Palm Beach Daily News
The Palm Beach Daily News is a daily newspaper in Florida, serving the town of Palm Beach in Palm Beach County in South Florida. It is known as "The Shiny Sheet" because of its heavy, slick newsprint stock, it was founded in 1897 as the Lake Worth Daily News, it covers the social affairs of the wealthy residents on the island of Palm Beach itself. Owned by Cox Enterprises, it has been a sister publication of The Palm Beach Post since 1948, when Florida newspaper owner John Perry, owner of The Post, bought the Daily News as well. Cox acquired all of Perry's properties in the Palm Beaches in 1969. On October 31, 2017, Cox Media Group announced its plans to sell the Palm Beach Daily News and Palm Beach Post. In 2018, it was announced that GateHouse Media would buy the newspapers for $49.25 million, with the deal closed in May. List of newspapers in Florida Official website
New York University
New York University is a private research university founded in New York City but now with campuses and locations throughout the world. Founded in 1831, NYU's historical campus is in New York City; as a global university, students can graduate from its degree-granting campuses in NYU Abu Dhabi and NYU Shanghai, as well as study at its 12 academic centers in Accra, Buenos Aires, London, Los Angeles, Paris, Sydney, Tel Aviv, Washington, D. C. For the class that matriculated in the fall of 2019, NYU received nearly 85,000 applications for its undergraduate programs. In 2018, NYU was ranked amongst the top 40 universities worldwide by the Academic Ranking of World Universities, Times Higher Education World University Rankings, U. S. News & World Report. Alumni include heads of state, eminent scientists and entrepreneurs, media figures, founders and CEOs of Fortune 500 companies, astronauts; as of March 2019, 37 Nobel Laureates, 8 Turing Award winners, 5 Fields Medalists, over 30 Academy Award winners, over 30 Pulitzer Prize winners, hundreds of members of the National Academies of Sciences and United States Congress have been affiliated as faculty or alumni.
Globally, NYU is ranked 7th by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings for producing alumni who are millionaires, 4th by Wealth-X for producing ultra high net-worth and billionaire alumni. Albert Gallatin, Secretary of Treasury under Thomas Jefferson and James Madison, declared his intention to establish "in this immense and fast-growing city... a system of rational and practical education fitting and graciously opened to all". A three-day-long "literary and scientific convention" held in City Hall in 1830 and attended by over 100 delegates debated the terms of a plan for a new university; these New Yorkers believed the city needed a university designed for young men who would be admitted based upon merit rather than birthright or social class. On April 18, 1831, an institution was established, with the support of a group of prominent New York City residents from the city's merchants and traders. Albert Gallatin was elected as the institution's first president. On April 21, 1831, the new institution received its charter and was incorporated as the University of the City of New York by the New York State Legislature.
The university has been popularly known as New York University since its inception and was renamed New York University in 1896. In 1832, NYU held its first classes in rented rooms of four-story Clinton Hall, situated near City Hall. In 1835, the School of Law, NYU's first professional school, was established. Although the impetus to found a new school was a reaction by evangelical Presbyterians to what they perceived as the Episcopalianism of Columbia College, NYU was created non-denominational, unlike many American colleges at the time. American Chemical Society was founded in 1876 at NYU, it became one of the nation's largest universities, with an enrollment of 9,300 in 1917. NYU had its Washington Square campus since its founding; the university purchased a campus at University Heights in the Bronx because of overcrowding on the old campus. NYU had a desire to follow New York City's development further uptown. NYU's move to the Bronx occurred in 1894, spearheaded by the efforts of Chancellor Henry Mitchell MacCracken.
The University Heights campus was far more spacious. As a result, most of the university's operations along with the undergraduate College of Arts and Science and School of Engineering were housed there. NYU's administrative operations were moved to the new campus, but the graduate schools of the university remained at Washington Square. In 1914, Washington Square College was founded as the downtown undergraduate college of NYU. In 1935, NYU opened the "Nassau College-Hofstra Memorial of New York University at Hempstead, Long Island"; this extension would become a independent Hofstra University. In 1950, NYU was elected to the Association of American Universities, a nonprofit organization of leading public and private research universities. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, financial crisis gripped the New York City government and the troubles spread to the city's institutions, including NYU. Feeling the pressures of imminent bankruptcy, NYU President James McNaughton Hester negotiated the sale of the University Heights campus to the City University of New York, which occurred in 1973.
