Crime fiction is a literary genre that fictionalises crimes, their detection and their motives. It is distinguished from mainstream fiction and other genres such as historical fiction or science fiction, but the boundaries are indistinct. Crime fiction has multiple subgenres, including detective fiction, courtroom drama, hard-boiled fiction and legal thrillers. Most crime drama does not feature the court room. Suspense and mystery are key elements. One of the earliest stories in which solving a crime is central to the story is Oedipus Rex, in which the search for the murderer of the previous king, leads to the downfall of the current one. Another early example of crime fiction is gong’ an fiction in China, which involved government magistrates who solved criminal court cases and first appeared in colloquial stories of the Song dynasty. An early example of a crime story is the medieval Arabic tale of "The Three Apples", one of the tales narrated by Scheherazade in the One Thousand and One Nights.
In this tale, a fisherman discovers a heavy locked chest along the Tigris river and he sells it to the Abbasid Caliph, Harun al-Rashid, who has the chest broken open only to find inside it the dead body of a young woman, cut into pieces. Harun orders his vizier, Ja'far ibn Yahya, to solve the crime and find the murderer within three days, or be executed if he fails his assignment; the story has been described as a "whodunit" murder mystery with multiple plot twists. The story has detective fiction elements; the earliest known modern crime fiction is E. T. A. Hoffmann's 1819 novella Mademoiselle de Scudéri. There is Thomas Skinner Sturr's anonymous Richmond, or stories in the life of a Bow Street Officer. Better known are the earlier dark works of Edgar Allan Poe, his brilliant and eccentric detective C. Auguste Dupin, a forerunner to Arthur Conan Doyle’s Sherlock Holmes, appeared in works such as "The Murders in the Rue Morgue", "The Mystery of Marie Roget", "The Purloined Letter". With his Dupin stories, Poe provided the framework for the classic detective story.
The detective’s unnamed companion is the narrator of the stories and a prototype for the character of Dr. Watson in Sherlock Holmes stories. Wilkie Collins' epistolary novel The Woman in White was published in 1860, while The Moonstone is thought to be his masterpiece. French author Émile Gaboriau's Monsieur Lecoq laid the groundwork for the methodical, scientifically minded detective; the evolution of locked room mysteries was one of the landmarks in the history of crime fiction. The Sherlock Holmes mysteries of Arthur Conan Doyle are said to have been singularly responsible for the huge popularity in this genre. A precursor was Paul Féval, whose series Les Habits Noirs features Scotland Yard detectives and criminal conspiracies; the best-selling crime novel of the nineteenth century was Fergus Hume's The Mystery of a Hansom Cab, set in Melbourne, Australia. The evolution of the print mass media in the United Kingdom and the United States in the latter half of the 19th century was crucial in popularising crime fiction and related genres.
Literary'variety' magazines like Strand, McClure's, Harper's became central to the overall structure and function of popular fiction in society, providing a mass-produced medium that offered cheap, illustrated publications that were disposable. Like the works of many other important fiction writers of his day—e.g. Wilkie Collins and Charles Dickens—Arthur Conan Doyle's Sherlock Holmes stories first appeared in serial form in the monthly Strand magazine in the United Kingdom; the series attracted a wide and passionate following on both sides of the Atlantic, when Doyle killed off Holmes in The Final Problem, the public outcry was so great, the publishing offers for more stories so attractive, that he was reluctantly forced to resurrect him. In Italy, local authors began to produce crime mysteries in the 1850s. Early translations of English and American stories and local works were published in cheap yellow covers and thus the genre was baptized with the term "Libri gialli" or yellow books; the genre was outlawed by the Fascists during WWII but exploded in popularity after the war influenced by the American hard-boiled school of crime fiction.
There emerged a group of mainstream Italian writers who used the detective format to create an anti-detective or postmodern novel in which the detectives are imperfect, the crimes unsolved and clues left for the reader to decipher. Famous writers include Leonardo Sciascia, Umberto Eco, Carlo Emilio Gadda. In Spain, The Nail and other Tales of Mystery and Crime was published by Pedro Antonio de Alarcón in 1853. Crime fiction in Spain took on some special characteristics that reflected the culture of the country; the Spanish writers emphasized the corruption and ineptitude of the police and depicted the authorities and the wealthy in negative terms. In China, modern crime fiction was first developed from translations of foreign works from the 1890s. Cheng Xiaoqing, considered "The Grand Master" of twentieth-century Chinese detective fiction, translated Sherlock Holmes into classical and vernacular Chinese. In the late 1910s, Cheng began writing his own detective fiction series, Sherlock in Shanghai, mimicking Conan Doyle’s style but reappropriating to a Chinese audience.
