A&M Records was an American record label founded as an independent company by Herb Alpert and Jerry Moss in 1962. Due to the success of the discography A&M released, the label garnered interest and was acquired by PolyGram in 1989 and began distributing releases from Polydor Ltd. from the UK. Throughout its operations, A&M housed well-known acts such as Joe Cocker, Procol Harum, Captain & Tennille, Sergio Mendes, Ozark Mountain Daredevils, Bryan Adams, Burt Bacharach, Liza Minnelli, The Carpenters, Paul Williams, Janet Jackson, Cat Stevens, Peter Frampton, Elkie Brooks, Carole King, Extreme, Amy Grant, Joan Baez, the Human League, The Police, CeCe Peniston, Blues Traveler, Soundgarden and Sheryl Crow. PolyGram was acquired by Seagram and dissolved into Universal Music Group in 1998, A&M's operations were ceased in January 1999 when it was merged with Geffen Records and Interscope Records to form the record company Interscope Geffen A&M Records. In 2007, Interscope Geffen A&M announced that A&M was revived as trademark and brand and was to be merged with Octone Records to form A&M Octone Records, which operated until 2013, when A&M Octone was folded into Interscope.
Today, A&M's catalog releases are managed by Verve Records, Universal Music Enterprises and Interscope. A&M Records was formed in 1962 by Jerry Moss, their first choice for a name was Carnival Records, under which they released two singles before discovering that another label had taken the Carnival name. The company was subsequently renamed Moss's initials. From 1966 to 1999, the company's headquarters were on the grounds of the historic Charlie Chaplin Studios at 1416 North La Brea Avenue, near Sunset Boulevard in Hollywood. Throughout the 1960s and 1970s, A&M had such acts as Herb Alpert & the Tijuana Brass, Baja Marimba Band, Burt Bacharach, Sérgio Mendes & Brasil ’66, the Sandpipers, Boyce & Hart, We Five, the Carpenters, Chris Montez, Elkie Brooks, Lee Michaels and Tennille, the Flying Burrito Brothers, Quincy Jones, Lucille Starr, Stealers Wheel and Lyle, Barry DeVorzon, Perry Botkin, Jr. Marc Benno, Liza Minnelli, Rita Coolidge, Gino Vannelli, Wes Montgomery, Paul Desmond, Bobby Tench, Toni Basil, Paul Williams.
Folk artists Joan Baez, Phil Ochs and Gene Clark recorded for the label during the 1970s. Billy Preston joined the label in 1971, followed by Andre Popp and Herb Ohta in 1973. In the late 1960s, through direct signing and licensing agreements, A&M added several British artists to its roster, including Cat Stevens, Joe Cocker, Procol Harum, Humble Pie, Fairport Convention, the Move and Spooky Tooth. In the 1970s, under its manufacturing and distribution agreement with Ode Records, A&M released albums by Carole King and the comedy duo Cheech & Chong. Other notable acts of the time included Nazareth, Y&T, the Tubes, Supertramp, Joan Armatrading and James, Chris de Burgh, Rick Wakeman, the Ozark Mountain Daredevils, Chuck Mangione and Peter Frampton. On March 10, 1977, A&M signed the Sex Pistols after the band had been dropped by EMI. However, A&M dropped the band within a week. A&M sustained its success during the 1980s with a roster of noted acts that included Orchestral Manoeuvres in the Dark, Henry Badowski, Janet Jackson, the Police, the Brothers Johnson, Atlantic Starr, the Go-Go's, Bryan Adams, Suzanne Vega, Brenda Russell, Jeffrey Osborne, Oingo Boingo, the Human League, Ozark Mountain Daredevils, Lois & Bram, Annabel Lamb, Jim Diamond, Vital Signs, Joe Jackson, Scottish rock band Gun.