In 1973, the New York University School of Engineering and Science merged into Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn, which merged back into NYU in 2014 forming the present Tandon School of Engineering. After the sale of the Bronx campus, University College merged with Washington Square College. In the 1980s, under the leadership of President John Brademas, NYU launched a billion-dollar campaign, spent entirely on updating facilities; the campaign was set to complete in 15 years, but ended up being completed in 10. In 1991, L. Jay Oliva was inaugurated the 14th president of the university. Following his inauguration, he moved to form the League of World Universities, an international organization consisting of rectors and presidents from urban universities across six continents; the league and its 47 representatives gather every two years to discuss global issues in education. In 2003 President John Sexton launched a $2.5 billion campaign for funds to be spent on faculty and financial aid resources.
Under Sextons leadership, NYU began its radical transformation into a global university. In 2009, the university responded to a series of New York Times interviews that showed a pattern of labor abuses in its fledgling Abu Dhabi location, creating a statement of
James Mercer Langston Hughes was an American poet, social activist, novelist and columnist from Joplin, Missouri. He moved to New York City as a young man. One of the earliest innovators of the then-new literary art form called jazz poetry, Hughes is best known as a leader of the Harlem Renaissance in New York City, he famously wrote about the period that "the negro was in vogue", paraphrased as "when Harlem was in vogue". Like many African Americans, Hughes had a complex ancestry. Both of Hughes' paternal great-grandmothers were enslaved African Americans and both of his paternal great-grandfathers were white slave owners in Kentucky. According to Hughes, one of these men was Sam Clay, a Scottish-American whiskey distiller of Henry County, said to be a relative of statesman Henry Clay; the other was a Jewish-American slave trader of Clark County. Hughes's maternal grandmother Mary Patterson was of African-American, French and Native American descent. One of the first women to attend Oberlin College, she married Lewis Sheridan Leary of mixed race, before her studies.
Lewis Leary subsequently joined John Brown's raid on Harpers Ferry in West Virginia in 1859, where he was fatally wounded. Ten years in 1869, the widow Mary Patterson Leary married again, into the elite, politically active Langston family, her second husband was Charles Henry Langston, of African-American, Euro-American and Native American ancestry. He and his younger brother John Mercer Langston worked for the abolitionist cause and helped lead the Ohio Anti-Slavery Society in 1858. After their marriage, Charles Langston moved with his family to Kansas, where he was active as an educator and activist for voting and rights for African Americans, his and Mary's daughter Caroline became married James Nathaniel Hughes. They had two children. Langston Hughes grew up in a series of Midwestern small towns, his father left the family soon after the boy was born and divorced Carrie. The senior Hughes traveled to Cuba and Mexico, seeking to escape the enduring racism in the United States. After the separation, Hughes's mother traveled.
Langston was raised in Lawrence, Kansas, by his maternal grandmother, Mary Patterson Langston. Through the black American oral tradition and drawing from the activist experiences of her generation, Mary Langston instilled in her grandson a lasting sense of racial pride. Imbued by his grandmother with a duty to help his race, Hughes identified with neglected and downtrodden black people all his life, glorified them in his work, he lived most of his childhood in Lawrence. In his 1940 autobiography The Big Sea, he wrote: "I was unhappy for a long time, lonesome, living with my grandmother, it was that books began to happen to me, I began to believe in nothing but books and the wonderful world in books—where if people suffered, they suffered in beautiful language, not in monosyllables, as we did in Kansas."After the death of his grandmother, Hughes went to live with family friends and Auntie Mary Reed, for two years. Hughes lived again with his mother Carrie in Lincoln, Illinois, she had remarried.
The family moved to the Fairfax neighborhood of Cleveland, where he attended Central High School and was taught by Helen Maria Chesnutt, whom he found inspiring. His writing experiments began. While in grammar school in Lincoln, Hughes was elected class poet, he stated that in retrospect he thought it was because of the stereotype about African Americans having rhythm. I was a victim of a stereotype. There were only two of us Negro kids in the whole class and our English teacher was always stressing the importance of rhythm in poetry. Well, everyone knows, except us. During high school in Cleveland, Hughes wrote for the school newspaper, edited the yearbook, began to write his first short stories and dramatic plays, his first piece of jazz poetry, ``. Hughes had a poor relationship with his father, whom he saw when a child, he lived with his father in Mexico in 1919. Upon graduating from high school in June 1920, Hughes returned to Mexico to live with his father, hoping to convince him to support his plan to attend Columbia University.
