications by radio, wire and cable. The FCC serves the public in the areas of broadband access, fair competition, radio frequency use, media responsibility, public safety, homeland security; the FCC was formed by the Communications Act of 1934 to replace the radio regulation functions of the Federal Radio Commission. The FCC took over wire communication regulation from the Interstate Commerce Commission; the FCC's mandated jurisdiction covers the 50 states, the District of Columbia, the Territories of the United States. The FCC provides varied degrees of cooperation and leadership for similar communications bodies in other countries of North America; the FCC is funded by regulatory fees. It has an estimated fiscal-2016 budget of US $388 million, it has 1,688 federal employees, made up of 50% males and 50% females as of December, 2017. The FCC's mission, specified in Section One of the Communications Act of 1934 and amended by the Telecommunications Act of 1996 is to "make available so far as possible, to all the people of the United States, without discrimination on the basis of race, religion, national origin, or sex, efficient and world-wide wire and radio communication services with adequate facilities at reasonable charges."
The Act furthermore provides that the FCC was created "for the purpose of the national defense" and "for the purpose of promoting safety of life and property through the use of wire and radio communications."Consistent with the objectives of the Act as well as the 1999 Government Performance and Results Act, the FCC has identified four goals in its 2018-22 Strategic Plan. They are: Closing the Digital Divide, Promoting Innovation, Protecting Consumers & Public Safety, Reforming the FCC's Processes; the FCC is directed by five commissioners appointed by the President of the United States and confirmed by the United States Senate for five-year terms, except when filling an unexpired term. The U. S. President designates one of the commissioners to serve as chairman. Only three commissioners may be members of the same political party. None of them may have a financial interest in any FCC-related business. † Commissioners may continue serving until the appointment of their replacements. However, they may not serve beyond the end of the next session of Congress following term expiration.
In practice, this means that commissioners may serve up to 1 1/2 years beyond the official term expiration dates listed above if no replacement is appointed. This would end on the date that Congress adjourns its annual session no than noon on January 4; the FCC is organized into seven Bureaus, which process applications for licenses and other filings, analyze complaints, conduct investigations and implement regulations, participate in hearings. The Consumer & Governmental Affairs Bureau develops and implements the FCC's consumer policies, including disability access. CGB serves as the public face of the FCC through outreach and education, as well as through their Consumer Center, responsible for responding to consumer inquiries and complaints. CGB maintains collaborative partnerships with state and tribal governments in such areas as emergency preparedness and implementation of new technologies; the Enforcement Bureau is responsible for enforcement of provisions of the Communications Act 1934, FCC rules, FCC orders, terms and conditions of station authorizations.
Major areas of enforcement that are handled by the Enforcement Bureau are consumer protection, local competition, public safety, homeland security. The International Bureau develops international policies in telecommunications, such as coordination of frequency allocation and orbital assignments so as to minimize cases of international electromagnetic interference involving U. S. licensees. The International Bureau oversees FCC compliance with the international Radio Regulations and other international agreements; the Media Bureau develops and administers the policy and licensing programs relating to electronic media, including cable television, broadcast television, radio in the United States and its territories. The Media Bureau handles post-licensing matters regarding direct broadcast satellite service; the Wireless Telecommunications Bureau regulates domestic wireless telecommunications programs and policies, including licensing. The bureau implements competitive bidding for spectrum auctions and regulates wireless communications services including mobile phones, public safety, other commercial and private radio services.
The Wireline Competition Bureau develops policy concerning wire line telecommunications. The Wireline Competition Bureau's main objective is to promote growth and economical investments in wireline technology infrastructure, development and services; the Public Safety and Homeland Security Bureau was launched in 2006 with a focus on critical communications infrastructure. The FCC has eleven Staff Offices; the FCC's Offices provide support services to the Bureaus. The Office of Administrative Law Judges is responsible for conducting hearings ordered by the Commission; the hearing function includes acting on interlocutory requests filed in the proceedings such as petitions to intervene, petitions to enlarge issues, contested discovery requests. An Administrative Law Judge, appointed under the Administrative Procedure Act, presides at the hearing during which documents and sworn testimony are received in evidence, witnesses are cross-examined. At the co
Colorado is a state of the Western United States encompassing most of the southern Rocky Mountains as well as the northeastern portion of the Colorado Plateau and the western edge of the Great Plains. It is the 8th most extensive and 21st most populous U. S. state. The estimated population of Colorado was 5,695,564 on July 1, 2018, an increase of 13.25% since the 2010 United States Census. The state was named for the Colorado River, which early Spanish explorers named the Río Colorado for the ruddy silt the river carried from the mountains; the Territory of Colorado was organized on February 28, 1861, on August 1, 1876, U. S. President Ulysses S. Grant signed Proclamation 230 admitting Colorado to the Union as the 38th state. Colorado is nicknamed the "Centennial State" because it became a state one century after the signing of the United States Declaration of Independence. Colorado is bordered by Wyoming to the north, Nebraska to the northeast, Kansas to the east, Oklahoma to the southeast, New Mexico to the south, Utah to the west, touches Arizona to the southwest at the Four Corners.