They through a deal with Christian music label Myrrh, distributed back catalog recordings of Amy Grant as well as her new recordings, starting with 1985's Unguarded, to the mainstream marketplace, a vital component in her subsequent breakthrough as a mainstream artist. Within a decade of its inception, A&M became the world's largest independent record company. A&M releases were issued in the United Kingdom by EMI's Stateside Records label, under its own name by Pye Records, who released the first Herb Alpert records on the Pye International label before issuing the records on the A&M label until 1967. From 1969, A&M set up its own UK base appointing John Deacon as General Manager - a post he held until 1979. Several A&R men were recruited including Larry Yaskiel and Derek Green and major UK acts such as the Police, Rick Wakeman, Gallagher & Lyle, Elkie Brooks, the Strawbs and Peter Frampton as well as many others were all signed to the UK label. A&M releases were issued in Australia through Festival Records until 1989.
A&M Records Ltd. was established in 1970, with distribution handled by other labels with a presence in Europe. A&M Records of Canada Ltd. was formed in 1970, A&M Records of Europe in 1977. In 1979, A&M entered a distribution agreement with RCA Records in the US, with CBS Records in many other countries. Over the years, A&M added specialty imprints: Almo International for middle of the road. A&M was bought by PolyGram in 1989. Alpert and Moss continued to manage the label until 1993. In 1998, Alpert and Moss sued PolyGram for breach of the integrity clause settling for an additional $200 million payment. In 1991, A&M launched Perspective Records as a joint venture with producing team Jimmy Jam and Terry Lewis. Jam and Lewis stepped down as CEOs of the imprint in 1997. In 1999, t
A music genre is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of music as belonging to a shared tradition or set of conventions. It is to be distinguished from musical form and musical style, although in practice these terms are sometimes used interchangeably. Academics have argued that categorizing music by genre is inaccurate and outdated. Music can be divided into different genres in many different ways; the artistic nature of music means that these classifications are subjective and controversial, some genres may overlap. There are varying academic definitions of the term genre itself. In his book Form in Tonal Music, Douglass M. Green distinguishes between form, he lists madrigal, canzona and dance as examples of genres from the Renaissance period. To further clarify the meaning of genre, Green writes, "Beethoven's Op. 61 and Mendelssohn's Op. 64 are identical in genre – both are violin concertos – but different in form. However, Mozart's Rondo for Piano, K. 511, the Agnus Dei from his Mass, K. 317 are quite different in genre but happen to be similar in form."
Some, like Peter van der Merwe, treat the terms genre and style as the same, saying that genre should be defined as pieces of music that share a certain style or "basic musical language." Others, such as Allan F. Moore, state that genre and style are two separate terms, that secondary characteristics such as subject matter can differentiate between genres. A music genre or subgenre may be defined by the musical techniques, the style, the cultural context, the content and spirit of the themes. Geographical origin is sometimes used to identify a music genre, though a single geographical category will include a wide variety of subgenres. Timothy Laurie argues that since the early 1980s, "genre has graduated from being a subset of popular music studies to being an ubiquitous framework for constituting and evaluating musical research objects". Among the criteria used to classify musical genres are the trichotomy of art and traditional musics. Alternatively, music can be divided on three variables: arousal and depth.
Arousal reflects the energy level of the music. These three variables help explain why many people like similar songs from different traditionally segregated genres. Musicologists have sometimes classified music according to a trichotomic distinction such as Philip Tagg's "axiomatic triangle consisting of'folk','art' and'popular' musics", he explains that each of these three is distinguishable from the others according to certain criteria. The term art music refers to classical traditions, including both contemporary and historical classical music forms. Art music exists in many parts of the world, it emphasizes formal styles that invite technical and detailed deconstruction and criticism, demand focused attention from the listener. In Western practice, art music is considered a written musical tradition, preserved in some form of music notation rather than being transmitted orally, by rote, or in recordings, as popular and traditional music are. Most western art music has been written down using the standard forms of music notation that evolved in Europe, beginning well before the Renaissance and reaching its maturity in the Romantic period.
The identity of a "work" or "piece" of art music is defined by the notated version rather than by a particular performance, is associated with the composer rather than the performer. This is so in the case of western classical music. Art music may include certain forms of jazz, though some feel that jazz is a form of popular music. Sacred Christian music forms an important part of the classical music tradition and repertoire, but can be considered to have an identity of its own; the term popular music refers to any musical style accessible to the general public and disseminated by the mass media. Musicologist and popular music specialist Philip Tagg defined the notion in the light of sociocultural and economical aspects: Popular music, unlike art music, is conceived for mass distribution to large and socioculturally heterogeneous groups of listeners and distributed in non-written form, only possible in an industrial monetary economy where it becomes a commodity and in capitalist societies, subject to the laws of'free' enterprise... it should ideally sell as much as possible.