Hughes said that, prior to arriving in Mexico, "I had been thinking about my father and his strange dislike of his own people. I didn't understand it, because I was a Negro, I liked Negroes much." His father had hoped Hughes would choose to study at a university abroad, train for a career in engineering. On these grounds, he was willing to provide financial assistance to his son, but did not support his desire to be a writer. Hughes and his father came to a compromise: Hughes would study engineering, so long as he could attend Columbia, his tuition provided, Hughes left his father after more than a year. While at Columbia in 1921, Hughes managed to maintain a B+ grade average, he left in 1922 because of racial prejudice among teachers. He was attracted more to the African-American people and neighborhood of Harlem than to his studies, but he continued writing poetry. Harlem was a center of vibrant cultural life. Hughes worked at various odd jobs, before serving a brief tenure as a crewman aboard the S.
S. Malone in 1923, spending six months traveling to West Europe. In Europe, Hughes left the S. S. Malone for a temporary stay in Paris. There he met and had a romance with Anne Marie Coussey
Ebony is a monthly magazine for the African-American market. It was founded by John H. Johnson in Chicago and has published continuously since the autumn of 1945. A digest-sized sister magazine, was founded by the Johnson Publishing Company in 1951. After 71 years, in June 2016, Johnson sold the publications to private equity firm Clear View Group; the new publisher is known as Ebony Media Corporation. Ebony was founded by John H. Johnson in 1945; the magazine has evolved over the years. In 2010 it began a redesign process to update its longtime brand. In the past, the magazine was persistently much like its postwar contemporary Life. Ebony, edited by John H. Johnson, has striven always to address African-American issues and interests in a positive and self-affirming manner, its cover photography has focused on prominent African American public figures, including actors and entertainers, politicians, such as Dorothy Dandridge, Lena Horne, Diana Ross, Michael Jackson, former U. S. Senator Carol Moseley Braun of Illinois, U.
S. First lady Michelle Obama, Beyoncé Knowles, Tyrese Gibson, Tyler Perry. For decades, advertisers created ads for Ebony, which featured black models using their products. In the 21st century, many ads in widespread publications feature black people. In November 2010, the magazine featured a special 65th-anniversary edition cover featuring Taraji P. Henson, Samuel L. Jackson and Mary J. Blige. A second cover showcased Nia Long atop a birthday cake – Marilyn Monroe-style; the issue included eight cover recreations from iconic previous covers of Ebony. Blair Underwood posed inside, as did Jurnee Smollett. Mary J. Blige used her 1940s-style image from Ebony to update her Twitter profile picture. National Public Radio marked this anniversary edition as the beginning of redesign of Ebony. Former White House Social Secretary Desiree Rogers, of the Obama administration, had become the CEO of the magazine. In August 2008 the magazine had published a special eight-cover edition featuring the "25 Coolest Brothers of All Time".
The lineup featured Jay-Z, Barack Obama, Samuel L. Jackson, Denzel Washington, Marvin Gaye, Muhammad Ali and Billy Dee Williams. In the 21st century, Ebony makes headlines in the blogosphere and in the mainstream press; the November 2011 cover featured a pregnant Nia Long, reminiscent of the iconic image of actress Demi Moore featured naked while pregnant on a magazine cover two decades before. Some of Ebony′s more conservative readers disagreed with the cover choice, stating it inappropriate to feature an unwed, pregnant woman on the cover; the cover was featured in US Weekly and in a five-minute segment on CNN. Recent issues questioned whether President Obama was still right for black America and whether biracial Americans need more acknowledgement in today's society. In December 2008, Google announced. In 2010, the Johnson Publishing Company sold its historic building to Columbia College Chicago, it moved into a new building in 2011. In 2016, the company sold Ebony and Jet to private equity firm Clear View Group, but will retain its Fashion Fair Cosmetics business and its historic Ebony photo archives, which remains up for sale.
