Princeton University is a private Ivy League research university in Princeton, New Jersey. Founded in 1746 in Elizabeth as the College of New Jersey, Princeton is the fourth-oldest institution of higher education in the United States and one of the nine colonial colleges chartered before the American Revolution; the institution moved to Newark in 1747 to the current site nine years and renamed itself Princeton University in 1896. Princeton provides undergraduate and graduate instruction in the humanities, social sciences, natural sciences, engineering, it offers professional degrees through the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, the School of Engineering and Applied Science, the School of Architecture and the Bendheim Center for Finance. The university has ties with the Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton Theological Seminary and the Westminster Choir College of Rider University. Princeton has the largest endowment per student in the United States. From 2001 to 2018, Princeton University was ranked either first or second among national universities by U.
S. News & World Report, holding the top spot for 16 of those 18 years; as of October 2018, 65 Nobel laureates, 15 Fields Medalists and 13 Turing Award laureates have been affiliated with Princeton University as alumni, faculty members or researchers. In addition, Princeton has been associated with 21 National Medal of Science winners, 5 Abel Prize winners, 5 National Humanities Medal recipients, 209 Rhodes Scholars, 139 Gates Cambridge Scholars and 126 Marshall Scholars. Two U. S. Presidents, twelve U. S. Supreme Court Justices and numerous living billionaires and foreign heads of state are all counted among Princeton's alumni body. Princeton has graduated many prominent members of the U. S. Congress and the U. S. Cabinet, including eight Secretaries of State, three Secretaries of Defense and three of the past five Chairs of the Federal Reserve. New Light Presbyterians founded the College of New Jersey in 1746; the college was the religious capital of Scottish Presbyterian America. In 1754, trustees of the College of New Jersey suggested that, in recognition of Governor Jonathan Belcher's interest, Princeton should be named as Belcher College.
Belcher replied: "What a name that would be!" In 1756, the college moved to New Jersey. Its home in Princeton was Nassau Hall, named for the royal House of Orange-Nassau of William III of England. Following the untimely deaths of Princeton's first five presidents, John Witherspoon became president in 1768 and remained in that office until his death in 1794. During his presidency, Witherspoon shifted the college's focus from training ministers to preparing a new generation for secular leadership in the new American nation. To this end, he solicited investment in the college. Witherspoon's presidency constituted a long period of stability for the college, interrupted by the American Revolution and the Battle of Princeton, during which British soldiers occupied Nassau Hall. In 1812, the eighth president of the College of New Jersey, Ashbel Green, helped establish the Princeton Theological Seminary next door; the plan to extend the theological curriculum met with "enthusiastic approval on the part of the authorities at the College of New Jersey".
Today, Princeton University and Princeton Theological Seminary maintain separate institutions with ties that include services such as cross-registration and mutual library access. Before the construction of Stanhope Hall in 1803, Nassau Hall was the college's sole building; the cornerstone of the building was laid on September 17, 1754. During the summer of 1783, the Continental Congress met in Nassau Hall, making Princeton the country's capital for four months. Over the centuries and through two redesigns following major fires, Nassau Hall's role shifted from an all-purpose building, comprising office, dormitory and classroom space; the class of 1879 donated twin lion sculptures that flanked the entrance until 1911, when that same class replaced them with tigers. Nassau Hall's bell rang after the hall's construction; the bell was recast and melted again in the fire of 1855. James McCosh took office as the college's president in 1868 and lifted the institution out of a low period, brought about by the American Civil War.
During his two decades of service, he overhauled the curriculum, oversaw an expansion of inquiry into the sciences, supervised the addition of a number of buildings in the High Victorian Gothic style to the campus. McCosh Hall is named in his honor. In 1879, the first thesis for a Doctor of Philosophy Ph. D. was submitted by James F. Williamson, Class of 1877. In 1896, the college changed its name from the College of New Jersey to Princeton University to honor the town in which it resides. During this year, the college underwent large expansion and became a university. In 1900, the Graduate School was established. In 1902, Woodrow Wilson, graduate of the Class of 1879, was elected the 13th president of the university. Under Wilson, Princeton introduced the preceptorial system in 1905, a then-unique concept in the US that augmented the standard lecture method of teaching with a more personal form in which small groups of students, or precepts, could interact with a single instructor, or preceptor, in their field of interest.