Colorado is noted for its vivid landscape of mountains, high plains, canyons, plateaus and desert lands. Colorado is part of the western and southwestern United States, is one of the Mountain States. Denver is most populous city of Colorado. Residents of the state are known as Coloradans, although the antiquated term "Coloradoan" is used. Colorado is notable for its diverse geography, which includes alpine mountains, high plains, deserts with huge sand dunes, deep canyons. In 1861, the United States Congress defined the boundaries of the new Territory of Colorado by lines of latitude and longitude, stretching from 37°N to 41°N latitude, from 102°02'48"W to 109°02'48"W longitude. After 158 years of government surveys, the borders of Colorado are now defined by 697 boundary markers and 697 straight boundary lines. Colorado and Utah are the only states that have their borders defined by straight boundary lines with no natural features; the southwest corner of Colorado is the Four Corners Monument at 36°59'56"N, 109°2'43"W.
This is the only place in the United States where four states meet: Colorado, New Mexico and Utah. The summit of Mount Elbert at 14,440 feet elevation in Lake County is the highest point in Colorado and the Rocky Mountains of North America. Colorado is the only U. S. state that lies above 1,000 meters elevation. The point where the Arikaree River flows out of Yuma County and into Cheyenne County, Kansas, is the lowest point in Colorado at 3,317 feet elevation; this point, which holds the distinction of being the highest low elevation point of any state, is higher than the high elevation points of 18 states and the District of Columbia. A little less than half of Colorado is flat and rolling land. East of the Rocky Mountains are the Colorado Eastern Plains of the High Plains, the section of the Great Plains within Nebraska at elevations ranging from 3,350 to 7,500 feet; the Colorado plains are prairies but include deciduous forests and canyons. Precipitation averages 15 to 25 inches annually. Eastern Colorado is presently farmland and rangeland, along with small farming villages and towns.
Corn, hay and oats are all typical crops. Most villages and towns in this region boast both a grain elevator. Irrigation water is available from subterranean sources. Surface water sources include the South Platte, the Arkansas River, a few other streams. Subterranean water is accessed through artesian wells. Heavy use of wells for irrigation caused underground water reserves to decline. Eastern Colorado hosts considerable livestock, such as hog farms. 70% of Colorado's population resides along the eastern edge of the Rocky Mountains in the Front Range Urban Corridor between Cheyenne and Pueblo, Colorado. This region is protected from prevailing storms that blow in from the Pacific Ocean region by the high Rockies in the middle of Colorado; the "Front Range" includes Denver, Fort Collins, Castle Rock, Colorado Springs, Pueblo and other townships and municipalities in between. On the other side of the Rockies, the significant population centers in Western Colorado are the cities of Grand Junction and Montrose.
The Continental Divide of the Americas extends along the crest of the Rocky Mountains. The area of Colorado to the west of the Continental Divide is called the Western Slope of Colorado. West of the Continental Divide, water flows to the southwest via the Colorado River and the Green River into the Gulf of California. Within the interior of the Rocky Mountains are several large parks which are high broad basins. In the north, on the east side of the Continental Divide is the North Park of Colorado; the North Park is drained by the North Platte River, which flows north into Nebraska. Just to the south of North Park, but on the western side of the Continental Divide, is the Middle Park of Colorado, drained by the Colorado River; the South Park of Colorado is the region of the headwaters of the South Platte River. In southmost Colorado is the large San Luis Valley, where the headwaters of the Rio Grande are located; the valley sits between the Sangre De Cristo Mountains and San Juan Mountains, consists of large desert lands that run into the mountains.