Popular music is found on most commercial and public service radio stations, in most commercial music retailers and department stores, in movie and television soundtracks. It is noted on the Billboard charts and, in addition to singer-songwriters and composers, it involves music producers more than other genres do; the distinction between classical and popular music has sometimes been blurred in marginal areas such as minimalist music and light classics. Background music for films/movies draws on both traditions. In this respect, music is like fiction, which draws a distinction between literary fiction and popular fiction, not always precise. Country music known as country and western, hillbilly music, is a genre of popular music that originated in the southern United States in the early 1920s; the polka is a Czech dance and genre of dance music familiar throughout Europe and the Americas. Rock music is a broad genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the early 1950s, developed into a range of different styles in the 1960s and particular
Michael Roe is an American, singer and record producer. He is a member of the band The 77s. Although he has released several solo albums since the mid-1990s, Roe is known as the lead singer and lead guitarist for the Christian alternative rock band the 77s. In addition to releasing albums under the moniker 7&7iS, he has recorded several instrumental albums with bandmate Mark Harmon. Roe is a founding member of Lost Dogs. More Miserable Than You'll Ever Be, 7&7is Fun with Sound with Mark Harmon, 7&7iS RoesBuds Safe as Milk The Boat Ashore Safe as Milk Live – Cornerstone 1997 Orbis with Mark Harmon Daydream with Mark Harmon Say Your Prayers All Day Sing and Dinner on the Ground with Terry Scott Taylor We're All Gonna Face the Rising Sun Michael Roe Kerosene Halo, with Derri Daugherty Guadalupe Gimme a Kickstart... and a Phrase or Two Live in Torrance Gothic With The 77s Ping Pong over the Abyss All Fall Down The 77s 7&7is Sticks and Stones Eighty Eight The 77s Drowning with Land in Sight Tom Tom Blues Echos o' Faith EP A Golden Field of Radioactive Crows Fun with Sound Ninety Nine Holy Ghost Building Seeds and Stems Misery Loves Company Gimme a Kickstart... and a Phrase or Two Naked & Unashamed Official website
Randall Darius Jackson is an American bassist, record producer and television personality. Jackson began his career in the 1980s as a session musician playing bass guitar for an array of jazz, rock and R&B performers, he moved on to work as A&R at Columbia Records and MCA Records. Jackson is best known from his appearances as the longest-serving judge on American Idol and executive producer for MTV's America's Best Dance Crew. Jackson has won a Grammy Award as a producer. Jackson was born on June 23, 1956, in Baton Rouge, the son of Julia, a homemaker, Herman Jackson, a plant foreman, his first marriage, to Elizabeth Jackson, was dissolved in 1990. In 1995, Jackson married Erika Riker, with whom he has two children, a daughter named Zoe and a son named Jordan. In 2014, Riker filed for divorce citing irreconcilable differences, it was finalized in 2019. In 2003, Jackson lost 114 pounds following gastric bypass surgery, he stated in a February 2008 television commercial. In the early 1980s he played on three albums with the rock band Taxxi.
From 1986 to 1987 he was a session musician for the rock group Journey. Jackson played on Journey's 1986 album Raised on Radio, he played on a record by Italian pop star Zucchero. The record and the Randy Jackson Band, was produced by Corrado Rustici who played guitar with Jackson on many albums in the early 1980s, he played with Billy Cobham. In 1985, Keith Richards was asked to provide music for the Whoopi Goldberg comedy vehicle Jumpin' Jack Flash. Richards assembled an all-star band which included Aretha Franklin on piano and lead vocals and Jackson on bass guitar; this song was the fourth track on Aretha's 1986 album titled Aretha. Jackson can be seen in the song's video. In the late 1980s, Jackson was still doing sessions, he was notably on the first solo album by famed session guitarist Steve Lukather. Jackson was a featured bass guitarist on five songs on Maze's 1989 "Silky Soul" album, he performed on several of Kenny G's albums. Jackson was the bass guitarist on the 1991 self-titled Divinyls album as well as featured bassist on several tracks of Tracy Chapman's 1992 release, Matters of the Heart.