In 1906, the reservoir Lake Carnegie was created by Andrew Carnegie. A collection of historical photographs of the build
Mike Ward (American politician)
Michael Delavan "Mike" Ward is a former congressman of the United States House of Representatives, a Democrat from Kentucky. Ward was born in White Plains, New York on January 7, 1951. Ward's mother, Lukey Ward, was a political and civil rights activist, Ward has said publicly that he was born into politics. Lukey Ward was, along with her friend Georgia Davis, the day-to-day manager of the Kentucky chapter of Martin Luther King's Southern Christian Leadership Conference. In fact, she was at the Lorraine Motel, waiting to go to dinner with Dr. King, when he was assassinated. Ward's father, Jasper Ward III, was a well-known award-winning architect in Louisville, his buildings include the Student Center at the University of Louisville and the Jewish Doctors Office Building at Interstate 65 and Liberty Street. Mike Ward is the great great grandson of Jasper D. Ward, a former 1800's Chicago Congressman. Ward attended the University of Louisville, from. Before entering politics, he served as a sales executive.
From 1989 to 1993, Ward served as a member of the Kentucky House of Representatives representing the Highlands area of Louisville. In 1994, he was elected to the United States House of Representatives, winning Kentucky's Third Congressional District seat, being vacated by Romano L. Mazzoli. Ward was one of few Democrats to win an open seat in the Republican congressional landslide that year. Ward narrowly defeated a field of candidates including Charlie Owen in the primary, defeated Republican nominee Susan Bush Stokes, a fellow member of the Kentucky House of Representatives, in the general election, his Campaign was directed by Kevin Geddings of Geddings Communications LLC of Washington, DC. In 1996 Ward lost his seat in the general election to Republican Anne Northup. Ward did not run again for the seat. Ward was appointed by President Bill Clinton as the Associate Director of the Peace Corps and served the full second term of Bill Clinton. From 2001 to 2005, Ward hosted a talk radio show in Louisville, a liberal counterweight to conservative talk radio programming.
Ward is President of Inc.. United States Congress. "Mike Ward". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Appearances on C-SPAN
Henry Scott Baesler is a Democratic politician and former Representative from Kentucky. Baesler was born in Kentucky, he graduated from the University of Kentucky in 1963 and earned a law degree in 1966. While at the university, Baesler played basketball under legendary coach Adolph Rupp. Over his final two seasons, Baesler maintained a per game average of 10.3 points, 4 rebounds, 3 assists, while shooting 83% from the foul line. After graduating from law school, Baesler practiced law and served as an administrator for Legal Aid, Inc. a nonprofit entity that provides free legal services to indigent persons facing criminal charges. He served as a District Court Judge in Fayette County for some years before serving as mayor of Lexington from 1982 to 1993. In 1991, Baesler ran for governor in the Democratic primary and was narrowly defeated by Brereton Jones, who won the general election. In 1992, Baesler was elected to the U. S. House of Representatives for the 6th Congressional district of Kentucky after 14-year Republican incumbent Larry Hopkins retired.
He served there for three terms. In 1996, he defeated Ernie Fletcher by a vote of 125,999 to 100,231, he left his seat in 1998 to run for the Senate seat of retiring Democratic whip Wendell Ford. Baesler won a narrow primary victory over Louisville businessman Charlie Owen and Lieutenant Governor Steve Henry, but was narrowly defeated in the general election by fellow congressman Jim Bunning, a Republican. Baesler assumed early on that he had no chance of carrying Bunning's 4th District, based in the Cincinnati suburbs, he aired no ads in the Cincinnati television market. This came back to haunt Baesler in November, as Bunning swamped him in the 4th, winning by a margin that Baesler couldn't make up in the rest of the state. Baesler won his own district, which came as something of an embarrassment. In 2000, Baesler tried to regain his House seat against the Republican who had replaced him, Ernie Fletcher. Fletcher had lost badly to Baesler in 1996. However, by 2000 Baesler was badly wounded from his narrow loss to Bunning two years earlier.
He wasn't helped when Democratic presidential candidate Al Gore all but conceded Kentucky to Republican George W. Bush in August. Earlier, all four of Lexington's TV stations pulled a Democratic Congressional Campaign Committee ad for Baesler, claiming the ad falsely charged Fletcher with cutting funding for education. In the general election, Fletcher defeated Baesler by 18 points. United States Congress. "Scotty Baesler". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Voting record maintained by the Washington Post Appearances on C-SPAN
Kentucky's 3rd congressional district
Kentucky's 3rd congressional district is a congressional district in the U. S. state of Kentucky. It encompasses all of Louisville Metro, since the merger of 2003, is consolidated with Jefferson County, though other incorporated cities exist within the county, such as Shively and St. Matthews; the far southeast reaches of Louisville Metro are part of the 4th Congressional District. The district is represented by Democrat John Yarmuth; this district is Democratic, is contained within Jefferson County, Kentucky. It has the highest percentage of African Americans in the state, who are concentrated in and near Louisville, it is a cosmopolitan, diverse district, with major businesses, health care organizations and universities. As of September 2013, there were 518,028 registered voters: 305,121 Democrats, 166,271 Republicans, 46,636 "Others". All of the "Others" included 35,209 unclassified Others, 10,528 Independents, 678 Libertarians, 177 Greens, 28 Constitutionalists, 3 Reforms, 13 Socialist Workers.