During the Mao era, crime fiction was suppressed and Soviet-styled and anti-capitalist. In the post-Mao era, crime fiction in
National Library of Poland
The National Library of Poland is the central Polish library, subject directly to the Ministry of Culture and National Heritage of the Republic of Poland. The library collects books, journals and audiovisual publications published in the territory of Poland, as well as Polonica published abroad, it is the most important humanities research library, the main archive of Polish writing and the state centre of bibliographic information about books. It plays a significant role as a research facility and is an important methodological center for other Polish libraries; the National Library receives a copy of every book published in Poland as legal deposit. The Jagiellonian Library is the only other library in Poland to have a national library status. There are three general sections: The Library The Bibliographic Institute of the National Library The Book and Readership Institute The National Library's history has origins in the 18th century including items from the collections of John III Sobieski which were obtained from his grand daughter Maria Karolina Sobieska, Duchess of Bouillon.
However, the Załuski collection was confiscated by troops of Russian tsarina Catherine II in the aftermath of the second Partition of Poland and sent to Saint Petersburg, where the books formed the mass of the Imperial Public Library on its formation in 1795. Parts of the collection were damaged or destroyed as they were mishandled while being removed from the library and transported to Russia, many were stolen. According to the historian Joachim Lelewel, the Zaluskis' books, "could be bought at Grodno by the basket"; because of that, when Poland regained her independence in 1918, there was no central institution to serve in the capacity of a national library. On 24 February 1928, by the decree of president Ignacy Mościcki, the National Library was created in its modern form, it was opened in 1930 and had 200 thousand volumes. Its first Director General was Stefan Demby, succeeded in 1934 by Stefan Vrtel-Wierczyński; the collections of the library were extended. For instance, in 1932 president Mościcki donated all of the books and manuscripts from the Wilanów Palace Museum to the library, some 40 thousand volumes and 20 thousand pictures from the collection of Stanisław Kostka Potocki.
The National Library lacked a seat of its own. Because of that, the collections had to be accommodated in several places; the main reading room was located in the newly built library building of the Warsaw School of Economics. In 1935 the Potocki Palace in Warsaw became home for the special collections. A new, purpose-built building for the library was planned in what is now the Pole Mokotowskie, in a planned monumental "Government District". However, its construction was hampered by the outbreak of World War II. Before World War II, the library collections consisted of: 6.5 million books and journals from 19th and 20th centuries 3,000 early prints 2,200 incunables 52,000 manuscripts maps and musicIn 1940 the Nazi occupants changed the National Library into Municipal Library of Warsaw and divided it as follows: Department of Books for Germans Restricted Department, containing books that were not available to readers All special collections from various Warsaw offices and institutions In 1944 the special collections were set ablaze by the Nazi occupants as a part of repressions after the Warsaw Uprising.
80,000 early printed books, including priceless 16th-18th century Polonica, 26,000 manuscripts, 2,500 incunables, 100,000 drawings and engravings, 50,000 pieces of sheet music and theatre materials were destroyed. It is estimated that out of over 6 million volumes in Warsaw's major libraries in 1939, 3.6 million volumes were lost during World War II, a large part of them belonging to the National Library. Today the collections of the National Library are one of the largest in the country. Among 7,900,000 volumes held in the library are 160,000 objects printed before 1801, over 26,000 manuscripts, over 114,000 music prints and 400,000 drawings; the library collections include photographs and other iconographic documents, more than 101,000 atlases and maps, over 2,000,000 ephemera, as well as over 2,000,000 books and about 800,000 copies of journals from 19th to 21st centuries. Notable items in the collection include 151 leaves of the Codex Suprasliensis, inscribed in UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme Register in 2007 in recognition for its supranational and supraregional significance.