He performed on the singles "Bang Bang Bang", "Open Arms", "Dreaming on a World". That same year, Jackson played bass on Bruce Springsteen's song "Human Touch." Jackson has recorded, produced, or toured with many well-known artists and bands, ranging from Mariah Carey to'N Sync, Whitney Houston, Dionne Farris', Céline Dion, Fergie and Madonna. Jackson played numerous times in Jean-Luc Ponty's backing band, his credits as a session musician range from playing with Aldo Nova, George Benson, Blue Öyster Cult, Jon Bon Jovi, Michael Bolton, Clarence "Gatemouth" Brown, Billy Cobham, Bob Dylan, Aretha Franklin, Herbie Hancock, Ernie Isley, Billy Joel, Brent Bourgeois, Richard Marx, George Michael, Stevie Nicks, Imogen Heap, Bruce Springsteen and Roger Waters to playing at the Grand Ole Opry with The Charlie Daniels Band. His production/songwriting work in the San Francisco Bay Area with Narada Michael Walden and Walter Afanasieff led Jackson to be in demand as a producer as well. On March 11, 2008, Jackson released an album produced by himself, titled Randy Jackson's Music Club, Vol. 1.
The album's release was preceded by the single "Dance Like. In 2009, Randy began producing her 4th album; the lead single, "Strobe Light", was released March 16, 2010. In February 2010, Jackson participated. Jackson is the manager for the Charlotte-based band Paper Tongues. With the help of Jackson, they signed with A&M / Octone Records, he has worked as an executive, spending eight years as vice president of artists and repertoire at Columbia Records and four years heading A&R at MCA Records. Jackson hosts a radio top 40 countdown known as Randy Jackson's Hit List, syndicated by Westwood One; every week, Jackson counts down his top 30 Urban Mainstream AC hits. He gives behind-the-scenes information on American Idol on the internet radio station Artist Underground. Starting in 2002, Jackson was one of the panel judges on the Fox Network reality television series American Idol, along with Paula Abdul, Simon Cowell, Kara DioGuardi, Ellen DeGeneres, Jennifer Lopez, Steven Tyler, Nicki Minaj, Mariah Carey and Keith Urban.
As a result of Cowell's departure, Jackson was left as the sole original judge on American Idol. His role was going to be reduced to that of a mentor, so the 2013 season would have all new judges, but it was decided that he would remain as a judge for season 12. On May 9, 2013, Jackson announced that he would be leaving American Idol after twelve seasons due to him wanting to focus on other business ventures. On September 3, 2013, it was announced that Jackson would replace Jimmy Iovine as the in-house mentor on American Idol, he departed the series for good in November 2014. Jackson produces America's Best Dance Crew, an American group dance competition and realit
Contemporary Christian music
Contemporary Christian music is a genre of modern popular music, lyrically focused on matters concerned with the Christian faith. It formed as those affected by the 1960s Jesus movement revival began to express themselves in a more contemporary style of music than the hymns and Southern gospel music, prevalent in the church at the time. Today, the term is used to refer to pop, rock, or praise & worship styles, it has representation on several music charts including Billboard's Christian Albums, Christian Songs, Hot Christian AC, Christian CHR, Soft AC/Inspirational, Christian Digital Songs as well as the UK's Official Christian & Gospel Albums Chart. Top-selling CCM artists will appear on the Billboard 200. In the iTunes Store, the genre is represented as part of the Christian and gospel genre while the Google Play Music system labels it as Christian/Gospel; the growing popularity in the styles of Rock'n'Roll music in the 1950s was dismissed by the church because it was believed to encourage sinfulness.