Until January 1, 2006, Kentucky did not track party affiliation for registered voters who were neither Democratic nor Republican. The Kentucky voter registration card does not explicitly list anything other than Democratic Party, Republican Party, or Other, with the "Other" option having a blank line and no instructions on how to register as something else; as of June 2017, there are three living former members of the House from the district. The most recent representative to die was Frank W. Burke on June 29, 2007; the most serving representative to die was William O. Cowger on October 2, 1971. Kentucky's congressional districts List of United States congressional districts Specific GeneralMartis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present United States House of Representatives elections, 2006
United States Senate
The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress, which along with the United States House of Representatives—the lower chamber—comprises the legislature of the United States. The Senate chamber is located in the north wing of the Capitol, in Washington, D. C; the composition and powers of the Senate are established by Article One of the United States Constitution. The Senate is composed of senators; each state, regardless of its population size, is represented by two senators who serve staggered terms of six years. There being at present 50 states in the Union, there are presently 100 senators. From 1789 until 1913, senators were appointed by legislatures of the states; as the upper chamber of Congress, the Senate has several powers of advice and consent which are unique to it. These include the approval of treaties, the confirmation of Cabinet secretaries, Supreme Court justices, federal judges, flag officers, regulatory officials, other federal executive officials and other federal uniformed officers.
In addition to these, in cases wherein no candidate receives a majority of electors for Vice President, the duty falls to the Senate to elect one of the top two recipients of electors for that office. Furthermore, the Senate has the responsibility of conducting the trials of those impeached by the House; the Senate is considered both a more deliberative and more prestigious body than the House of Representatives due to its longer terms, smaller size, statewide constituencies, which led to a more collegial and less partisan atmosphere. The presiding officer of the Senate is the Vice President of the United States, President of the Senate. In the Vice President's absence, the President Pro Tempore, customarily the senior member of the party holding a majority of seats, presides over the Senate. In the early 20th century, the practice of majority and minority parties electing their floor leaders began, although they are not constitutional officers; the drafters of the Constitution created a bicameral Congress as a compromise between those who felt that each state, since it was sovereign, should be represented, those who felt the legislature must directly represent the people, as the House of Commons did in Great Britain.
This idea of having one chamber represent people while the other gives equal representation to states regardless of population, was known as the Connecticut Compromise. There was a desire to have two Houses that could act as an internal check on each other. One was intended to be a "People's House" directly elected by the people, with short terms obliging the representatives to remain close to their constituents; the other was intended to represent the states to such extent as they retained their sovereignty except for the powers expressly delegated to the national government. The Senate was thus not designed to serve the people of the United States equally; the Constitution provides that the approval of both chambers is necessary for the passage of legislation. First convened in 1789, the Senate of the United States was formed on the example of the ancient Roman Senate; the name is derived from Latin for council of elders. James Madison made the following comment about the Senate: In England, at this day, if elections were open to all classes of people, the property of landed proprietors would be insecure.
An agrarian law would soon take place. If these observations be just, our government ought to secure the permanent interests of the country against innovation. Landholders ought to have a share in the government, to support these invaluable interests, to balance and check the other, they ought to be so constituted. The Senate, ought to be this body. Article Five of the Constitution stipulates that no constitutional amendment may be created to deprive a state of its equal suffrage in the Senate without that state's consent; the District of Columbia and all other territories are not entitled to representation allowed to vote in either House of the Congress. The District of Columbia elects two "shadow U. S. Senators", but they are officials of the D. C. City Government and not members of the U. S. Senate; the United States has had 50 states since 1959, thus the Senate has had 100 senators since 1959. The disparity between the most and least populous states has grown since the Connecticut Compromise, which granted each state two members of the Senate and at least one member of the House of Representatives, for a total minimum of three presidential electors, regardless of population.