In 2012 the library signed an agreement to add 1.3 million Polish library records to WorldCat. List of libraries damaged during the World War II Digital Library of the National Library of Poland National Library website Polona - National Digital Library A Commonwealth of Diverse Cultures
Noir fiction is a literary genre related to hardboiled genre, with a distinction that the protagonist is not a detective, but instead either a victim, a suspect, or a perpetrator. Other common characteristics include a self-destructive protagonist. A typical protagonist of noir fiction is dealing with the legal, political or other system, no less corrupt than the perpetrator, by whom the protagonist is either victimized and/or has to victimize others on a daily basis, leading to a lose-lose situation. In the English-speaking world, the term originated as a cinematic one. Film noir refers to cinematic works influenced by novels of the hardboiled tradition, exhibiting postwar disillusionment and realism as influenced by German Expressionism. "Noir" was popularized in the 1980s as applied to fiction by editor Barry Gifford of the crime fiction publisher Black Lizard. But, as Eddie Duggan points out in his 1999 article on Cornell Woolrich, the word "noir" was used by the Paris-based publisher Gallimard in 1945 as the title for its Série Noire imprint.
Woolrich's biographer, Francis M. Nevins, suggests the series title may have been inspired by Woolrich's own'Black' novel series (The Bride Wore Black. Duggan discusses the distinction between so-called "noir fiction" and hard-boiled writing. James M. Cain – regarded as the third major figure of the early hardboiled genre – is regarded as an American pioneer of the noir genre, he debuted as a crime novelist in 1934. Other important American writers in the noir genre include Cornell Woolrich, Dorothy B. Hughes, Jim Thompson, David Goodis, Charles Williams, Elmore Leonard. Mediterranean Noir refers to noir fiction in a Mediterranean setting. Sex and physical violence figure prominently in Mediterranean Noir narratives. Social and historical issues specific to the region – governmental corruption and instability and racial strife – are underlying plot considerations. Prominent authors of the movement include Jean-Claude Izzo, Andrea Camilleri, Massimo Carlotto, Eduardo Mendoza, Batya Gur and Enrico Teodorani.
According to the Italian publisher Sandro Ferri, Mediterranean Noir is remarkable for its attention to a unique duality of Mediterranean life: The prevailing vision in the novels belonging to the genre known as Mediterranean noir is a pessimistic one. Authors and their literary inventions look upon the cities of the Mediterranean and see places that have been broken and distorted by crime. There is always a kind of dualism. On one hand, there is the Mediterranean lifestyle-- fine wine and fine food, conviviality, blue skies and limpid seas-- an art of living brought to perfection. On the other hand, corruption and abuses of power. W. R. Burnett, part of the first wave of hardboiled writers along with Hammett and Cain, wrote in a style that split the difference featuring heroic gangsters as his leads; the five novels featuring alcoholic detective Bill Crane, written by Jonathan Latimer over the course of the 1930s, constitute one of the earliest literary series of hardboiled screwball comedy.
The work of Charles Willeford has sometimes been referred to as hardboiled or noir fiction. But it is more helpfully characterized as "neo-noir," as Willeford's crime writing employs the conventions of hardboiled literature without critiquing them. Of latter-day hardboiled novelists who feature detective protagonists, the most prominent to write in a noir mode is James Ellroy. In terms of character and worldview, Patricia Highsmith is a quintessential writer of noir fiction—her work has been the source for numerous movie adaptations, both American and European, but her style sets her apart: far from "lean" and "direct," it is characteristically dense and subtle. Urban Noir focuses on the "underbelly" of life in a variety of major cities, including London, Shanghai and Boston. Johnny Temple, founder of Akashic Books, cites a common urban noir thread as "authors whose life circumstances place them in environments vulnerable to crime." Akashic has published noir anthologies for more than 50 cities and features short stories from some of the best known urban noir writers.
They have published pieces by mainstream and crime/mystery writers known for occasional noir incursions, such as Don Winslow, Joyce Carol Oates, Michael Connelly, Dennis Lehane, Elmore Leonard and Lee Child. International crime fiction highlights the political nature of the genre. "Noir fiction serves to deconstruct the security state by exposing its acts and public, of hypocrisy and brutality." Dirty Snow by Georges Simenon, set in Nazi-occupied France, is an example of Existential Noir. Film noir Nordic noir Tartan Noir Duggan, Eddie. "Life's a bitch: paranoia and sexuality in the novels of David Goodis". Crimetime: 14–20 – via Academia.edu. Eddie Duggan'Writing in the darkness: the world of Cornell Woolrich' CrimeTime 2.6 pp. 113–126. Duggan, Eddie "Dashiell Hammett: Detective, Writer". Crimetime: 101–114 – via Academia.edu. Paul Duncan. Noir Fiction: Dark Highways. Pocket Essentials. ISBN 978-1-903047-11-8. Michelle Emanuel. From Surrealism to Less-Exquisite Cadavers: Léo Malet and the Evolution of the French Roman Noir.