Yet as evangelical churches adapted to appeal to more people, the musical styles used in worship changed as well by adopting the sounds of this popular style. The genre became known as contemporary Christian music as a result of the Jesus movement revival in the latter 1960s and early 1970s, was called Jesus music. "About that time, many young people from the sixties' counterculture professed to believe in Jesus. Convinced of the bareness of a lifestyle based on drugs, free sex, radical politics,'hippies' became'Jesus people'". However, there were people who felt that Jesus was another "trip", it was during the 1970s Jesus movement that Christian music started to become an industry within itself. "Jesus Music" started by playing instruments and singing songs about love and peace, which translated into love of God. Paul Wohlegemuth, who wrote the book Rethinking Church Music, said " 1970s will see a marked acceptance of rock-influenced music in all levels of church music; the rock style will become more familiar to all people, its rhythmic excesses will become refined, its earlier secular associations will be less remembered."Larry Norman is remembered as the "father of Christian rock", because of his early contributions to the developing new genre that mixed rock rhythms with the Christian messages.
Though his style was not well received by many in the Christian community of the time, he continued throughout his career to create controversial hard-rock songs such as "Why Should the Devil Have All the Good Music?". He is remembered as the artist "who first combined rock'n' roll with Christian lyrics" in the Gospel Music Hall of Fame. Though there were Christian albums in the 1960s that contained contemporary-sounding songs, there were two albums recorded in 1969 that are considered to be the first complete albums of "Jesus rock": Upon This Rock by Larry Norman released on Capitol Records, Mylon – We Believe by Mylon LeFevre, released by Cotillion, LeFevre's attempt at blending gospel music with southern rock. Unlike traditional or southern gospel music, this new Jesus music was birthed out of rock and folk music. Pioneers of this movement included Keith Green, 2nd Chapter of Acts, Barry McGuire, Andraé Crouch and the Disciples, Benny Hester, The Imperials, among others; the small Jesus music culture had expanded into a multimillion-dollar industry by the 1980s.
Many CCM artists such as Benny Hester, Amy Grant, DC Talk, Michael W. Smith and Jars of Clay found crossover success with Top 40 mainstream radio play; the genre became prevalent in the 1970s and 1980s. Beginning in July 1978, CCM Magazine began covering "Contemporary Christian Music" artists and a wide range of spiritual themes until it launched online publications in 2009, it has certain themes and messages behind the songs and their lyrics including Praise and worship, faith and prayer. These songs focus on themes of devotion, redemption and renewal. Many people listen to contemporary Christian music for comfort through tough times; the lyrics and messages conveyed in CCM songs are aimed to worship Jesus. One of the earliest goals of CCM was to spread the news of Jesus to non-Christians. In addition, contemporary Christian music strengthens the faith of believers. Contemporary Christian music has influences from folk, gospel and rock music. Genres of music such as soft rock, folk rock, hip-hop, etc. have played a large influence on CCM.
Charismatic churches have had a large influence on contemporary Christian music and are one of the largest producers of CCM. Hillsong Church is one of the many prominent CCM artists. Contemporary Christian music has expanded into many subgenres. Christian punk, Christian hardcore, Christian metal, Christian hip hop, although not considered CCM, can come under the genre's umbrella. Contemporary worship music is incorporated in modern CCM. Contemporary worship is both performed during church services; some prominent artists who assisted CCM to become popular include Amy Grant, Michael W. Smith, Phil Keaggy and John Elefante. Several mainstream artists, such as The Byrds, Bob Dylan, Van Morrison, Elvis Presley, Lifehouse and U2, have dealt with Christian themes in their music, yet are not part of the CCM industry. Other artists representing the genre include MercyMe, Casting Crowns, Jeremy Camp, Third Day, Matthew West, tobyMac, Chris Tomlin, Brandon Heath, Aaron Shust, Lauren Daigle. Jars of Clay, dc Talk, Steven Curtis Chapman and Newsboys have belonged to this genre.
Charles William Ashworth, known professionally as Charlie Peacock, is an American singer, pianist, record producer, session musician, author. His albums include Arc of the Circle and No Man's Land. Peacock was born in Yuba City and his father was a trumpeter and educator; as a youth he was inspired by the music of John Coltrane. During junior and senior high Peacock received instrumental and theory instruction from his father and a local educator. Peacock known as Chuck Ashworth, left Yuba City High School after his junior year at the age of 16. After leaving California State University, Sacramento in 1976 Peacock began playing jazz piano in the band, The Runners, he met author Frank Kofsky at California State University in Sacramento and through him met various jazz artists such as Andrew Hill. In 1978, songwriter Stephen Holsapple recorded Peacock's vocal compositions and they began writing songs together, he began performing at Maurice's American Bar and his song "So Attractive" was placed with a music publisher.