Ebony each year selects the "100 Most Influential Blacks in America". Essence Jet Official website Back issues on Google Book Search Langston Hughes, "Publishing history of Ebony", November 1965 "John H. Johnson's oral history- video excerpts", The National Visionary Leadership Project Cheryl Corley, "Ebony, Jet Parent Takes A Bold New Tack", NPR, September 22, 2011 Nsenga Burton, "Ebony Jet Sells Headquarters Building", The Root, November 17, 2010. FBI file on Ebony
Harlem is a neighborhood in the northern section of the New York City borough of Manhattan. It is bounded by Frederick Douglass Boulevard, St. Nicholas Avenue, Morningside Park on the west, it is part of greater Harlem, an area that encompasses several other neighborhoods and extends west to the Hudson River, north to 155th Street, east to the East River, south to 96th Street. A Dutch village, formally organized in 1658, it is named after the city of Haarlem in the Netherlands. Harlem's history has been defined by a series of economic boom-and-bust cycles, with significant population shifts accompanying each cycle. Harlem was predominantly occupied by Jewish and Italian Americans in the 19th century, but African-American residents began to arrive in large numbers during the Great Migration in the 20th century. In the 1920s and 1930s, Central and West Harlem were the focus of the "Harlem Renaissance", an outpouring of artistic work without precedent in the American-black community. However, with job losses during the Great Depression of 1929–1933 and the deindustrialization of New York City after World War II, rates of crime and poverty increased and from the second half of the 20th century to the early 2000s, most of greater Harlem's residents were black.
Since New York City's revival in the late 20th century, Harlem has been experiencing the effects of gentrification and new wealth. Harlem is part of Manhattan Community District 10 and its primary ZIP Codes are 10026, 10027, 10030, 10037, 10039, it is patrolled by the 32nd Precincts of the New York City Police Department. Harlem is located in Upper Manhattan referred to as Uptown by locals. Greater Harlem stretches from the Harlem River and East River in the east, to the Hudson River to the west. Central Harlem is the name of Harlem proper; this section is bounded by Fifth Avenue on the east, Central Park on the south, Morningside Park, St. Nicholas Avenue and Edgecombe Avenue on the west, the Harlem River on the north. A chain of three large linear parks—Morningside Park, St. Nicholas Park and Jackie Robinson Park—are situated on steeply rising banks and form most of the district's western boundary. On the east, Fifth Avenue and Marcus Garvey Park known as Mount Morris Park, separate this area from East Harlem.
The bulk of the area falls under Manhattan Community Board No. 10. In the late 2000s, South Harlem, emerged from area redevelopment, running along Frederick Douglass Boulevard from West 110th to West 138th Streets. Central Harlem includes the Mount Morris Park Historic District. West Harlem is composed of Manhattanville and Hamilton Heights, which collectively comprise Manhattan Community District 9 and are not part of Harlem proper; the two neighborhoods' area is bounded by Cathedral Parkway on the south. Nicholas/Bradhurst/Edgecome Avenues on the east. Manhattanville begins at 123rd Street and extends northward to 135th Street; the northernmost section of West Harlem is Hamilton Heights. East Harlem called Spanish Harlem or El Barrio, within Manhattan Community Board 11, is bounded by East 96th Street on the south, East 138th Street on the north, Fifth Avenue on the west, the Harlem River on the east, it is not part of Harlem proper. In the 2010s, some real estate professionals started called Morningside Heights "SoHa" in an attempt to gentrify the neighborhood.
New York City politicians have initiated legislative efforts to curtail this practice of neighborhood rebranding. Politically, central Harlem is in New York's 13th congressional district, it is in the New York State Senate's 30th district, the New York State Assembly's 68th and 70th districts, the New York City Council's 7th, 8th, 9th districts. Before the arrival of European settlers, the area that would become Harlem was inhabited by the Manhattans, a native tribe, who along with other Native Americans, most Lenape, occupied the area on a semi-nomadic basis; as many as several hundred farmed the Harlem flatlands. Between 1637 and 1639, a few settlements were established. During the American Revolution, the British burned Harlem to the ground, it took a long time to rebuild, as Harlem grew more than the rest of Manhattan during the late 18th century. After the American Civil War, Harlem experienced an economic boom starting in 1868; the neighborhood continued to serve as a refuge for New Yorkers, but those coming north were poor and Jewish or Italian.