Rodopi Bv Editions. ISBN 978-90-420-2080-1. Claire Gorrara; the Roman Noir in Post-War French Culture: Dark Fictions. Oxford University Press on Demand. ISBN 978-0-19-924609-0. Gorrara, Claire, "French Crime Fiction: From Genre Mineur To Patrimoine Culturel", in French Studies, 2007, Vol. LXI: pp. 209 – 214 Gorrara, Claire, "Narratives of Protest and the Roman Noir in Post-1968 Fr
Oakland is the largest city and the county seat of Alameda County, United States. A major West Coast port city, Oakland is the largest city in the East Bay region of the San Francisco Bay Area, the third largest city overall in the San Francisco Bay Area, the eighth most populated city in California, the 45th largest city in the United States. With a population of 425,195 as of 2017, it serves as a trade center for the San Francisco Bay Area. An act to incorporate the city was passed on May 4, 1852, incorporation was approved on March 25, 1854, which made Oakland a city. Oakland is a charter city. Oakland's territory covers what was once a mosaic of California coastal terrace prairie, oak woodland, north coastal scrub, its land served as a rich resource when its hillside oak and redwood timber were logged to build San Francisco. Oakland's fertile flatland soils helped. In the late 1860s, Oakland was selected as the western terminal of the Transcontinental Railroad. Following the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, many San Francisco citizens moved to Oakland, enlarging the city's population, increasing its housing stock and improving its infrastructure.
It continued to grow in the 20th century with its busy port, a thriving automobile manufacturing industry. The earliest known inhabitants were the Huchiun Indians; the Huchiun belonged to a linguistic grouping called the Ohlone. In Oakland, they were concentrated around Lake Merritt and Temescal Creek, a stream that enters the San Francisco Bay at Emeryville. In 1772, the area that became Oakland was colonized, with the rest of California, by Spanish settlers for the King of Spain. In the early 19th century, the Spanish crown granted the East Bay area to Luis María Peralta for his Rancho San Antonio; the grant was confirmed by the successor Mexican republic upon its independence from Spain. Upon his death in 1842, Peralta divided his land among his four sons. Most of Oakland fell within the shares given to Antonio Vicente; the portion of the parcel, now Oakland was called Encinal—Spanish for "oak grove"—due to the large oak forest that covered the area, which led to the city's name. During the 1850s—just as gold was discovered in California—Oakland started growing and developing because land was becoming too expensive in San Francisco.
The Chinese were struggling financially, as a result of the First Opium War, the Second Opium War, the Taiping Rebellion, so they began migrating to Oakland in an effort to provide for their families in China. However, the Chinese struggled to settle because they were discriminated against by the white community and their living quarters were burned down on several occasions; the majority of the Chinese migrants lived in unhealthy conditions in China and they had diseases, so plague spread into San Francisco though the Chinese were inspected for diseases upon their arrival to San Francisco. In 1851, three men—Horace Carpentier, Edson Adams, Andrew Moon—began developing what is now downtown Oakland. In 1852, the Town of Oakland became incorporated by the state legislature. During this time, Oakland had 75-100 inhabitants, two hotels, a wharf, two warehouses, only cattle trails. Two years on March 25, 1854, Oakland re-incorporated as the City of Oakland, with Horace Carpentier elected the first mayor, though a scandal ended his mayorship in less than a year.
The city and its environs grew with the railroads, becoming a major rail terminal in the late 1860s and 1870s. In 1868, the Central Pacific constructed the Oakland Long Wharf at Oakland Point, the site of today's Port of Oakland. A number of horsecar and cable car lines were constructed in Oakland during the latter half of the 19th century; the first electric streetcar set out from Oakland to Berkeley in 1891, other lines were converted and added over the course of the 1890s. The various streetcar companies operating in Oakland were acquired by Francis "Borax" Smith and consolidated into what became known as the Key System, the predecessor of today's publicly owned AC Transit. Oakland was one of the worst affected cities in California, impacted by the plague epidemic. Quarantine measures were set in place at the Oakland ports requiring the authorities at the port to inspect the arriving vessels for the presence of infected rats. Quarantine authorities at these ports inspected over a thousand vessels per year for plague and yellow fever.