Vocalist and songwriter Sal Valentino asked Peacock to join his band and gave Peacock's music to his industry friends. In 1980 A&M Records signed Peacock for a demo recording with producer David Kahne. Peacock formed The Charlie Peacock Group with Erik Kleven, Jim Caselli, Darius Babazadeh and guitarist, Mark Herzig, he recorded with David Kahne at the Automatt and at Moon Studios with Stephen Holsapple during this period and those recordings became the album Last Vestiges of Honor, released in 1998. Peacock contracted with a production imprint company called Exit Records in early 1983 and released his own debut solo album, Lie Down in the Grass, in 1984; that year he began touring as an opening act for The Fixx, Let's Active, General Public, Missing Persons, the Red Hot Chili Peppers. Peacock moved to Island Records and recorded a self-titled album, released in 1986. During this period Peacock began playing jazz in an electric improvisational band called Emperor Norton; the band consisted of Peacock, Brent Bourgeois, Larry Tagg, Bongo Bob Smith, Henry Robinett, Aaron Smith.
After being released from Island records in 1988 Peacock joined Jimmy Abegg and Vince Ebo to form an acoustic trio that toured the US and Europe. In 1987, Peacock's song was recorded by contemporary Christian artist Russ Taff with Peacock singing background vocals; that same year Peacock produced The Choir. He co-wrote songs with Margaret Becker in the fall of 1988 and the subsequent album, Immigrant's Daughter was nominated for a Grammy award. Peacock moved to Nashville in the Summer of 1989 and received a recording contract with Sparrow Records, his recording, The Secret of Time was nominated for a Grammy Award in 1990 as Peacock continued to perform production and session musician work with Al Green, Twila Paris, Amy Grant. He co-wrote Grant's No. 2 single "Every Heartbeat". From 1990 to 1999 Peacock produced over fifty albums in the Christian and gospel music genre and founded the record company, re:think and signed the artists Sarah Masen and Switchfoot. Peacock's book, At the Crossroads, a commentary on the genre of contemporary Christian music, was published by Broadman & Holman in 1999.
On March 9, 2004 Peacock released Full Circle: A Celebration of Songs and Friends commemorating his 20-year anniversary as a solo recording artist. In 2005 Peacock released his first commercial jazz/improvisational music CD, Love Press Ex-Curio, short for Loves Pressure Exhibits Curiosity. According to jazz critics, "while Peacock has pushed the boundaries of pop and gospel music by adding elements of alternative rock, dance music and jazz, he has never before delved into jazz as unabashedly and wholeheartedly as he does on Love Press Ex-Curio". In 2008, Peacock recorded the Arc of the Circle with saxophonist Jeff Coffin and the album peaked at No. 2 on the CMJ Jazz Charts. The album's original tracks, were recorded at Peacock's Nashville home; the album featured guitarist Marc Ribot, drummer Derrek Phillips, electronica player Tony Miracle, percussionist Ken Lewis, keyboardist/percussionist Chad Howat, tuba player Joe Murphy. A review in Abstract Logix said the album contained "high-risk improvisational music" with "eclectic influences" that kept the sound "bluesy and American."A Jazz Times review described it as "an improvisational blend of modern classical and ECM-like influences".
In 2009, Peacock was the executive producer of music for the documentary Any Day Now. In 2010 he and businessman David Kiersznowski co-founded an artist development and music publishing company, Twenty Ten Music. Peacock wrote and produced the film The Legend Hank Cochran and music producer/film producer/director for Brooke Waggoner's concert DVD And the World Opened Up, he executive produced and performed on Jon Foreman's EPs Fall, Winter and Summer. Peacock, in the audience during The Civil Wars' first concert, began producing the duo's music during this period, he helmed The Civil Wars' 2011 debut album Barton Hollow, which reached No. 10 on the Billboard 200 chart and No. 1 on the Billboard Digital Albums chart, sold over 800,000 copies, won the 2012 Grammy Awards for Best Folk Album and Best Country Duo/Group Performance. In October 2012, Peacock released No Man's Land, his first vocal project since 1999, he reunited with The Civil Wars to produce their self-titled 2013 album. Upon its debut, it became the best-selling album in America, topping the Billboard 200 chart as well as Billboard's Digital Albums and Canadian Albums charts, among others.