The Rio Grande drains due south into New Mexico and Texas. Across the Sangre de Cristo Range to the east of the S
Mount Kilimanjaro or just Kilimanjaro, with its three volcanic cones, "Kibo", "Mawenzi", "Shira", is a dormant volcano in Tanzania. It is the highest mountain in Africa, with its summit about 4,900 metres from its base, 5,895 metres above sea level; the first people known to have reached the summit of the mountain were Hans Meyer and Ludwig Purtscheller, in 1889. The mountain is a major climbing destination; the mountain has been the subject of many scientific studies because of its shrinking glaciers and disappearing ice fields. Kilimanjaro is a large stratovolcano composed of three distinct volcanic cones: the highest. Mawenzi and Shira are extinct, while Kibo could erupt again. Uhuru Peak is the highest summit on Kibo's crater rim; the Tanzania National Parks Authority, a Tanzanian government agency, the United Nations Educational and Cultural Organization lists the height of Uhuru Peak as 5,895 m, based on a British survey in 1952. The height has since been measured as 5,892 metres in 1999, 5,891 metres in 2008, 5,888 metres in 2014.
The geology of the interior of the volcanic edifice is poorly known, given the lack of large scale erosion that could have exposed the interior of the volcano. Eruptive activity at the Shira centre commenced about 2.5 million years ago, with the last important phase occurring about 1.9 million years ago, just before the northern part of the edifice collapsed. Shira is topped by a broad plateau at 3,800 metres; the remnant caldera rim has been degraded by erosion. Before the caldera formed and erosion began, Shira might have been between 5,200 m high, it is composed of basic lavas, with some pyroclastics. The formation of the caldera was accompanied by lava emanating from ring fractures, but there was no large scale explosive activity. Two cones formed subsequently, the phonolitic one at the northwest end of the ridge and the doleritic Platzkegel in the caldera centre. Both Mawenzi and Kibo began erupting about 1 million years ago, they are separated by the Saddle Plateau at 4,400 metres elevation.
The youngest dated rocks at Mawenzi are about 448,000 years old. Mawenzi forms a horseshoe-shaped ridge with pinnacles and ridges opening to the northeast, with a tower-like shape resulting from deep erosion and a mafic dyke swarm. Several large cirques cut into the ring; the largest of these sits on top of the Great Barranco gorge. Notable are the Ost and West Barrancos on the northeastern side of the mountain. Most of the eastern side of the mountain has been removed by erosion. Mawenzi has Neumann Tower, 4,425 metres. Kibo is more than 24 km wide at the Saddle Plateau altitude; the last activity here, dated to 150,000–200,000 years ago, created the current Kibo summit crater. Kibo still has gas-emitting fumaroles in its crater. Kibo is capped by an symmetrical cone with escarpments rising 180 to 200 metres on the south side; these escarpments define a 2.5-kilometre-wide caldera caused by the collapse of the summit. Within this caldera is the Inner Cone and within the crater of the Inner Cone is the Reusch Crater, which the Tanganyika government in 1954 named after Gustav Otto Richard Reusch, upon his climbing the mountain for the 25th time.
The Ash Pit, 350 metres deep, lies within the Reusch Crater. About 100,000 years ago, part of Kibo's crater rim collapsed, creating the area known as the Western Breach and the Great Barranco. An continuous layer of lava buries most older geological features, with the exception of exposed strata within the Great West Notch and the Kibo Barranco; the former exposes intrusions of syenite. Kibo has five main lava formations: Phonotephrites and tephriphonolites of the Lava Tower group, on a dyke cropping out at 4,600 metres, dated to 482,000 years ago. Tephriphonolite to phonolite lavas "characterized by rhomb mega-phenocrysts of sodic feldspars" of the Rhomb Porphyry group, dated to 460,000–360,000 years ago. Aphyric phonolite lavas, "commonly underlain by basal obsidian horizons", of the Lent group, dated to 359,000–337,000 years ago Porphyritic tephriphonolite to phonolite lavas of the Caldera Rim group, dated to 274,000–170,000 years ago Phonolite lava flows with aegirine phenocrysts, of the Inner Crater group, which represents the last volcanic activity on KiboKibo has more than 250 parasitic cones on its northwest and southeast flanks that were formed between 150,000 and 200,000 years ago and erupted picrobasalts, trachybasalts and basanites.