In 1787, Virginia had ten times the population of Rhode Island, whereas today California has 70 times the population of Wyoming, based on the 1790 and 2000 censuses. This means some citizens are two orders of magnitude better represented in the Senate than those in other states. Seats in the House of Representatives are proportionate to the population of each state, reducing the disparity of representation. Before the adoption of the Seventeenth Amendment in 1913, senators were elected by the individual state legislatures. Problems with repeated vacant seats due to the inability of a legislature to elect senators, intrastate political struggles, bribery and intimidation had led to a growing movement to amend the Constitution to allow for the direct election of senators; the party composition of the Senate during the 116th Congress: Art
Governor of Kentucky
The Governor of the Commonwealth of Kentucky is the head of the executive branch of government in the Commonwealth of Kentucky. Fifty-seven men and one woman have served as Governor of Kentucky; the governor's term is four years in length. Throughout the state's history, four men have served two non-consecutive terms as governor, two others have served two consecutive terms. Kentucky is one of only five U. S. states. The current governor is Matt Bevin, first elected in 2015; the governor's powers are enumerated in the state constitution. There have been four constitutions of Kentucky—adopted in 1792, 1799, 1850, 1891, respectively—and each has enlarged the governor's authority. Among the powers appropriated to the governor in the constitution are the ability to grant pardons, veto legislation, call the legislature into session; the governor serves as commander-in-chief of the state's military forces and is empowered to enforce all laws of the state. The officeholder is given broad statutory authority to make appointments to the various cabinets and departments of the executive branch, limited somewhat by the adoption of a merit system for state employees in 1960.
Because Kentucky's governor controls so many appointments to commissions, the office has been considered one of the most powerful state executive positions in the United States. Additionally, the governor's influence has been augmented by wide discretion in awarding state contracts and significant influence over the legislature, although the latter has been waning since the mid-1970s; the history of the office of Governor is one of long periods of domination by a single party, though different parties were predominant in different eras. Federalists were rare among Kentuckians during the period of the First Party System, Democratic Republicans won every gubernatorial election in the state until 1828; the Second Party System began when the Democratic-Republicans split into Jacksonian Democrats and National Republicans. Beginning with the election of Thomas Metcalfe in 1828, the Whigs dominated the governorship until 1851, with John Breathitt being the only Democrat elected during that period.
With the collapse of the Whig Party in the 1850s, Democrats took control of the governorship for the duration of the Third Party System, with Charles S. Morehead of the Know Nothing Party being the only exception; the election of Republican William O'Connell Bradley in 1895 began the only period of true two-party competition for the governorship. Since 1931, only four Republicans have served as governor of Kentucky. In all four Kentucky constitutions, the first power enumerated to the governor is to serve as commander-in-chief of the state's militia and military forces. In 1799, a stipulation was added that the governor would not lead troops on the battlefield unless advised to do so by a resolution of the General Assembly; such a case occurred in 1813 when Governor Isaac Shelby, a veteran of the Revolutionary War, was asked to lead a band of Kentucky troops to aid William Henry Harrison at the Battle of the Thames. For his service, Shelby received the Thanks of the Congressional Gold Medal.
Among the other powers and responsibilities of the governor that appear in all four constitutions are the power to enforce all laws, the power to fill vacancies in elected offices until the next meeting of the General Assembly, the power to remit fines and grant pardons. The power to pardon is not applicable to cases of impeachment, in cases of treason, a gubernatorial pardon is only effective until the end of the next session of the General Assembly, which can grant a full pardon for treason; the 1891 constitution further required that, with each application for a pardon, the governor file "a statement of the reasons for his decision thereon, which... shall always be open to public inspection." This requirement was first proposed by a delegate to the 1850 constitutional convention, but it was rejected at that time. Power in Kentucky's executive has been split amongst a variety of elected positions—including Lieutenant Governor, Attorney General, Auditor of Public Accounts and several commissioners—but in the late 20th century, political power has centralized in the office of Governor.
The power of the governor to adjourn the General Assembly for a period of up to four months if the two houses cannot agree on a time to adjourn appears in all four constitutions. The governor is empowered to convene the General Assembly "on extraordinary occasions". Since the 1799 constitution, the governor has been permitted to call the legislature into session somewhere other than the state capital if the capital had, since the last legislative session, "become dangerous from an enemy or from contagious diseases." This was an important provision in the early days of the Commonwealth, when epidemics like smallpox posed a danger to the populace. One notable example of an attempt to employ this power was in 1900 when Republican Governor William S. Taylor attempted to adjourn the legislature and re-convene it in Republican London, Kentucky following the shooting of William Goebel. Taylor claimed a state of insurrection existed in the capital, but defiant Democrats refused to heed the call to adjourn or to convene in London.