On January 8, 2014, he began production on American Idol Season 8 winner Kris Al
An album is a collection of audio recordings issued as a collection on compact disc, audio tape, or another medium. Albums of recorded music were developed in the early 20th century as individual 78-rpm records collected in a bound book resembling a photograph album. Vinyl LPs are still issued, though album sales in the 21st-century have focused on CD and MP3 formats; the audio cassette was a format used alongside vinyl from the 1970s into the first decade of the 2000s. An album may be recorded in a recording studio, in a concert venue, at home, in the field, or a mix of places; the time frame for recording an album varies between a few hours to several years. This process requires several takes with different parts recorded separately, brought or "mixed" together. Recordings that are done in one take without overdubbing are termed "live" when done in a studio. Studios are built to absorb sound, eliminating reverberation, so as to assist in mixing different takes. Recordings, including live, may contain sound effects, voice adjustments, etc..
With modern recording technology, musicians can be recorded in separate rooms or at separate times while listening to the other parts using headphones. Album covers and liner notes are used, sometimes additional information is provided, such as analysis of the recording, lyrics or librettos; the term "album" was applied to a collection of various items housed in a book format. In musical usage the word was used for collections of short pieces of printed music from the early nineteenth century. Collections of related 78rpm records were bundled in book-like albums; when long-playing records were introduced, a collection of pieces on a single record was called an album. An album, in ancient Rome, was a board chalked or painted white, on which decrees and other public notices were inscribed in black, it was from this that in medieval and modern times album came to denote a book of blank pages in which verses, sketches and the like are collected. Which in turn led to the modern meaning of an album as a collection of audio recordings issued as a single item.
In the early nineteenth century "album" was used in the titles of some classical music sets, such as Schumann's Album for the Young Opus 68, a set of 43 short pieces. When 78rpm records came out, the popular 10-inch disc could only hold about three minutes of sound per side, so all popular recordings were limited to around three minutes in length. Classical-music and spoken-word items were released on the longer 12-inch 78s, about 4–5 minutes per side. For example, in 1924, George Gershwin recorded a drastically shortened version of the seventeen-minute Rhapsody in Blue with Paul Whiteman and His Orchestra, it ran for 8m 59s. Deutsche Grammophon had produced an album for its complete recording of the opera Carmen in 1908. German record company Odeon released the Nutcracker Suite by Tchaikovsky in 1909 on 4 double-sided discs in a specially designed package; this practice of issuing albums does not seem to have been taken up by other record companies for many years. By about 1910, bound collections of empty sleeves with a paperboard or leather cover, similar to a photograph album, were sold as record albums that customers could use to store their records.
These albums came in both 12-inch sizes. The covers of these bound books were wider and taller than the records inside, allowing the record album to be placed on a shelf upright, like a book, suspending the fragile records above the shelf and protecting them. In the 1930s, record companies began issuing collections of 78 rpm records by one performer or of one type of music in specially assembled albums with artwork on the front cover and liner notes on the back or inside cover. Most albums included three or four records, with two sides each, making six or eight compositions per album; the 12-inch LP record, or 33 1⁄3 rpm microgroove vinyl record, is a gramophone record format introduced by Columbia Records in 1948. A single LP record had the same or similar number of tunes as a typical album of 78s, it was adopted by the record industry as a standard format for the "album". Apart from minor refinements and the important addition of stereophonic sound capability, it has remained the standard format for vinyl albums.
The term "album" was extended to other recording media such as Compact audio cassette, compact disc, MiniDisc, digital albums, as they were introduced. As part of a trend of shifting sales in the music industry, some observers feel that the early 21st century experienced the death of the album. While an album may contain as many or as few tracks as required, in the United States, The Recording Academy's rules for Grammy Awards state that an album must comprise a minimum total playing time of 15 minutes with at least five distinct tracks or a minimum total playing time of 30 minutes with no minimum track requirement. In the United Kingdom, the criteria for the UK Albums Chart is that a recording counts as an "album" i