The New York and Harlem Railroad, as well as the Interborough Rapid Transit and elevated railway lines, helped Harlem's economic growth, as they connected Harlem to lower and midtown Manhattan. The Jewish and Italian demographic decreased, while the black and Puerto Rican population increased in this time; the early-20th century Great Migration of blacks to northern industrial cities was fueled by their desire to leave behind the Jim Crow South, seek better jobs and education for their children, escape a culture of lynching violence. In 1910, Central Harlem was about 10% black. By 1930, it had reached 70%. Starting around the time of the end of World War I, Harlem became associated with the New Negro movement, the artistic
United Artists Corporation doing business as United Artists Digital Studios, is an American film and television entertainment studio. Founded in 1919 by D. W. Griffith, Charlie Chaplin, Mary Pickford, Douglas Fairbanks, the studio was premised on allowing actors to control their own interests, rather than being dependent upon commercial studios. UA was bought and restructured over the ensuing century; the current United Artists company exists as a successor to the original. Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer acquired the studio in 1981 for a reported $350 million. On September 22, 2014, MGM acquired a controlling interest in Mark Burnett and Roma Downey's entertainment companies One Three Media and Lightworkers Media merged them to revive United Artists' TV production unit as United Artists Media Group. However, on December 14 of the following year, MGM wholly acquired UAMG and folded it into MGM Television. UA was revived yet again in 2018 as United Artists Digital Studios. Mirror, the joint distribution venture between MGM and Annapurna Pictures was renamed as United Artists Releasing in early February 2019 just in time for UA's 100th anniversary.
Pickford, Chaplin and Griffith incorporated UA as a joint venture on February 5, 1919. Each held a 25 percent stake in the preferred shares and a 20 percent stake in the common shares of the joint venture, with the remaining 20 percent of common shares held by lawyer and advisor William Gibbs McAdoo; the idea for the venture originated with Fairbanks, Chaplin and cowboy star William S. Hart a year earlier. Hollywood veterans, the four stars talked of forming their own company to better control their own work, they were spurred on by established Hollywood producers and distributors who were tightening their control over actor salaries and creative decisions, a process that evolved into the studio system. With the addition of Griffith, planning began; when he heard about their scheme, Richard A. Rowland, head of Metro Pictures said, "The inmates are taking over the asylum." The four partners, with advice from McAdoo, formed their distribution company. Hiram Abrams was its first managing director, the company established its headquarters at 729 Seventh Avenue in New York City.
The original terms called for each star to produce five pictures a year. By the time the company was operational in 1921, feature films were becoming more expensive and polished, running times had settled at around ninety minutes; the original goal was thus abandoned. UA's first film, His Majesty, the American, written by and starring Fairbanks, was a success. Funding for movies was limited. Without selling stock to the public like other studios, all United had for finance was weekly prepayment installments from theater owners for upcoming movies; as a result, production was slow, the company distributed an average of only five films a year in its first five years. By 1924, Griffith had dropped out, the company was facing a crisis. Veteran producer Joseph Schenck was hired as president, he had produced pictures for a decade, brought commitments for films starring his wife, Norma Talmadge, his sister-in-law, Constance Talmadge, his brother-in-law, Buster Keaton. Contracts were signed with independent producers, including Samuel Goldwyn, Howard Hughes.
In 1933, Schenck organized a new company with Darryl F. Zanuck, called Twentieth Century Pictures, which soon provided four pictures a year, forming half of UA's schedule. Schenck formed a separate partnership with Pickford and Chaplin to buy and build theaters under the United Artists name, they began international operations, first in Canada, in Mexico. By the end of the 1930s, United Artists was represented in over 40 countries; when he was denied an ownership share in 1935, Schenck resigned. He set up 20th Century Pictures' merger with Fox Film Corporation to form 20th Century Fox. Al Lichtman succeeded Schenck as company president. Other independent producers distributed through United Artists in the 1930s including Walt Disney Productions, Alexander Korda, Hal Roach, David O. Selznick, Walter Wanger; as the years passed, the dynamics of the business changed, these "producing partners" drifted away. Samuel Goldwyn Productions and Disney went to Wanger to Universal Pictures. In the late 1930s, UA turned a profit.