The 1891 constitution added a provision that the governor must specify the reason for any specially-called legislative session
Edward Thompson Breathitt Jr. was an American politician from the Commonwealth of Kentucky. A member of one of the state's political families, he was the 51st Governor of Kentucky, serving from 1963 to 1967. After serving in World War II and graduating from the University of Kentucky, Breathitt worked on the presidential campaign of Adlai Stevenson, the senatorial campaign of Alben Barkley, the gubernatorial campaign of Bert T. Combs; when Combs won the governorship in 1959, he appointed Breathitt as personnel commissioner, where he wrote legislation establishing the first merit system for state employees. He continued to hold appointive offices throughout Combs' tenure, in 1962, Combs endorsed Breathitt to succeed him as governor. Breathitt defeated two-time former governor A. B. "Happy" Chandler in the Democratic primary, ending Chandler's political career. He went on to win the general election over Republican Louie B. Nunn. Breathitt continued Combs' work of improving state highways and parks, improving education funding, strengthening regulations on strip mining.
His major accomplishment as governor was the passage of the Kentucky Civil Rights Act, the first desegregation law passed by a southern state. His biggest disappointment was his inability to win approval of a new state constitution. Following his term as governor, Breathitt worked as legal counsel for Southern Railway, became vice-president of public affairs for Norfolk Southern Corporation, he engaged in numerous community service activities and served on political commissions aimed at eliminating poverty. Breathitt collapsed while making a speech at Lexington Community College on October 10, 2003, he was admitted to the University of Kentucky Hospital, but remained comatose after the collapse and died four days later. Breathitt's oral history project is housed at the Louie B. Nunn Center for Oral History at the University of Kentucky Libraries and is available online. Ned Breathitt was born in Hopkinsville, Kentucky, on November 26, 1924, he was the only child of Mary Breathitt. Breathitt's family had a considerable tradition in politics.
A distant relative, John Breathitt had been governor of Kentucky in 1832. James Breathitt, Sr. Ned Breathitt's grandfather, had served as state attorney general from 1907 to 1911, his uncle, James Breathitt, Jr. was lieutenant governor from 1927 to 1932. Breathitt obtained his early education in the public schools of Hopkinsville and graduated from Hopkinsville High School in 1942; that year, he enlisted in the U. S. Army Air Force for service in World War II, serving until 1945. After the war, he matriculated to the University of Kentucky. While there, he served as president of the Omicron Delta Kappa honor society and the Lamp and Cross society. Seeing Breathitt's interest in politics, professors Jack Reeves and Thomas D. Clark asked him to chair the campus campaign supporting a new state constitution. Breathitt accepted, although the proposed constitution failed, he remained committed to seeing the document updated. In 1948, Breathitt earned a Bachelor of Arts degree in business administration.
On December 20, 1948, he married Frances Holleman of Kentucky. The couple had four children: Mary Fran, Linda and Edward III. In 1950, Breathitt earned a Bachelor of Laws degree and returned to Hopkinsville where he joined the law firm of Trimble and Breathitt. In 1951, Breathitt was elected to the first of three consecutive terms in the Kentucky House of Representatives, representing the Ninth District; as a legislator, he was the acknowledged leader of a faction that opposed the programs of Governor A. B. "Happy" Chandler. He supported the state's first legislation regulating strip mining, improved registration and election laws, campaigned for revision of the state constitution, he co-sponsored the Minimum Foundation Program for Education. From 1952 to 1954, Breathitt served as president of the Young Democrats Clubs of Kentucky and as a member of the national committee for the Young Democrats of America, he was chair of the state speaker's bureau for Adlai Stevenson's presidential campaign in 1952, two years he worked on the staff of Senator Alben Barkley's re-election campaign.
Bert T. Combs put Breathitt in charge of his campaign against Wilson Wyatt in the Democratic gubernatorial primary in 1958; when Combs was elected governor in 1959, he appointed Breathitt as State Personnel Commissioner, charging him with writing legislation to create a merit system for state employees. After guiding the legislation through the General Assembly, Breathitt resigned as personnel commissioner to accept an appointment to the Kentucky Public Service Commission, he was served as chair of a failed state constitutional convention in 1960 and was a member of the Governor's Commission on Mental Health. In 1962, two-time former governor and Democratic factional leader Happy Chandler had begun his campaign for a third term as governor; the anti-Chandler faction became concerned that, if they did not name a candidate, Chandler's early announcement would give him an advantage in the 1963 election. Leaders of the faction were solidly behind state Highway Commissioner Henry Ward, but Governor Combs was leaning toward Breathitt.
Breathitt announced his candidacy on May 2, 1962, but many in his party remained skeptical due to his youth and relative inexperience. Combs convinced the anti-Chandler faction to back Breathitt, Ward never became a candidate. During the primary campaign, Chandler focused his attacks on the Combs administration rather than the inexperienced Breathitt. A seasoned campaigner, he bitterly attacked the three percent sales tax enacted durin