By 1908, over 5,000 people were detained in quarantine. Hunters were sent to poison the affected areas in Oakland and shoot the squirrels, but the eradication work was limited in its range because the State Board of Health and the United States Public Health Service were only allotted about $60,000 a year to eradicate the disease. During this period Oakland did not have sufficient health facilities, so some of the infected patients were treated at home; the State Board of Health along with Oakland advised physicians to promptly report any cases of infected patients. Yet, in 1919 it still resulted in a small epidemic of Pneumonic plague which killed a dozen people in Oakland; this started when a man killed a squirrel. After eating the squirrel, he fell ill four days and another household member contracted the plague; this in turn was passed on either indirectly to about a dozen others. The officials in Oakland acted by issuing death certificates to monitor the spread of plague. At the time of incorporation in 1852, Oaklan
The Punisher (2004 series)
The Punisher was a comic book ongoing series published under the MAX imprint of Marvel Comics, featuring vigilante anti-hero, the Punisher. Garth Ennis writer of the 2000 and 2001 Punisher series, wrote issues #1-60 of the series. Like the earlier series, Tim Bradstreet provided the covers for those issues. Continuing his run on the character, Ennis used the freedom of the MAX imprint to write more graphic and hard-edged stories than had been seen. Ennis wrote two miniseries accompanying the main series, The Punisher Presents: Barracuda and The Punisher: Born. Several one-shots were produced, some written by Ennis and some by other writers. With issue #61, Gregg Hurwitz replaced Ennis as writer joining artist Laurence Campbell to do a five-issue story arc. With issue #66 released on January 21, 2009, the series was retitled Punisher: Frank Castle, with writer Duane Swierczynski and artist Michel Lacombe coming to the series. Victor Gischler came on board for the storyline "Welcome to the Bayou" in issues #71-74 before the title finished with issue #75, a double-length issue with stories by Thomas Piccirilli, Gregg Hurwitz, Duane Swierczynski, Peter Milligan, Charlie Huston.
The title was relaunched as PunisherMAX in late 2009, with writer Jason Aaron and artist Steve Dillon. The series explicitly does not use a floating timeline like the Marvel Universe, instead presenting a Punisher who ages in real time. Gravestones and other references indicate that his family was killed in 1976; the Punisher has been active for 30 years at the time presented in most stories, with issue #19 specifying that he has killed 2,000 people. The Punisher: Born establishes that the Punisher's service in the Vietnam War is still in MAX continuity. Promotional art for the cover of Punisher #44, gives Frank Castle's birth date as February 16, 1950, but, removed for the published issues; the story Valley Forge, Valley Forge corroborates this date, referring to Castle as "a twenty one year old Captain" in April 1971. Another major difference is the complete lack of superheroes and supervillains in the series, although non-superpowered characters from the Punisher's past, most notably Microchip, do make appearances.
Nick Fury makes several notable appearances, with his characterization echoing Ennis's MAX-imprint Fury stories. However, the character Jen Cooke, a social worker, appeared in the Marvel Knights storyline "Hidden", she appeared in the MAX storyline "Slavers". The character Yorkie Mitchell made appearances in both the Marvel Knights and the MAX Punisher comics. In the Civil War Files comic, just before the "Civil War" storyline was published, Iron Man talked about events in the Punisher's past from the Marvel Knights and MAX comic: "Captain Frank Castle, sole survivor of the Firebase Valley Forge massacre." "Although Castle has escalated his war on crime further, with record-breaking body counts, he is paradoxically now encountered in the field by any super hero save Daredevil." "It's like he inhabits two worlds, one where heroes can capture him and one where they can't, he can slip from one to the other with ease."The MAX Punisher focus on current events, ranging from corporate fraud to sexual slavery, the War on Terror.