Goldwyn was providing most of the output for distribution. He sued United several times for disputed compensation leading him to leave. MGM's 1939 hit Gone with the Wind was supposed to be a UA release except that Selznick wanted Clark Gable, under contract to MGM, to play Rhett Butler; that year, Fairbanks died. UA became embroiled in lawsuits with Selznick over his distribution of some films through RKO. Selznick considered UA's operation sloppy, left to start his own distribution arm. In the 1940s, United Artists was losing money because of poorly received pictures. Cinema attendance continued to decline; the company sold its Mexican releasing division to Crédito Cinematográfico Mexicano, a local company. In 1941, Chaplin, Orson Welles, Selznick, Alexander Korda, Wanger—many of whom were members of United Artists--formed the Society of Independent Motion Picture Producers. Members included Hunt Stromberg, William Cagney, Sol L
The Korean War was a war between North Korea and South Korea. The war began on 25 June 1950 when North Korea invaded South Korea following a series of clashes along the border; as a product of the Cold War between the Soviet Union and the United States, Korea had been split into two sovereign states in 1948. A socialist state was established in the north under the communist leadership of Kim Il-sung and a capitalist state in the south under the anti-communist leadership of Syngman Rhee. Both governments of the two new Korean states claimed to be the sole legitimate government of all of Korea, neither accepted the border as permanent; the conflict escalated into warfare when North Korean military forces—supported by the Soviet Union and China—crossed the border and advanced south into South Korea on 25 June 1950. The United Nations Security Council authorized the formation and dispatch of UN forces to Korea to repel what was recognized as a North Korean invasion. Twenty-one countries of the United Nations contributed to the UN force, with the United States providing around 90% of the military personnel.
After the first two months of war, South Korean and U. S. forces dispatched to Korea were on the point of defeat, forced back to a small area in the south known as the Pusan Perimeter. In September 1950, an amphibious UN counter-offensive was launched at Incheon, cut off many North Korean troops; those who escaped envelopment and capture were forced back north. UN forces approached the Yalu River—the border with China—but in October 1950, mass Chinese forces crossed the Yalu and entered the war; the surprise Chinese intervention triggered a retreat of UN forces which continued until mid-1951. In these reversals of fortune, Seoul changed hands four times, the last two years of fighting became a war of attrition, with the front line close to the 38th parallel; the war in the air, was never a stalemate. North Korea was subject to a massive bombing campaign. Jet fighters confronted each other in air-to-air combat for the first time in history, Soviet pilots covertly flew in defense of their communist allies.
The fighting ended on 27 July 1953. The agreement created the Korean Demilitarized Zone to separate North and South Korea, allowed the return of prisoners. However, no peace treaty was signed, according to some sources the two Koreas are technically still at war, engaged in a frozen conflict. In April 2018, the leaders of North and South Korea met at the demilitarized zone and agreed to work towards a treaty to formally end the Korean War. In South Korea, the war is referred to as "625" or the "6–2–5 Upheaval", reflecting the date of its commencement on June 25. In North Korea, the war is referred to as the "Fatherland Liberation War" or alternatively the "Chosǒn War". In China, the war is called the "War to Resist America and Aid Korea", although the term "Chaoxian War" is used in unofficial contexts, along with the term "Hán War" more used in regions such as Hong Kong and Macau. In the U. S. the war was described by President Harry S. Truman as a "police action" as the United States never formally declared war on its opponents and the operation was conducted under the auspices of the United Nations.
It has been referred to in the English-speaking world as "The Forgotten War" or "The Unknown War" because of the lack of public attention it received both during and after the war, in relation to the global scale of World War II, which preceded it, the subsequent angst of the Vietnam War, which succeeded it. Imperial Japan destroyed the influence of China over Korea in the First Sino-Japanese War, ushering in the short-lived Korean Empire. A decade after defeating Imperial Russia in the Russo-Japanese War, Japan made Korea its protectorate with the Eulsa Treaty in 1905 annexed it with the Japan–Korea Annexation Treaty in 1910. Many Korean nationalists fled the country; the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea was founded in 1919 in Nationalist China. It failed to achieve international recognition, failed to unite nationalist groups, had a fractious relationship with its U. S.-based founding president, Syngman Rhee. From 1919 to 1925 and beyond, Korean communists led internal and external warfare against the Japanese.
In China, the Nationalist National Revolutionary Army and the communist People's Liberation Army helped organize Korean refugees against the Japanese military, which had occupied parts of China. The Nationalist-backed Koreans, led by Yi Pom-Sok, fought in the Burma Campaign; the communists, led by Kim Il-sung among others, fought the Japanese in Manchuria. At the Cairo Conference in November 1943, the United Kingdom, the United States all decided that "in due course Korea shall become free and independent". At the Tehran Conference in November 1943 and the Yalta Conference in February 1945, the Soviet Union promised to join its allies in the Pacific War within three months of the victory in Europe. Accordingly, it declared war o