They reach as far as Lake Chala and Taveta in the southeast and the Lengurumani Plain in the northwest. Most of these cones are well preserved, with the exception of the Saddle Plateau cones that were affected by glacial action. Despite their small size, lava from the cones has obscured large portions of the mountain; the Saddle Plateau cones are cinder cones with terminal effusion of lava, while the Upper Rombo Zone cones generated lava flows. All Saddle Plateau cones predate the last glaciation. According to reports gathered in the 19th century from the Maasai, Lake Chala on Kibo's eastern flank was the site of a village, destroyed by an eruption; the mountain is drained by a network of rivers and streams on the wetter and more eroded southern side and above 1,200 metres. Below that altitude, increased evaporation and human water usage reduces the waterflows
University of Tennessee
The University of Tennessee is a public research university in Knoxville, Tennessee. Founded in 1794, two years before Tennessee became the 16th state, it is the flagship campus of the University of Tennessee system, with ten undergraduate colleges and eleven graduate colleges, it hosts 28,000 students from all 50 states and more than 100 foreign countries. In its 2019 universities ranking, U. S. News & World Report ranked UT 115th among all national universities and 52nd among public institutions of higher learning. Seven alumni have been selected as Rhodes Scholars. James M. Buchanan, M. S.'41, received the 1986 Nobel Prize in Economics. UT's ties to nearby Oak Ridge National Laboratory, established under UT President Andrew Holt and continued under the UT–Battelle partnership, allow for considerable research opportunities for faculty and students. Affiliated with the university are the Howard H. Baker Jr. Center for Public Policy, the University of Tennessee Anthropological Research Facility, the University of Tennessee Arboretum, which occupies 250 acres of nearby Oak Ridge and features hundreds of species of plants indigenous to the region.
The university is a direct partner of the University of Tennessee Medical Center, one of two Level I trauma centers in East Tennessee. The University of Tennessee is the only university in the nation to have three presidential papers editing projects; the university holds collections of the papers of all three U. S. presidents from Tennessee—Andrew Jackson, James K. Polk, Andrew Johnson. UT is one of the oldest public universities in the United States and the oldest secular institution west of the Eastern Continental Divide. On September 10, 1794, two years before Tennessee became a state and at a meeting of the legislature of the Southwest Territory at Knoxville, the University of Tennessee was chartered as Blount College; the new, all-male, non-sectarian institution struggled for 13 years with a small student body and faculty, in 1807, the school was rechartered as East Tennessee College as a condition of receiving the proceeds from the settlement devised in the Compact of 1806. When Samuel Carrick, its first president and only faculty member, died in 1809, the school was temporarily closed until 1820.
When it reopened, it began experiencing growing pains. Thomas Jefferson had recommended that the college leave its confining single building in the city and relocate to a place it could spread out. Coincidentally, in the Summer of 1826, the trustees explored "Barbara Hill" as a potential site and relocated there by 1828. In 1840, the college was elevated to East Tennessee University; the school's status as a religiously non-affiliated institution of higher learning was unusual for the period of time in which it was chartered, the school is recognized as the oldest such establishment of its kind west of the Appalachian Divide. Tennessee was a member of the Confederacy in 1862 when the Morrill Act was passed, providing for endowment funds from the sale of federal land to state agricultural colleges. On February 28, 1867, Congress passed a special Act making the State of Tennessee eligible to participate in the Morrill Act of 1862 program. In January 1869, ETU was designated as Tennessee's recipient of the Land-Grant designation and funds.
In accepting the funds, the university would focus upon instructing students in military and mechanical subjects. ETU received $396,000 as its endowment under the program. Trustees soon approved the establishment of a medical program under the auspices of the Nashville School of Medicine and added advanced degree programs. East Tennessee University was renamed the University of Tennessee in 1879 by the state legislature. During World War II, UT was one of 131 colleges and universities nationally that took part in the V-12 Navy College Training Program which offered students a path to a Navy commission. African-American attorney Rita Sanders Geier filed suit against the state of Tennessee in 1968 alleging that its higher education system remained segregated despite a federal mandate ordering desegregation, she claimed that the opening of a University of Tennessee campus at Nashville, Tennessee would lead to the creation of another predominantly white institution that would strip resources from Tennessee State University, the only state-funded Historically black university.
The suit was not settled until 2001, when the Geier Consent Decree resulted in the appropriation of $77 million in state funding to increase diversity among student and faculty populations among all Tennessee institutions of higher learning. The University of Tennessee at Knoxville is the flagship campus of the statewide University of Tennessee system, governed by a 26-member board of trustees appointed by the Governor of Tennessee; the campus is headed by a Chancellor who functions as the chief executive officer of the campus, responsible for its daily administration and management. The chancellor reports to the president of the university system and is elected annually by the UT Board of Trustees at the recommendation of the system president. Joseph A. DiPietro has been system president since January 1, 2011 until December 2018. Randy Boyd, a former candidate for governor, was appointed interim president while a search has been convened. Provost and Senior Vice Chancellor for Academic Affairs Susan D. Martin is responsible for the academic administration of the Knoxville campus and reports directly to the Chancellor.