Many characters are past or current intelligence and military operatives from governmental agencies like the CIA, KGB, Secret Intelligence Service, SAS, militaries and militias from the Balkans and Middle East including the IRA, all with agendas rooted in past conflicts like the Cold War or the Yugoslav wars. As of issue 66 the series was retitled Frank Castle: The Punisher. Trade paperbacksHardcoversComplete CollectionOmnibus editions The series holds an average rating of 7.9 by 40 professional critics on the review aggregation website Comic Book Roundup. Punisher at the Comic Book DB Frank Castle: The Punisher at the Comic Book DB Punisher at the Grand Comics Database
Wolverine is a fictional character appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics in association with the X-Men. He is a mutant who possesses animal-keen senses, enhanced physical capabilities, powerful regenerative ability known as a healing factor, three retractable claws in each hand. Wolverine has been depicted variously as a member of the X-Men, Alpha Flight, the Avengers; the character appeared in the last panel of The Incredible Hulk #180 before having a larger role in #181. He was created by Marvel editor-in-chief Roy Thomas, writer Len Wein, Marvel art director John Romita Sr. Romita designed the character, although it was first drawn for publication by Herb Trimpe. Wolverine joined a revamped version of the superhero team the X-Men, where writer Chris Claremont and artist-writer John Byrne would play significant roles in the character's development. Artist Frank Miller collaborated with Claremont and helped revise the character with a four-part eponymous limited series from September to December 1982, which debuted Wolverine's catchphrase, "I'm the best there is at what I do, but what I do best isn't nice."
Wolverine is typical of the many tough antiheroes that emerged in American popular culture after the Vietnam War. As a result, the character became a fan favorite of the popular X-Men franchise, has been featured in his own solo comic book series since 1988, he has appeared in most X-Men adaptations, including animated television series, video games, the live-action 20th Century Fox X-Men film series, in which he is portrayed by Hugh Jackman in nine of the ten films. The character is rated in many comics best-of lists, ranked #1 in Wizard magazine's 2008 Top 200 Comic Book Characters. Marvel editor-in-chief Roy Thomas asked writer Len Wein to devise a character named Wolverine, Canadian and of small stature and with a wolverine's fierce temper. John Romita Sr. designed the first Wolverine costume, believes he introduced the retractable claws, saying, "When I make a design, I want it to be practical and functional. I thought,'If a man has claws like that, how does he scratch his nose or tie his shoelaces?'"
Wolverine first appeared in the final "teaser" panel of The Incredible Hulk #180 written by Wein and penciled by Herb Trimpe. The character appeared in a number of advertisements in various Marvel Comics publications before making his first major appearance in The Incredible Hulk #181 again by the Wein–Trimpe team. In 2009, Trimpe said he "distinctly remembers" Romita's sketch and that, "The way I see it, sewed the monster together and I shocked it to life!... It was just one of those secondary or tertiary characters that we were using in that particular book with no particular notion of it going anywhere. We did characters in The Hulk all the time that were in issues and, the end of them." Though credited as co-creator, Trimpe denied having had any role in Wolverine's creation. The character's introduction was ambiguous, revealing little beyond his being a superhuman agent of the Canadian government. In these appearances, he does not retract his claws, although Wein stated they had always been envisioned as retractable.
He appears in the finale to this story in The Incredible Hulk #182. Wolverine's next appearance was in 1975's Giant-Size X-Men #1, written by Wein and penciled by Dave Cockrum, in which Wolverine is recruited for a new squad. Gil Kane incorrectly drew Wolverine's mask with larger headpieces. Dave Cockrum liked Kane's accidental alteration and incorporated it into his own artwork for the actual story. Cockrum was the first artist to draw Wolverine without his mask, the distinctive hairstyle became a trademark of the character. A revival of X-Men followed, beginning with X-Men #94, drawn by Cockrum and written by Chris Claremont. In X-Men and Uncanny X-Men, Wolverine is overshadowed by the other characters, although he does create tension in the team as he is attracted to Cyclops' girlfriend, Jean Grey; as the series progressed and Cockrum considered dropping Wolverine from the series. Byrne modeled his rendition of Wolverine on actor Paul D’Amato, who played Dr. Hook in the 1977 sports film Slap Shot.
Byrne created Alpha Flight, a group of Canadian superheroes who try to recapture Wolverine due to the expense their government incurred training him. Stories establish Wolverine's murky past and unstable nature, which he battles to keep in check. Byrne designed a new brown-and-tan costume for Wolverine, but retained the distinctive Cockrum cowl. Cockrum had introduced a new costume for Wolverine in the final issue of his run, but it was dropped one issue into Byrne's run because he and Cockrum alike found it painfully difficult to draw. Following Byrne's departure, Wolverine remained in X-Men; the character's growing popularity led to a solo, four-issue, Wolverine, by Claremont and Frank Miller, followed by the six-issue Kitty Pryde and Wolverine by Claremont and Al Milgrom. Marvel launched an ongoing solo book
The Man-Thing is a fictional character appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. Created by writers Stan Lee, Roy Thomas, Gerry Conway and artist Gray Morrow, the character first appeared in Savage Tales #1, went on to be featured in various titles and in his own series, including Adventure into Fear, which introduced the character Howard the Duck. Steve Gerber's 39-issue run on the series is considered to be a cult classic. Man-Thing is a large, slow-moving, humanoid swamp monster living in the Florida Everglades near a Seminole reservation and the fictitious town of Citrusville in Cypress County, Florida. Conan Stevens portrayed the character in the 2005 film Man-Thing; as described in the text featurette "The Story Behind the Scenes" in Savage Tales #1, the black-and-white adventure fantasy magazine in which the character debuted in an 11-page origin story, Man-Thing was conceived in discussions between Marvel Comics editor Stan Lee and writer Roy Thomas, that together they created five possible origins.