On December 15, 2016, the UT Board of Trustees confirmed Beverly J. Davenport as the next Chancellor of the Knoxville campus, succeeding Jimmy Cheek, she began her role on February
Digital video recorder
A digital video recorder is an electronic device that records video in a digital format to a disk drive, USB flash drive, SD memory card, SSD or other local or networked mass storage device. The term includes set-top boxes with direct to disk recording, portable media players and TV gateways with recording capability, digital camcorders. Personal computers are connected to video capture devices and used as DVRs. Many DVRs are classified as consumer electronic devices. Consumer digital video recorders ReplayTV and TiVo were launched at the 1999 Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas, Nevada. Microsoft demonstrated a unit with DVR capability, but this did not become available until the end of 1999 for full DVR features in Dish Network's DISHplayer receivers. TiVo shipped their first units on March 31, 1999. ReplayTV won the "Best of Show" award in the video category with Netscape co-founder Marc Andreessen as an early investor and board member, but TiVo was more successful commercially. Legal action by media companies forced ReplayTV to remove many features such as automatic commercial skip and the sharing of recordings over the Internet, but newer devices have regained these functions while adding complementary abilities, such as recording onto DVDs and programming and remote control facilities using PDAs, networked PCs, Web browsers.
In contrast to VCRs, hard-disk based digital video recorders make "time shifting" more convenient and allow for functions such as pausing live TV, instant replay, chasing playback and skipping over advertising during playback. Many DVRs use the MPEG format for compressing the digital video. Video recording capabilities have become an essential part of the modern set-top box, as TV viewers have wanted to take control of their viewing experiences; as consumers have been able to converge increasing amounts of video content on their set-tops, delivered by traditional'broadcast' cable and terrestrial as well as IP networks, the ability to capture programming and view it whenever they want has become a must-have function for many consumers. At the 1999 CES, Dish Network demonstrated the hardware that would have DVR capability with the assistance of Microsoft software. Which included WebTV Networks internet TV. By the end of 1999 the Dishplayer had full DVR capabilities and within a year, over 200,000 units were sold.
In the UK, digital video recorders are referred to as "plus boxes". Freeview+ have been around in the UK since the late 2000s. British Sky Broadcasting markets a popular combined receiver and DVR as Sky+. TiVo launched a UK model in 2000, is no longer supported, except for third party services, the continuation of TiVo through Virgin Media in 2010. South African based Africa Satellite TV beamer Multichoice launched their DVR, available on their DStv platform. In addition to ReplayTV and TiVo, there are a number of other suppliers of digital terrestrial DVRs, including Thomson, Fusion, Pace Micro Technology, Humax, VBox Communications, AC Ryan Playon and Advanced Digital Broadcast. Many satellite, cable and IPTV companies are incorporating digital video recording functions into their set-top box, such as with DirecTiVo, DISHPlayer/DishDVR, Scientific Atlanta Explorer 8xxx from Time Warner, Total Home DVR from AT&T U-verse, Motorola DCT6412 from Comcast and others, Moxi Media Center by Digeo, or Sky+.
Astro introduced their DVR system, called Astro MAX, the first PVR in Malaysia but was phased out two years after its introduction. In the case of digital television, there is no encoding necessary in the DVR since the signal is a digitally encoded MPEG stream; the digital video recorder stores the digital stream directly to disk. Having the broadcaster involved with, sometimes subsidizing, the design of the DVR can lead to features such as the ability to use interactive TV on recorded shows, pre-loading of programs, or directly recording encrypted digital streams, it can, however force the manufacturer to implement non-skippable advertisements and automatically expiring recordings. In the United States, the FCC has ruled that starting on July 1, 2007, consumers will be able to purchase a set-top box from a third-party company, rather than being forced to purchase or rent the set-top box from their cable company; this ruling only applies to "navigation devices," otherwise known as a cable television set-top box, not to the security functions that control the user's access to the content of the cable operator.
The overall net effect on digital video recorders and related technology is unlikely to be substantial as standalone DVRs are readily available on the open market. In Europe Free-To-Air and Pay TV TV gateways with multiple tuners have whole house recording capabilities allowing recording of TV programs to Network Attached Storage or attached USB storage, recorded programs are shared across the home network to tablet, smartphone, PC, Smart TV. In 2003 many Satellite and Cable providers introduced dual-tuner digital video recorders. In the UK, BSkyB introduced their first PVR Sky+ with dual tuner support in 2001; these machines have two independent tuners within the same receiver. The main use for this feature is the capability to record a live program while watching another live program or