Lee provided the name, used for unrelated creatures in Marvel's early science-fiction/fantasy anthology Tales of Suspense #7 and #81, as well as the concept of the man losing sentience. As Thomas recalled in 2002: Stan Lee called me in, he had a couple of sentences or so for the concept — I think it was the notion of a guy working on some experimental drug or something for the government, his being accosted by spies, getting fused with the swamp so that he becomes this creature. The creature itself sounds a lot like the Heap, but neither of us mentioned that character at the time.... I didn't care much for the name'Man-Thing', because we had the Thing, I thought it would be confusing to have another one called Man-Thing. Thomas gave it to Gerry Conway to script. Thomas and Conway are credited with Gray Morrow as artist. A second story, written by Len Wein and drawn by Neal Adams, was prepared at that time, upon Savage Tales' cancellation after that single issue, "took a year or two to see print", according to Thomas.
That occurred in Astonishing Tales #12, in which the seven-page story was integrated in its entirety within the 21-page feature "Ka-Zar", starring Marvel's jungle-lord hero. This black-and-white interlude segued to Man-Thing's introduction to color comics as Ka-Zar's antagonist-turned-ally in this and the following issue; the Wein-written Man-Thing story appeared in between Wein's first and second version of his DC Comics character Swamp Thing. Wein was Conway's roommate at the time and as Thomas recalled in 2008, Gerry and I thought that, the origin in Swamp Thing #1 was a bit too similar to the origin of Man-Thing a year-and-a-half earlier. There was vague talk at the time around Marvel of legal action, but it was never pursued. I don't know if any letters changed hands between Marvel and DC. We weren't happy with the situation over the Swamp Thing #1 origin, but we figured it was an accident. Gerry tried to talk him into changing the Swamp Thing's origin. Len didn't see the similarities, so he went ahead with what he was going to do.
The two characters verged off after that origin, so it didn't make much difference, anyway. Man-Thing received his own 10-page feature, again by Conway, in Adventure into Fear #10, sharing that anthological title with reprinted 1950s horror/fantasy stories. Steve Gerber, who would become Man-Thing's signature writer, succeeded Conway the following issue, with art by Rich Buckler; the feature expanded to 15 pages with #12, became 16 pages two issues and reached the then-standard 19-page length of Marvel superhero comics with issue #15, at which point the series went from bi-monthly to monthly. In Fear #11, page 11, Gerber created the series' narrative tagline, used in captions: "Whatever knows fear burns at the Man-Thing's touch!" After issue # 19, Man-Thing received a solo title The Man-Thing. Following Morrow, the main series' primary pencillers were, Val Mayerik, Mike Ploog, John Buscema, Jim Mooney. A sister publication was the larger, quarterly Giant-Size Man-Thing #1-5, which featured 1950s horror-fantasy and 1960s science fiction/monster reprints as back-up stories, with a two-part Howard the Duck co-feature added in the final two issues.
The unintentional double entendre in this sister series' title has become a recurring joke among comics readers. In the final issue, writer Gerber appeared as a character in the story, claiming he had not been inventing the Man-Thing's adventures but reporting on them and that he had decided to move on. Gerber continued to write Man-Thing guest appearances in other Marvel titles, as well as the serialized, eight-page Man-Thing feature in the omnibus series Marvel Comics Presents #1-12, a supporting role in The Evolutionary War, coming to the aid of Spider-Man. Gerber wrote a graphic novel that Kevin Nowlan spent many years illustrating, but he did not live to see it published. A second Man-Thing series ran 11 issues. Writer Michael Fleisher and penciller Mooney teamed for the first three issues, with the letters page of #3 noting that Fleisher's work had received a great